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characteristics of development
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  发展特点
     About characteristics of development of higher education in India
     印度高等教育的发展特点探析
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     Sociology Analysis on the Characteristics of Development of Community Recreation in City in Our Society Reformation Period
     社会转型期我国城市社区体育发展特点分析
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     CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN FACTORY INDUSTRY
     印度IT业的发展特点
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     This article reviews the research on the nature and structure of autonomous learning, upon which it summarized the characteristics of development. Finally, this article introduces two methods of this mode; cognitive self - instructive model and goal - oriented learning.
     近年来,国内外对于学生的自主学习能力的研究日益深化,本文对自主学习能力的实质和结构的研究进行了回顾,并在此基础上总结了自主学习能力的发展特点,介绍了两种培养自主学习能力的有效方法:认知性自我指导模式和目标学习法。
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     The paper introduces the present situation,characteristics of development and trend of development of pulp washing equipment and its improvement and innovation made by Wenrui.
     介绍了洗浆系统技术装备的现状、发展特点、发展趋势,以及汶瑞对洗浆设备的改进创新。
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  发展特征
     Characteristics of Development of Science and Technology and the World Economy and their Relations
     科学技术与世界经济的发展特征及其关系
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     Characteristics of Development of Fushun Resources-relied Heavy Industry Base and Adjustment of its Industrial Structure
     资源型重工业基地抚顺发展特征与产业结构调整
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     The external drive of interprovincial competition and the internal drive of stock restructuring are two important elements to determine characteristics of development of Jiangsu civilian-owned economy.
     其中,省际竞争的外力驱动和存量改制的内生驱动,是决定江苏民营经济发展特征的两大重要因素。
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     Based on the analysis of its basic scope and extension in mathematics study, both quantitative and qualitative investigations are conducted in the present study. In particular, two kinds of questionnaires are designed and used in the investigation. The study aims to reveal the characteristics of development of students' self-controlling ability, and to find out the relationship between one's comprehending mathematical concept and self-controlling ability.
     本人在分析中学生数学学科自我监控能力的内涵与外延的基础上,采用定量化与定性化的研究,设计了两种有关的学习问卷,对中学生数学学科的自我监控能力的发展特征,以及对自我监控能力与数学概念理解的关系进行了研究。
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  发育特征
     A Study on the Mechanism of Formation and Characteristics of Development for Songzhao Landslide in Chongqing
     重庆松藻滑坡的发育特征及形成机制研究
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     3. Based on the characteristics of development of the ground settlement and the analysis of the regional settlement in Shanghai, the exploring 4th deep water-bearing layer is considered as the key factor causing the regional ground settlement in Shanghai.
     3.研究地面沉降的发育特征,对上海市地面区域性沉降的原因进行分析,认为开采深层第四承压含水层是造成上海区域性沉降的原因;
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     In this paper the characteristics of development of structure in the Lengshuikeng Ag—Pb—Zn ore field and some problems of tectono—geochemistry are mainly discussed.
     本文重点对冷水坑银铅锌矿田构造发育特征和构造地球化学的若干问题进行了初步探讨。
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     The characteristics of development are controlled by sedimentary surrounding, palaeogroove and palaeohydrodynamic condition on the macrocosmic, controlled by the pore styles and the filled intension and the filled styles on the microcosmic.
     这种发育特征宏观上受沉积环境、古沟槽、古水动力条件的制约,微观上受孔隙类型、充填强度以及充填物类型的影响。
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     Main Trends and Characteristics of Development of Agricultural Sciences and Techniques Faced 21'Century
     面向21世纪农业科技发展的主要趋势和特点
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     The Major Characteristics of Development Mode of China'Economy
     论中国经济发展模式的几个主要特点——马克思主义在中国经济发展实践中的最新运用
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     Characteristics of Development of the Ecologic Conecpt and Theory
     生态学概念和理论发展的特征——兼评R.Mclntosh《生态学概论:理论和概念》
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     On New Characteristics of Development in Modern Bio-science
     试论现代生物科学发展的新特点
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     State and Characteristics of Development of Moxibustion Therapy in Qing Dynasty
     清代灸疗的发展状况及特点
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  characteristics of development
Characteristics of development particular to GLB adolescents are described, the empirical research on adjustment issues is reviewed, and potential risk and protective factors for GLB youths are discussed.
      
Characteristics of development and reproduction in Typhlodromus pyri on Tetranychus urticae and Cecidophyopsis ribis.
      
Characteristics of development and reproduction in Typhlodromus pyri on Tetranychus urticae and Cecidophyopsis ribis.
      
The study of such phenomena gives an insight into general evolutionary characteristics of development as well as into species-specific features.
      
With statistic data of population, Logistic model is used to simulate the future development of ageing, and two characteristics of development of ageing are presented.
      
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Decaisnea fargesii Franch. is one of the rubber plants which have received considerable attention in recent years. The rubber of Decaisnea fargesii occurs only in the laticiferous canals of the pericarp and there is neither laticiferous canal, nor rubber substances in its roots, stems and leaves. In the present paper, a preliminary result on the research of the structure and the ontogeny of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is reported. In the pericarp of the mature fruit, an aggregate fleshy follicle,...

Decaisnea fargesii Franch. is one of the rubber plants which have received considerable attention in recent years. The rubber of Decaisnea fargesii occurs only in the laticiferous canals of the pericarp and there is neither laticiferous canal, nor rubber substances in its roots, stems and leaves. In the present paper, a preliminary result on the research of the structure and the ontogeny of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is reported. In the pericarp of the mature fruit, an aggregate fleshy follicle, of Decaisnea fargesii, there are numerous white colored laticiferous canals which are easily recognized with the naked eye. These canals connect with each other to form a reticulum. The fundamental structure of the pericarp of the young flowers is not different from that of other flowering plants. However, the protoplasm of the outer epidermal cells of the pericarp is more dense and it takes stains more deeply than that of the cells of its inner side. After the blooming fertilization, numerous spots on the outer epidermis of pericarp become centers of activity. There the cells begin to divide more actively than the other portion. As a result, numerous minute papillae are simultaneously formed. As the cells continuously divide, the papillae are gradually elevated and enlarged. At the bases of these papillae are depressions which become canal-like structures. These connect to form a reticulum below the surface of pericarp. When the canals reach a depth of 200--300μ, the divisions of the epidermal cells flanking the canals gradually slow down, but these cells increase in volume. Because the cells enlarge in anticlinal direction much more than in periclinal direction, the canals become narrower and narrower as the cell enlargement continues. Finally, the lateral walls of the canals meet each other and become fused. Here after enlargement of the epidermal cells are restricted to the lower portion of the canals. The whole structure viewed in cross-section is like a flask. At this stage, the epidermal cells in the lower portion of the flask-like structures are characterized by their larger in volume, larger nucleus, denser-protoplasm and smaller vocuoles. The chloroplasts formerly present disappear and some deeply stained particles appear in the protoplasm. Therefore, the morphology and the structure of these cell-groups are quite different from other epidermal cells of the pericarp including those on the surface and in the upper portion of canals. These groups of cells may be called secretory epidermal cells. At the end of the cells enlargement, the secretory epidermal cells of the lower portion of the canals separate each other and their walls begin to disintegrate. As these activities extend to every part of the secretory epidermal cells, a lysigenous intercellular canal is finally formed. The epidermal cells of the upper portion of the flask-like canals remain intact thus burying the canals formed in the mesocarp of the fruit. The protoplasm and inclusions of the disintegrated cells assume the appearance of milky fluid in the canals. Thus these canals should be regarded as laticiferous canals. During the further development of the pericarp, 2—4 layers of parenchymatous cells of the mesocarp surrounding the disintegrated epidermal cells break off. This makes the diameter of laticiferous canals to be further enlarged. In general, the ontogenetic processes of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii include (1) elevation of the external epidermal cells of pericarp, (2) depression of the epidermal cells in the peripheral zone of the papillae, (3) formation and burying of the canals, and (4) disintegration of the secretory epidermal cells. Such a complex phenomena in formation of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is the special type in intercellular canals of plants. Within the pericarp of fully matured fruits, the diameter of the laticiferous canals may reach 600—800μ and their structure resembles the schizogenous intercellular canals generally occurring in other plants in which no special peripheral sheath-like cells has been observed. They remain in the mesocarp, covered externally by 6—9 layers of cells and form a reticulate system parallel with the outer wall of the fruit. According to the present analysis on their structure, ontogeny and distribution, the laticiferous canal system of Decaisnea fargesii is obviously different from the laticiferous tubes and the intercellular canals usually observed in the other plant. Their special type of formation is probably connected with the localization of their occurrence and particularly in relation with the characteristics of development of the fleshy fruit.

五、摘要猫屎瓜为一种近年来引起重视的橡胶植物。据报导,其橡胶只含在果皮内的乳汁道中,根、茎和叶内并无乳汁道,亦不合有橡胶物质。现就其乳汁道的结构及形成过程作一初步报告。在尚未开放的雌花中,子房壁的基本结构类似一般有花植物,仅果皮的外表皮细胞显示出原生质浓厚,染色较深。开花,受精以后,外表皮细胞开始进行分裂活动,而且此种活动在静多分散的小区域中显得特别活跃。因此,在果皮的外表面逐渐形成许多微小的突起。以后,这些突起渐渐增大和加高,同时,在突起的四周产生凹陷的沟道。这些沟道在果皮的表面上是互相贯通,连接成网状的。当沟道的深度达200—300微米时,沟道二侧的表皮细胞的分裂活动逐渐停止,细胞体积开始增大。因而沟道腔就渐渐变狭,进而其侧壁接触在一起,愈合成一块组织。以后,这种增大过程只局限在沟道下半部分的表皮细胞中进行。不久,这些细胞不仅体积大,而且细胞核大,原生质丰富,液泡化弱,叶绿体消失,染色亦特别深,所以它们和沟道上部及果皮外围的外表皮细胞,在形态结构上已明显不同,按其特征可以称为分泌表皮。以后,分泌表皮细胞停止增大,进而细胞之间因中层溶解而分离。不久,这些分离的细胞逐渐破毁,溶解,因而就形成了溶生的胞间道。在...

五、摘要猫屎瓜为一种近年来引起重视的橡胶植物。据报导,其橡胶只含在果皮内的乳汁道中,根、茎和叶内并无乳汁道,亦不合有橡胶物质。现就其乳汁道的结构及形成过程作一初步报告。在尚未开放的雌花中,子房壁的基本结构类似一般有花植物,仅果皮的外表皮细胞显示出原生质浓厚,染色较深。开花,受精以后,外表皮细胞开始进行分裂活动,而且此种活动在静多分散的小区域中显得特别活跃。因此,在果皮的外表面逐渐形成许多微小的突起。以后,这些突起渐渐增大和加高,同时,在突起的四周产生凹陷的沟道。这些沟道在果皮的表面上是互相贯通,连接成网状的。当沟道的深度达200—300微米时,沟道二侧的表皮细胞的分裂活动逐渐停止,细胞体积开始增大。因而沟道腔就渐渐变狭,进而其侧壁接触在一起,愈合成一块组织。以后,这种增大过程只局限在沟道下半部分的表皮细胞中进行。不久,这些细胞不仅体积大,而且细胞核大,原生质丰富,液泡化弱,叶绿体消失,染色亦特别深,所以它们和沟道上部及果皮外围的外表皮细胞,在形态结构上已明显不同,按其特征可以称为分泌表皮。以后,分泌表皮细胞停止增大,进而细胞之间因中层溶解而分离。不久,这些分离的细胞逐渐破毁,溶解,因而就形成了溶生的胞间道。在这种胞间道中,充满了乳白色的液体状物质,所以可以称为乳汁道。由于沟道上部数层表皮细胞并不破毁,乳汁道就深藏在中果皮内。在果皮的进一步发育中,原来包围在分泌表皮周围的2—4层中果皮薄壁组织细胞,亦随着破坏,使乳汁道更为扩大。因此,此种乳汁道是经过果皮部分外表皮的凹陷,封闭及细胞的溶解等复合方式形成的,是一种形成方式很特殊的胞间道。猫屎瓜的果实为聚合肉质蓇葖果,在完全成熟的果皮中,每个乳汁道的直径可达650—800微米。它们位于外表皮内6—9层细胞处,与果实的外表面呈平行分布。各乳汁道分枝的方向不一,互相贯通,连接成不规则的网状系统,凭肉眼亦可看到。从猫屎瓜乳汁道的结构、形成过程和在植物体内的分布情况分析,显然不同于乳汁管,亦和常见的胞间道的情况不同。此种特殊现象是与其特异的、复合的形成方式相连系的,而该种形成方式又是和肉质果实的发育特点有关的。

A laboratory colony of Anopheles balabacensis Baisas, 1936 from Hainan Island in China, has been maintained over a period of 3 years, in Guiyang Medical College, through 54 generations. At 27°±1. 34° C, 86±2. 56% RH and with 12-14 hr illumination of a combination of natural and fluore- scent light, the developmental and reproductive date are as follows, Developomental time (mean. days): Egg 5. 70 ±1. 65. Larva 8. 63±1. 46, Pupa 2. 16±0. 29, Total pre-adult11. 24±1. 73,10. 75±1. 68. Total deve- lopment 15. 25±2....

A laboratory colony of Anopheles balabacensis Baisas, 1936 from Hainan Island in China, has been maintained over a period of 3 years, in Guiyang Medical College, through 54 generations. At 27°±1. 34° C, 86±2. 56% RH and with 12-14 hr illumination of a combination of natural and fluore- scent light, the developmental and reproductive date are as follows, Developomental time (mean. days): Egg 5. 70 ±1. 65. Larva 8. 63±1. 46, Pupa 2. 16±0. 29, Total pre-adult11. 24±1. 73,10. 75±1. 68. Total deve- lopment 15. 25±2. 86. Survival: Egg(% hatching) 67. 8±21. 39. Larva (% pupating)78. 47±19. 62, Pupa (% emerging) 79. 89±12. 35, Adult (longevity in days25. 63± 1.82, maximum 50, 13. 56±5. 10, maximum 24. Reproduction. 1st reproductive age (days) 2. 94 ±0. 33, age of maximum reproduetive effort (days) 19. 2±6. 84. Total reproductive period (days) 26. 25±2. 48. Last reproductive age (days) 28. 72±2. 86. Total number of eggs/ replicate 13. 71±9. 34. Average number of eggs/296. 6±24. 84, The characteristics of development and reproduction was discussed.

本文报告在室温27°±1.34℃,相对湿度86±2。56%,混合光照12-14小时的实验条件下,巴拉巴按蚊实验蚊株的发育和繁殖,结果如下: 1、发育时间(平均值,天):卵5.70±1.65,幼虫8.63±1.46,蛹2.16±0.29。成虫前期,雌性11.24±1.73、雄性10.75±1.68,整个发育过程15.25±2.86。 2、存活(平均值):成虫前各期存活率(%),卵67.82±21.39、幼虫78.47±19.62、蛹79.89±12.35。成蚊寿命(自雌蚊交配后计,天)雌性最高50,平均25.63±1.82;雄性最高24,平均13.56±5.10天。 3、生殖(平均值):交配雌蚊第1次产卵日龄2.94±0.33,最未次日龄28.72±2.86,最高产卵高峰日龄19.2±6.84,一生中总产卵日期26.25±2.48天,共产13.71±9.34次,每蚊产卵数296.60±24.84个。雌蚊逐日产卵呈不规则的曲线,最高峰趋近于生殖的末期。

The purpose of this paper is to study the trend in the development and the characteristics of modern agricultural sciences from the viewpoint of managerial science. By making a brief review of the history of development of agricultural sciences the authors point out that modern agricultural sciences have developed into a comprehensively allembracing scientific system arising out of the intertwinement of two vast systems-the natural sciences and the social sciences. In the mean time, this leads to the development...

The purpose of this paper is to study the trend in the development and the characteristics of modern agricultural sciences from the viewpoint of managerial science. By making a brief review of the history of development of agricultural sciences the authors point out that modern agricultural sciences have developed into a comprehensively allembracing scientific system arising out of the intertwinement of two vast systems-the natural sciences and the social sciences. In the mean time, this leads to the development of the agricultural system itseif into a new epoch, characterized by the wholeness in its research efforts and the integration in its development.In the present study, the authors point out the salient characteristics of development of modern agricultural sciences are as follows.1. Science-oriented agricultural technology. This is symbolized by themodernization of biological technology, the modernization of the technology and methodology of agricultural scientific researches, and the modernization of agricultural scientific theories.2. Development of agricultural engineering. This comprises of engineer-ing pertaining to the following areas, land utilization, agricultural energy, agricultural systems, protection of human health, agricultural biology , agricultural mechanization , management of agricultural environment, and marine breeding etc. The level of development of these significantly reflects the degree of the modernization of agriculture.3. Science-oriented management of agriculture. This covers mainly theutilization of scientific management in the following areas, agricultural production, agricultural resources, agricultural scientific researches, and agricultural scientific information etc.

本文从管理科学的观点出发,探讨现代农业科学的发展趋势和特点。作者简短回顾农业科学发展的历史,指出现代农业科学在自然科学和社会科学两大系统相互交织的基础上,发展成为一个完整的科学体系,同时也导致其本身进入到一个以总体研究和综合发展为特征的时代。作者在分析农业科学发展总趋势的基础上,指出现代农业科学发展的若干主要特点。1.农业技术科学化:主要表现在生物技术的现代化,农业研究技术和手段的现代化以及农业科学的理论化。2.农业工程化:主要包括土地利用工程、农业能源工程、农业系统工程、农业人体工程、农业生物工程、农业机械工程,以至农业环境治理工程,海洋养殖工程等学科。这些学科的发展水平是反映农业现代化发展程度的重要标志。3、农业管理科学化:主要包括农业生产的科学化管理,农业资源的科学化管理,农业科研的科学化管理以及农业情报的科学化管理等。

 
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