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industry
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  产业
    Studies on Organizational Structure and Economic Performance of Tea Industry
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    THE FACTORS AND REGIONAL PATTERNS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL INDUSTRY IN CHINA′S LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS:A CASE STUDY OF HENAN PROVINCE
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    Study of Chinese Forestry Industry Administrative System
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The paper examines the factors that are likely to influence the pharmaceutical industry in India in the new WTO regime and the preparedness of government, research organizations and firms to compete in this scenario.
      
At that time, the polymer and plastic industry was in its nascent stage but the industry quickly grew, providing the materials for a large portion of manufactured goods.
      
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Biorefinery based on biomass resources is an important approach for the oil refining and petrochemical industry to achieve sustainable development.
      
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An investigation was made with reference to the united business of agriculture, industry and commerce in Heilongjiang Province. The author, as a member of the work team, found that ideological confusion was an obstacle to the development of united business. Some ideas about the united business formed in the process of the investigation are put forward in the article to elicit discussion which might be helpful to reaching a unanimity of opinions. A united business of agriculture, industry and commerce...

An investigation was made with reference to the united business of agriculture, industry and commerce in Heilongjiang Province. The author, as a member of the work team, found that ideological confusion was an obstacle to the development of united business. Some ideas about the united business formed in the process of the investigation are put forward in the article to elicit discussion which might be helpful to reaching a unanimity of opinions. A united business of agriculture, industry and commerce is the union of agriculture with those kinds of industry and commerce which cooperate with agriculture at stages preceding or following it. Therefore the union of agriculture with other kinds of industry and commerce which are not related to the process of agricultural production should not be called the united business. Specialisation is the foundation for building up a united business. In general, agricultural production is least specialised in China, but still there are some highly specialised farm products, such as vegetables, fruits, etc. for which united businesses could be organized at present. Even if the production is specialised only at a low level, asmall amount of farm commodity may be collected into a large amount through horizontal union, then it would be possible to have vertical union, i. e. to develop industry and commerce cooperating with agriculture. How the united business and the people's commune exist simultaneously is a new problem in rural area. To some extent it is possible to integrate united dusiness with people's commune, and this possibility should be made the best of. As both of them have to keep their own characters, generally they are independent one another, and the integration is partial. The most important function of the united business is to develop commodity economy, as these industry and commerce which cooperate with agriculture are helpful to improving the circulation of farm commodity.

农工商联合企业与农工商综合经营都是农业与工商业的联合,但前者是农业与作为农业的前、后部门的与农业有协作关系的工商业的联合。而后者是农业与任何工商业的联合。农王商联合企业与农业专业化关系密切,因而发展农工商联合企业应当以专业化程度高的地区为重点,但是在专业化程度低的地区,也可以通过组织起来,实行横向联合的途径,把少量的商品农产品集中成大量的,在这基础上,实行农工商的纵向联合。农工商联合企业与农村人民公社这两种经济组织有可能在一定范围内,在一定程度上相互结合,应当充分利用这一可能性。但是这种结合必须以不妨碍各自的特点为前提,因而是有限度的。与农业相协作的工商业是可以促进农业生产商品化的工商业,所以发展农工商联合企业就为促进农业生产商品化创造了新的有利条件,这对我国农村改变半自然经济的面貌,走向富裕有重大作用。

The North China Plain occupies an important position in the country. However, natural hazards of drought, flood, salinization-alkaliiation as well as-wind hazard frequently take place over a long period of time. Besides , there are more than 100 million mu of low-yield land, hence agricultural production is unstable and not high, and living standard of the local people is impossible to raise rapidly. So long as what is beneficial is promoted and what is harmful is avoided and superiority is given into full play,...

The North China Plain occupies an important position in the country. However, natural hazards of drought, flood, salinization-alkaliiation as well as-wind hazard frequently take place over a long period of time. Besides , there are more than 100 million mu of low-yield land, hence agricultural production is unstable and not high, and living standard of the local people is impossible to raise rapidly. So long as what is beneficial is promoted and what is harmful is avoided and superiority is given into full play, great potential of production can be tapped. Therefore, it is possible to build the region gradually into an important base for commodity grain, cotton, oil-bearing crops, soyabean and fruits as well as an integrated agricultural region.Favorable conditions for dec-isionmaking are as follows; land resource, heat and temperature coditions as well as manpower in the region are sufficient, flourishing industry and developed urban areas and transportation are favorable for agricultural develop- ment; in a certain sense, it has a solid foundation for production due to the long history of agricultural development; and some achievements and experience have been obtained by the state on the development, utilization and management of the region.The strategic thinking on the management and transformation of the North China Plain should be: under the unified leadership, draw an overall plan to undertake integrated management ; cope with more difficult points after the easy ones being tackled; carry on work in units and areas in a combined way; persist in realizing the goal for a long time to come; and finally stress practical results. In the respect of conquering natural disasters , problems should be solved in the order of flood drainagesalt control-drought resistance-fertility fosterage so as to improve natural ecological environment step by step.Mean-while, agricultural production structural system should be established accor-dingly. In order to ensure fundamentally the realization of the objective on disaster elimination and production increase, from a long-term point of view , water transfer from south to north, the regulation of the three major rivers-the Huanghe, Huaihe and Haihe as well as soil conservation in the upper reaches are all principal measures related to the development of agricultural production of the North China plain.

黄淮海平原在我国占有重要的地位。但长期以来,这里存在着干旱、洪涝、盐碱和风沙等自然灾害,一亿亩以上的低产农田,农业产量不稳不高,人民生活水平提高不快。不过,只要趋利避害、发挥优势,就可挖掘巨大的生产潜力,把它逐步建设成为我国重要的商品粮、棉、油、大豆和水果生产基地与综合性的农业区。作出这一决策的有利条件是:该区土地、光、温等资源存在着一定的优势;劳动力资源充足,城市、工业、交通发达,有利于农业的发展;农业历史发展悠久,具备一定的生产基础;国家对这一地区的开发、利用和治理已经取得了一定的效果和经验。 治理、改造黄淮海平原的战略思想应该是:统一领导,全面规划,综合治理,先易后难,点面结合,长期坚持,讲究实效。在克服自然灾害方面,应按照排涝——除盐——抗旱——培肥的顺序来解决问题,逐步改善自然生态环境;同时建立与之相适应的农业生产结构系统。为了从根本上保障除灾增产目标的实现,从长远来说,南水北调,黄、淮、海三大河流的整治及中、上游的土壤保持,都是与发展黄淮海平原农业生产有关的重大问题。

Geography has always been of great productive and practical significance,It is also of a strong synthetical and regional nature. Besides, it lays emphasis on genetic principles. Because of these geographic characteristics, it can serve production and construction in many fields and its suggestions can be of profound strategic significance.Territorial renovation covers a wide range. From the geographical point of view, it includes territory and territorial waters. It also includes lithos-phere, hydrosphere, atmosphere,...

Geography has always been of great productive and practical significance,It is also of a strong synthetical and regional nature. Besides, it lays emphasis on genetic principles. Because of these geographic characteristics, it can serve production and construction in many fields and its suggestions can be of profound strategic significance.Territorial renovation covers a wide range. From the geographical point of view, it includes territory and territorial waters. It also includes lithos-phere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere and anthroposphere and is therefore three-dimensional and integral. Territorial renovation must be based on the long-range view, taking into consideration the effects to be brought onto our territorial renovation by the changes that will have taken place by teh end of this century.That is why territorial renovation is also a highly synthetical and regional task, demanding the teamwork of many subjects and many institutions. But the nature of geography gives it a quick access to as well as a remarkable function in this task.There is still much to be done about the territorial renovation of Sichuan, the following being part of it.(1) to unfold research work in the investigation of natural resources in an all-round way; (2) to determine regions and schemes in agriculture so as to change the present unreasonable structure of agriculture and set up a reasonable grand system of agricultural production by developing agriculture in line with local conditions; (3) to work out economic regional divisions and plans at various levels based on a synthetical and natural regional division; (4) to study the reasonable structure and distribution of industry and urba-nism,especially in power and energy;(5) to work out a near and a long-range transportation programme; (6) to study the natural calamities and find out ways of prevention; (7) to study and prevent environmental pollution;(8) to reinforce the construction of nature-protecting areas; (9) to develop touring resources; and (10) to study the problem of population with the greatest emphasis laid on it.In the above tasks, workers of geography can give full play to their intelligence and speciality, make great contributions and heighten the level of this subject, and prepare for the opening of new vistas in geography.

地理学从古到今都带有浓厚的生产实践性。地理学的学科性质还具有很强的综合性和区域性。此外,地理学还强调发生学原则。由于地理学兼有这些特性,所以能为多方面生产建设服务,它的建设往往具有深远的战略意义。 国土整治涉及的范围很广。从地理学的观点看,国土整治既包括领土、领海的范围,还包括范围内的岩石圈、水圈、大气圈、生物圈和人类圈,所以具有立体观和整体观;国土整治还必须有长远观点,能预见到2000年时地球的变化对我国国土整治的影响。因此国土整治也是一项具有强度综合性、区域性的工作,需要多学科、多部门进行大协作。但地理学的学科性质和它特别接近,在此项工作中最能发挥作用。 四川省在国土整治中需要做的工作很多,例如:(1)全面开展自然资源调查研究工作;(2)制定各级农业区划和规划,改变目前农业结构的不合理现象,实行因地制宜地发展农业,建立合理的大农业生产系统;(3)拟订各级经济区划和规划及综合自然区划;(4)研究有关工业、城市的合理结构和布局,特别急需制订出解决能源的方案;(5)制订出近期的、长远的交通运输规划;(6)对各类型自然灾害的研究,找出防治途径;(7)对环境污染的研究和防治;(8)加强建设自然保护区工作;(9)发掘...

地理学从古到今都带有浓厚的生产实践性。地理学的学科性质还具有很强的综合性和区域性。此外,地理学还强调发生学原则。由于地理学兼有这些特性,所以能为多方面生产建设服务,它的建设往往具有深远的战略意义。 国土整治涉及的范围很广。从地理学的观点看,国土整治既包括领土、领海的范围,还包括范围内的岩石圈、水圈、大气圈、生物圈和人类圈,所以具有立体观和整体观;国土整治还必须有长远观点,能预见到2000年时地球的变化对我国国土整治的影响。因此国土整治也是一项具有强度综合性、区域性的工作,需要多学科、多部门进行大协作。但地理学的学科性质和它特别接近,在此项工作中最能发挥作用。 四川省在国土整治中需要做的工作很多,例如:(1)全面开展自然资源调查研究工作;(2)制定各级农业区划和规划,改变目前农业结构的不合理现象,实行因地制宜地发展农业,建立合理的大农业生产系统;(3)拟订各级经济区划和规划及综合自然区划;(4)研究有关工业、城市的合理结构和布局,特别急需制订出解决能源的方案;(5)制订出近期的、长远的交通运输规划;(6)对各类型自然灾害的研究,找出防治途径;(7)对环境污染的研究和防治;(8)加强建设自然保护区工作;(9)发掘旅游资源;(10)必须十分重视人口问题的研究。 在上述工作中,地

 
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