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soil
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  土壤
    Construction of Dynamic Model and Analysis of Dynamic Character for Growth of Root and Shoot of Winter Wheat under Fluctuated Soil Water Conditions
    土壤水变动下冬小麦根、冠生长动态模型的建立及根、冠动态特性分析
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    Experimental Study on Soil Wind Erosion with Conservation Tillage Treatment
    保护性耕作防治土壤风蚀的试验研究
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    Studies on the Sucrose Metabolism and Starch Synthesis of Wheat with Different Quality Type on the Different Soil Condition
    不同品质类型小麦在不同土壤条件下灌浆期蔗糖代谢与淀粉合成的研究
短句来源
    Study on Crop Response to Soil Water-Salt and Its Modelling for Saline Soil under Water-saving Irrigation
    含盐土壤节水灌溉下作物—水—盐响应关系及模型研究
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    Characteristics of Soil Temperature and Soil Water for Winter Wheat with No-tillage and Effect on Winter Wheat Growth in North China Plain
    华北平原免耕冬小麦田土壤水热特征及其对冬小麦生长发育影响研究
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  土壤环境
    Effects of Soil Conditions on Root Growth of Winter Wheat
    冬小麦根系生长规律及土壤环境条件对其影响的研究
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    The sample numbers of Cd content,which accorded with the Grade Ⅱaccounted for 69.7%,and the numbers more than the Grade Ⅲ,National Soil Environmental Standard accounting for 10.1%,and so the part of tobacco-growing soils was polluted by Cd.
    Cd含量符合国家土壤环境质量二级标准样点数占69.7%,且有10.1%的样点含量高于国家土壤环境质量三级标准,部分植烟土壤已受到染污。
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    Bacteria communities in different soil layers showed little similarity. The Jaccard index was 20.65% between the bacterial clones libraries of the 0~5 cm and 5~10 cm soil layers;
    不同层的土壤环境间细菌群落的相似性较低,表层土壤的细菌克隆文库与5~10cm的文库的Jaccard指数是20.65%,与10~15cm的文库的Jaccard指数仅为8.31%。
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    Relation between Productivity Formation of Corn and Soil Environment in Sandy Farmland
    沙质农田玉米生产力的形成与土壤环境关系的研究
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    Effect of Straw Cover on Wheat Yield and Soil Environment in Dryland Field
    稻草覆盖对旱地小麦产量与土壤环境的影响
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  “soil”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Studies on the Biosafety of Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) to Itself and Soil Ecology
    转基因抗虫棉(Gossypium hirsutum L.)生产安全性的研究
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    Yield Advantage and Nitrogen Economy in the Intercropping System of Peanut with Rice Cultivated in Aerobic Soil
    旱作水稻/花生间作系统的氮素供应特征及产量优势
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    Study on Ridge Cultivation and Matching Combined Minimum Tillage Implements for Soil Water Storage and Preservation in Northeastern China
    东北垄作蓄水保墒耕作技术及其配套的联合少耕机具研究
短句来源
    Nitrogen Nutrition in the Intercropping System of Peanut with Rice Cultivated in Aerobic Soil
    花生与旱作水稻间作系统的氮素营养研究
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    A New System of Soil Ecology
    土壤生态学的新体系
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  soil
An antibiotic producing strain Streptomyces violaceusniger was isolated from soil sample, characterized and studied for antibacterial and antifungal activity profile.
      
These points can be estimated by introducing the soil factor (Ks) and tree species factor (Kt) to potential evapotranspiration with the Penman formula.
      
Root biomass, length, and the number of roots in every diameter class, for each soil layer and for each plant species, are regarded as observation variables.
      
The results show that most of the vertical distributions of plant roots belong to the type wherein the roots are concentrated in the topsoil layer (0-20 cm), far more than those in the lower soil layers.
      
Ecological Benefit of Reforestation in a Severely Degraded Red Soil Region
      
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For the study of the influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of thesoil on the growth of rice plant,pot experiments with three paddy soilswere conducted.The used soils included an acid paddy soil derived from quartiary red clay,an acid mountain paddy soil derived from granite anda neutral alluvial paddy soil.It was found that the application of green manure just before plantingin amount equivalent to 1% of the soil led to the retardation of growth ofrice as compared with the...

For the study of the influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of thesoil on the growth of rice plant,pot experiments with three paddy soilswere conducted.The used soils included an acid paddy soil derived from quartiary red clay,an acid mountain paddy soil derived from granite anda neutral alluvial paddy soil.It was found that the application of green manure just before plantingin amount equivalent to 1% of the soil led to the retardation of growth ofrice as compared with the control treatment;dry weights of tops of riceplant amounted to only 78%,22% and 45% respectively of the controls forthe three soils.The difference in growth between the two treatments wasmost remarkable in the early period of plant growth.If the green manurehad been decomposed for one month in pot under semi-aerobic conditionsbefore planting,then the unfavorable effect could be noted only in theneutral alluvial paddy soil which contained a relatively larger amount oforganic matter.The improvement of oxidation-reduction conditions of the soil by inter-mittent applications of hydrogen peroxide and keeping the soil moisturecontent at a level of about 50—70% of water-holding capacity instead ofwaterlogging improved plant growth in soils with intensive reductionprocesses,the effect being most conspicuous in the acid mountain paddysoil where the unfavorable effect of green manure was also most remark-able.Measurements of oxidation-reduction potentials of leaves and stalks ofrice showed that the potentials were lowest when grown in pots with greenmanure,and were highest when hydrogen peroxide had been applied intothe soil.There was also a rough correlation between potentials determinedwith platinum electrode and with quinhydrone electrode,thus indicatingthat the redox systems of rice plant when grown under different oxidation-reduction conditions were not the same both expressed as intensity factor(redox potential)or as quantity factor(the change in redox potential ofquinhydrone).For the purpose of explaining the unfavorable effect of intensively re-duced conditions of the soil on the growth of rice plant,it was noted thatthere was a parallelism between the amounts of exchangeable and water-soluble ferrous iron of the soil and the magnitudes of unfavorable effect.Further pot experiment confirmed this supposition,in which the applicationof ferrous sulfate in amount of 50 mg.iron per 100 grams of soil alreadyled to the retardation of growth of rice.Conclusions were made that the unfavorable effect of reduction condi-tions of paddy soils on the growth of rice was due to the excessive amountof reduced materials,in which ferrous iron probably occuppied an out-standing position,and measures leading to the improvement of oxidation-reduction conditions of the soil could overcome this unfavorable effect.

1.土壤处于强烈的还原条件下时,对水稻生长有不良的影响,如果将土壤中的氧化还原条件改善,则对水稻的生长有益。2.土壤中的氧化还原情况,直接影响水稻体中的氧化还原电位,土壤电位低者,水稻中的电位也低。3.土壤中还原性物质的数量与水稻生长情况表现了明显的一致性,可见水稻在强烈还原条件下的生长不良,与还原性物质的过多有关。在还原性物质中,亚铁离子约占一半左右。4.试验结果指明,土壤中过多的亚铁离子,对水稻有毒害作用。

The scientific application of an ideal rotation system on paddy fields,has now been considered as a very important problem for ensuring highergrain yields and promoting soil fertility.As the commencing work onrotation researches,authors had selected to study the Rice-Cotton rotationsystem in Yuyao,Chekiang Province.A series of investigations and ex-periments were conducted in the year of 1955,in order to realize thevariations of soil chemical properties and rice growth on those rotatedpaddy fields.The...

The scientific application of an ideal rotation system on paddy fields,has now been considered as a very important problem for ensuring highergrain yields and promoting soil fertility.As the commencing work onrotation researches,authors had selected to study the Rice-Cotton rotationsystem in Yuyao,Chekiang Province.A series of investigations and ex-periments were conducted in the year of 1955,in order to realize thevariations of soil chemical properties and rice growth on those rotatedpaddy fields.The results obtained are summerized as follows:(1)During the period of Cotton rotation in paddy fields,the organiccontents in the soil tend to decrease,while the total exchangeable bases andavailable phosphorus show an apparant increase.By cultivating rice in suchfields,a reversible tendency appears,namely manifesting an increase ofsoil organic matter content and a decrease of both total exchangeable basesand available phosphorus contents.Besides,the formation of more am-monical nitrogen is found in the later case.(2)The Rice-Cotton rotation will assuredly increase the rate of ricegrowth as well as the yields of grains.Comparing with the unrotatedplot,paddy fields so rotated show an average increase of 9% in grainyeilds,as confirmed by field experiments.(3)In those rotated paddy fields,winter crop-green manure(Medicagodenticulata wild)grew vigorously and showed an increase of 70% in yields(based on fresh weight)as compared with unrotated paddy fields.(4)Rice-Cotton rotation may adjust the rate of the alternation of ac-cumulating and decomposing of soil organic matter,which we know willmarkedly promote soil fertility in paddy fields.Therefore,to save the ap-plication of manure and solve the shortage of fertilizers in grain produc-tion,the use of Rice-Cotton rotation system in certain district,is ofparamount importance at present time.

(1)稻田轮种棉花期间,土壤有机质含量有减低的趋势,但土壤代换性盐基总量及速效磷的合量均增高。轮种水稻期间,土壤有机质又有增加的趋向,而代换性盐基总量及速效磷则渐次减低。此外,土壤中铵态氮则有增多的趋势。(2)稻棉轮种能增强水稻的生长势,提高水稻的产量。根据对比试验及统计资料,一般比连种区增产9%左右。(3)稻田轮种棉花后,冬作绿肥生长良好, 鲜草产量比一般连种稻田增加70%以上。(4)在保证增产的前提下,轮种区的水稻基肥用量,一般可比连作稻区节省40%左右,而轮种区的绿肥产量又能增加,因此可自轮种田内割出60%的绿肥鲜草,作为其他稻田的基肥,而达到全面增产的目的,这在目前肥料普遍不足的情况下有其重要意义。

For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was...

For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was 30%,20%,7.3% and 5.7% for the green manure,water-loggedcompost,mixed stable manure of cattle and swine,and grass compost respectively.On the basis of relative effect of various manures on the yield of rice,it was calculated that1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.45 kg N of rape-seed cake,0.55 kg N of greenmanure,0.7 kg N of water-logged compost,and 2.1—2.5 kg N of pond mud.For rice of theearly ripening variety,1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.38 kg N of gree manure,0.49 kg N of water-logged compost,and 1.19 kg N of grass compost.The liberation of nitrogen from manures proceeded most rapidly for the green manure,rape-seed cake entering the second and then water-logged compost.The liberation of nitrogen fromthe pond mud was so slow that it could hardly be distinguished from the controll treatment.Attention must pay to use nitrogen fertilizers as top-dressing when large amount of green manurehad be applied in order to prevent the lodging of rice plant,and on the contrary the applicationof top-dressing was essential when pond mud was used as the basic dressings.

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N ...

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N 在10微克/克土(ppm)以下似难被利用(图1)。3.就植株氮素吸收利用及生长情况可看出:施用绿肥对中稻的营养生长有特别促进作用。如施用量稍多,就会引起先期猛发,徒长茎叶,增加草谷比例,产量并不能提高,因此施绿肥时,配合速效氮肥做面肥或施追肥时应特别注意,在绿肥用量较高时,再用速效氮肥往往有害无益。如直接施用绿肥,则施用量不宜过多,耕翻时也要适当提早,速效肥要看苗施用。草塘泥性平稳,用做基肥时,配合少量化学氮肥做面肥及穗肥均可进一步提高产量。堆(?)肥与河泥性质慢,不论施用于中稻或早稻,均必须增施速效肥料,不然肥效很低。早稻生长初期气温低,农肥养分释放慢,同时早稻生长期短,插秧后20天即进入幼穗分化期,因此分解较快的绿肥,及含速效氮较多的草塘泥用做早稻基肥,效果更为显著。所有农肥增施了速效氮肥做面肥及追肥都有良好增产效果,其中分解愈慢的农肥效果愈大。例如绿肥及草塘泥增施速效氮肥后产量增加48.3%及43.2%,N 素吸收利用率增加1倍及8成,而青草堆肥配合速效氮肥时,产量增加85%,N 素吸收利用率提高近四倍(表13)。4.各农肥单独施用做早稻基肥时,植株每日氮素吸收量皆以抽穗期为最多,若增施速效N 肥后,则每日氮素吸收量最多时期均由抽穗期提前至幼穗分化期,同时产量也显著提高(表5)。

 
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