By associating with foreign developed countries, Li Hongzhang detected Japanese aggressive intention towards China and potential threat to China, working out the thought of coastal defence of guard against Japan in land and water and constructing to it.
In the case of a reproducing mammal, the trade-offs occur mainly between defence against parasites and reproductive costs of the host.
The Energy Criterion for Quality of Immune Defence and Pathogenicity of Microorganisms
Relationships between the energy cost of immune defence, the disease severity, and the properties of pathogens were investigated.
TRIEN also increased the deleterious effect of CdCl2, which indicates that SOD apparently plays a certain role in cell defence against this mutagen.
The strain KMM 3427, identified asBacillus subtilis, synthesized the secondary metabolite 2-p-hydroxyphenylalcohol (tyrosol), which is known to be an antifungal compound and may perform the function of chemical defence inVerongia sp.