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The tectonic movements of the compound platform in Eastern China have deep effects upon the coal formations.Due to tectonic control, the distribution of coal basins in the Mesozoic Era, the limitation of rock facies in the coal formations and the magmatic activity effecting the quality of coal, all appear to follow certain laws of regularity.Types of formations in this era, present more varieties than those of the Paleozoic, in general, faulted depressions are most common. The whole history of coalification...

The tectonic movements of the compound platform in Eastern China have deep effects upon the coal formations.Due to tectonic control, the distribution of coal basins in the Mesozoic Era, the limitation of rock facies in the coal formations and the magmatic activity effecting the quality of coal, all appear to follow certain laws of regularity.Types of formations in this era, present more varieties than those of the Paleozoic, in general, faulted depressions are most common. The whole history of coalification showed that the crustal movement was not regular and the difference in the degree of subsidence also effect the depositional environments. All the above facts are believed to be the direct causes for the frequent change of space in the process of coalification; while the effect of climate seems to be of minor importance.The general occurrence of folding and block-movement in the Mesozoic constantly helps in promoting the topographic changes of the continetal area. Landforms are becoming more complicated. Different paleogeographic environments present different coal formations, thus resulting great many types of paleogeography regarding coalification.Types of coal-bearing rock series are not only of alternating marine and continental origin, but also include all kinds of typical continental sediments. The rock nature and facies as well as the coal-bearing condition of each type, all have their special characteristics.

中国东部地台的构造运动对含煤建造具有深刻的影响. 由于构造的控造,中生代聚煤盆地的分布,含煤建造的岩相控制、岩浆活动对煤质的影响均有显著的规律性.建造类型较古生代多样化,一般以断裂凹陷型为最普遍.整个聚煤历史表明由于地壳运动不均一、沉降幅度不同等因素影响了沉积环境,从而使聚煤作用发生空间方面迁移的现象,而气候影响则为次要的因素. 中生代广泛的折皱和块断运动不断加深了大陆地形的变化,地貌景观益加复杂,不同的古地理环境形成不同的含煤建造,因而聚煤古地理类型繁多.中生代含煤岩系既具有海陆交替相沉积也有各式各样的陆相沉积,每一类型的岩性、岩相及含煤性均有各自的特点.

The original conception of the Sinian stratigraphy and correlation of southern China should be revised on account of the following geological informations: (1) The unconformable relation below the Nantou Sandstone, which commonly occurs within the axial parts of the Kiangnan geanticline, and which was taken to represent the lower boundary of the traditional Sinian system, changes into conformable contact on the southern limb of the Kiangnan geanticline; (2) The absolute ages of the granites unconformably overlain...

The original conception of the Sinian stratigraphy and correlation of southern China should be revised on account of the following geological informations: (1) The unconformable relation below the Nantou Sandstone, which commonly occurs within the axial parts of the Kiangnan geanticline, and which was taken to represent the lower boundary of the traditional Sinian system, changes into conformable contact on the southern limb of the Kiangnan geanticline; (2) The absolute ages of the granites unconformably overlain by the Nantou Sandstone have been determined to be around 700—800 million years, which are just about corresponding to the age of the middle-upper part of the key Sinian section of the Jihshien area in North China. The present writers give new considerations about the Sinian stratigraphy and correlation of southern China according to the following principles and reasons: (1) In the areas, where Caledonian geosyncline inherited from the Hsuehfeng geosyncline, the Nantou Sandstone formation is generally conformable with the underlying low-graded metamorphosed sediments, and in such areas, the overlying sediments are closely related in characters with the underlying strata, and here the total thickness of these formations now considered to be Sinian in age, is usually much greater. On the other hand, in those areas, where the younger sedimentary basin was superimposed upon the folded Hsuehfeng geosynclinal sediments, as occurring within the axial parts of the Kiangnan geanticline, the Nantou Sandstone then lies unconformably upon the more intensely metamorphosed sediments, and there the Sinian system is generally incomplete in section. (2) Although the tradi tional Sinian system of the South China geosynclinal regeion possesses the characters of geosynclinal sediments, it attains a total thickness of only 1000—3000 meters, which appears to be rather insufficient when compared with the vast thickness of some 10,000 meters of the Sinian system in the Yenshan subsidence zone of northern China. (3) The absolute age of the Jiulinshan granodiorite is dertermined to be 837 millions years, which is just corresponding to the age of the middle-upper part of the Sinian system in North China, while the age of the lower limit of the Sinian of northern China is generally accepted to be 1200—1400 millions years. From the above-stated reasons, the present writers are inclined to take the unconformity surface below the upper Banchi Group, (which represents the Tung-an movement), as the lower boundary of the Sinian system of southern China. Thus, the upper Banchi Group is now considered to be the lower part of the Sinian, and the traditional Sinian system of southern China is now taken to represent the upper Sinian. The Hsuehfeng movement of the Kiangnan geanticline marks the boundary between the lower and the upper Sinian. Based upon the above-mentioned scheme of the Sinian subdivisions, some historical developments of the region can be brought out: (1) The formational sequences of the lower Sinian of the South China Caledonian geosynclinal region are chiefly eugeosynclinal and partly miogeosynclinal in nature, but the formational sequences on the southern limb of the Kiangnan geanticline are slightly different in nature from that of the northern limb. Judging from the characters of sediments, the sedimentary environment on the southern limb was rather active while that on the northern limb was relatively stable. During the earlier period of the Sinian time in the Hsuehfeng-Caledonian geosynclinal region, a marginal belt on the north of the embryo Kiangnan geanticline and an inner (mobile) belt on the south can already be distinguished. (2) As a consequence of the Tung-an movement, the embyro form of the Kiangnan geanticline was formed. (3) In western Hunan, the Tungan movement was intense and it diminished in intensity eastward, and in southern Anhui it was represented by epeirogenic movement. However, the subsequent development displays the phenomenon to the contrary. The lower Sinian in southern Anhui and western Chekiang is represented by the typical eugeosynclinal formations, while in northwestern Kiangsi and western Hunan it is represented by either miogeosynclinal or eugeosynclinal formations. Such differences in intensities in earth movements along the regional structural line in a geosynclinal system show the unbalanced development of the Caledonian geosynclinal region in South China.

本文通过接触关系、厚度分析,结合绝对年龄资料,考虑地层剖面发育与构造关系,运用继承与上迭原则,认为继承构造部位剖面最完整这一理由,对江南地背斜带震旦纪地层提出了新的划分方案。新方案中的下震旦统包括上板溪羣及与其相当的上双桥山羣、瀝口羣、松木坞羣等浅变质岩系,以东安运动形成的不整合面作为震旦系与前震旦系的分界;旧称震旦系则归入上震旦统。上、下震旦统之间为雪峰运动形成的不整合面分开。在对上述地层的建造一构造分析的基础上,初步提出华南加里东地槽区江南地背斜带已经出现了南侧比较活动,北侧相对稳定的不对称性。另一方面构造发展在沿走向上也表现了不均一性,东安运动在江南地背斜带的西段表现明显,而到了东段就逐渐消失。

The studied area is located some 70—80 km. northwest of Nanking of the Kiangsu province, This area is composed of complexly folded late pre-Cambrian metamorphics, deeply eroded to a peneplane. The Changbaling formation is of late Sinian age (dated to be 864—1 ,026 m. y. by Uranium-lead methed), and comprises Volcanics of submarine origin and marine sediments, consisting chiefly of a thick series of quartz keratephyres interealated with minor amount of spilites and related volcanic clastics and tufaceous sediments,...

The studied area is located some 70—80 km. northwest of Nanking of the Kiangsu province, This area is composed of complexly folded late pre-Cambrian metamorphics, deeply eroded to a peneplane. The Changbaling formation is of late Sinian age (dated to be 864—1 ,026 m. y. by Uranium-lead methed), and comprises Volcanics of submarine origin and marine sediments, consisting chiefly of a thick series of quartz keratephyres interealated with minor amount of spilites and related volcanic clastics and tufaceous sediments, accompanied by marine chert beds, dolomitic limestone lenses, siltstones, and shales. The whole series has suffered to a low-grade regional metemorphism, corresponding to the green schists facies. The rocks of the quartz keratophyres possess porphyritic textures and some rhyolitic flow structures. Their principle mineral constituents are albite 55—70%, quartz 29—40%, muscovite (sericite) 3—7%, with minor amount of microcline, and apatite and magnetite as accessories. Microscopically, the rocks possess obvious successive replacement features. Earlier soda-metamorphism forms albite motacrysts, which include residual masses of orthoclase. Later soda-metamorphism (metasomatism) is represented by albito-quartz veinlets, which cut the earlier albite metacrysts, and also form minute polysynthetically twinned albite rims around their borders. Still later comes some microcline which replaces earlier albite along its cleavage planes and grain borders. Last is silicification. Thus, the sequence of metasomatic replacement is: soda-metamorphism → Soda-silica metasomatism → potassium metasomatism → silicification. Corroded quartz phenocrysts contain minute melting inclusions with some devitrification effects, of which, the temperature of homogenization is measured to be 1,030—1180℃. The decrepitation temperature of the liquid inclusions which occur along certain zones in the bordering parts of quartz crystals, is measured to be 300℃. The spilites here occur as intercalated beds in the quartz keratophyre series, and partly they form dikes or some other sub-volcanic forms. Mineralogically, they are composed of albite, epidote, chlorite, magnetite calcite, sodic actinolire, etc. Similarly, the spilites also show obvious features of sodic replacement. Sugary grains of albite cut or replace earlier-formed albite, forming zigzag boudaries around the latter. All the above features indicate that, both the quartz keratophyres and the spilites were formed as a result of successive soda metamorphism (soda replacement). The petro-chemical characters of the quartz keratophyres and the spilites are as shown in the following table: Based upon the petro-chemical properties and the plotting of the data, as Calculated from a large number of rock analyses, according to the various plotting methods, it is brought out that the metamorphosed volcanics of the Changbaling area belong to sub-alkaline volcanic series, being sodic spilite-quartz keratophyre series. The spilites and quartz keratophyres are comagmatic rocks, and their primary magma was probably intermediate to acidic in character. According to the geologic environments for the formation of the associated sedimentary strata, the volcanic rock combination, and their petrologic and petrochemical char acteristics, the writers are inclined to think, that, such a volcanic-sedimentary series with the acidic volcanic components constituting the major part, was probably formed in rather shallow seas near some continental margin, or close to some island arc during the early stage of development, and that, they are different from those spilites or spilite-keratophyre series with the basic componemts constituting the major parts, which represent probably earlier basic volcanic phases deposited in some deep eugeosynclines, or close to some spreading center of ancient sea floor. Of Course, they are also different from the andesiterhyolite series of continental origin. The primary magma here was probably intermediate to acidic in character, which has differentiated into the acidic and basic extremities. During the course or fractional crystallization, the magmas were contaminated by soda from the sea water and the marine sediments, and later the voicanics suffered from soda metamorphism and metasomatism during the time of deep burial and later regional orogenesis and metamorphism. Such is the writers' idea about the origin of the spilite-Quartz keratophyre series here.

前寒武纪张八岭建造是一套海底喷发的火山岩系,其原岩由大量石英角斑岩和少数细碧岩及其火山碎屑岩、凝灰质沉积岩组成,并与海相的硅质岩、白云质石灰岩透镜体、粉砂岩、页岩等伴生。受区域变质作用影响,形成绿片岩相的矿物组合。岩石具典型的熔岩组构。主要矿物成分为:石英、低温完全有序的钠长石(An<5)和绿泥石、绿帘石、磁铁矿等。岩石有明显的交代观象,其交代顺序为:钠化→钠硅化→钾化→硅化。据玻璃质固化包裹体测温,其岩浆温度为1030—1180℃;液相包裹体测温,其热液蚀雯温度为300℃。由岩石化学分析资料说明:变质火山岩为弱碱质钠质细碧岩——石英角斑岩系。两者为同源岩浆岩。其原始岩浆成分为——中酸性岩浆。经分异作用,主要向酸性岩浆转化;少量向基性。在岩浆结晶分异的同时并遭受海水及海相沉积物中钠质的混染,成为富钠质的岩浆,逐渐演变成富钠的透岩浆溶液,发生钠质交代,这种作用继续延到岩浆期后的热液期。其后岩石又经低级区域变质作用,形成石英角斑岩及细碧岩。根据变质火山岩的岩石学、岩石化学及火山岩中伴生岩石特征等地质因素,说明:它形成于浅海环境,靠大陆边沿,或岛弧。它是以酸性火山岩为主的,细碧岩——石英角斑岩系,与产于优地槽(或大...

前寒武纪张八岭建造是一套海底喷发的火山岩系,其原岩由大量石英角斑岩和少数细碧岩及其火山碎屑岩、凝灰质沉积岩组成,并与海相的硅质岩、白云质石灰岩透镜体、粉砂岩、页岩等伴生。受区域变质作用影响,形成绿片岩相的矿物组合。岩石具典型的熔岩组构。主要矿物成分为:石英、低温完全有序的钠长石(An<5)和绿泥石、绿帘石、磁铁矿等。岩石有明显的交代观象,其交代顺序为:钠化→钠硅化→钾化→硅化。据玻璃质固化包裹体测温,其岩浆温度为1030—1180℃;液相包裹体测温,其热液蚀雯温度为300℃。由岩石化学分析资料说明:变质火山岩为弱碱质钠质细碧岩——石英角斑岩系。两者为同源岩浆岩。其原始岩浆成分为——中酸性岩浆。经分异作用,主要向酸性岩浆转化;少量向基性。在岩浆结晶分异的同时并遭受海水及海相沉积物中钠质的混染,成为富钠质的岩浆,逐渐演变成富钠的透岩浆溶液,发生钠质交代,这种作用继续延到岩浆期后的热液期。其后岩石又经低级区域变质作用,形成石英角斑岩及细碧岩。根据变质火山岩的岩石学、岩石化学及火山岩中伴生岩石特征等地质因素,说明:它形成于浅海环境,靠大陆边沿,或岛弧。它是以酸性火山岩为主的,细碧岩——石英角斑岩系,与产于优地槽(或大洋扩张部位)发展早期的蛇绿岩套;包括基性、超基性岩。硅质岩及以基性组分为主的细碧岩——角斑岩建造是迥然不同的。它与岛弧晚期阶段的陆相安山岩——流纹岩也有一定的差别,可能是岛弧早期的产物。

 
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