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    The Technical Indexes and Use of the 82-01C Type Rock Ultrasonic Shear-Wave Transducers
    82—01C型岩石超声横波换能器技术性能及其使用方法
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    On the Implementation of National Urban Development Strategy: Land Use Planning and Management during Fast Urbanization Period in China
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    Installation & Use of Spherical Compensators in Thermodynamic Pipelines
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    The Use of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns in Multistory Buildings
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    Use of Color in Industrial Buildings
    色彩在工业建筑上的应用
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    THE USE OF PC-1500 COMPUTER IN TEST OF CHEMICAL GROUT AND GROUTING CONSOLIDATION
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    Application of Aerial Remote Sensing Techniques to Land Use Inventory and Mapping of Guangzhou
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    THE USE OF YJ FURANE RESIN IN BUILDING ANTICORROSION PROJECT
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    Research of Developments in Urban Residential Land Use
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    Elasto-Plastic Analysis of Reissner-Mindlin Plates by Use of Hybrid-Stress FEM with Layered Model
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We use the theory of tilting modules for algebraic groups to propose a characteristic free approach to "Howe duality" in the exterior algebra.
      
For the case of positive characteristic we use the classification of finite irreducible groups generated by pseudoreflections due to Kantor, Wagner, Zalesski? and Sere?kin.
      
In the interesting case when the group is of Coxeter typeDn (n≥4) we use higher polarization operators introduced by Wallach.
      
We also use known results about canonical bases forUq2 to get a new proof of recurrent formulas for KL polynomials for maximal parabolic subgroups (geometrically, this case corresponds to Grassmannians), due to Lascoux-Schützenberger and Zelevinsky.
      
We use invariant theory to compute the exact number of nonzero idempotents of an arbitrary 2-dimensional real division algebra.
      
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss Prof. method of analyzing two-way reinforced concrete slab. This method is based upon the equilibrium of forces under ultimate loading, and consequently the effect of plasticity of the material is included in consideration. If we use this method to design two way reinforced concrete slab, We should not only have much saving of steel, but also a saving of labour in computation. No matter that the slab is continuous over how many spans of unequal lengths, it can be...

The purpose of this paper is to discuss Prof. method of analyzing two-way reinforced concrete slab. This method is based upon the equilibrium of forces under ultimate loading, and consequently the effect of plasticity of the material is included in consideration. If we use this method to design two way reinforced concrete slab, We should not only have much saving of steel, but also a saving of labour in computation. No matter that the slab is continuous over how many spans of unequal lengths, it can be easily analyzed, one by one, as a single span slab.

本文的目的是介紹蘇聯格娃斯捷夫教授的計算双向板的公式。這個公式是考慮板在極限平衡狀態,考慮了材料的塑性。用此方法計算雙向板,不但鋼筋經济而計算簡便。無論是多跨的板或不等跨的板,都可以视為單跨板來考虑,本文討論了格娃斯捷夫公式的基本理論,並将此理論应用到不規则形狀板的计算方面。

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

This paper is a supplement to the author's previous paper "The Constants and Analysis of Rigid Frames", published in the first issue of the Journal. Its purpose is to amplify as well as to improve the method of propagating joint rotations developed, separately and independently, by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, so that the formulas are applicable to rigid frames with non-prismatic bars and of closed type. The method employs joint propagation factor between two adjacent joints as the basic frame constant and the...

This paper is a supplement to the author's previous paper "The Constants and Analysis of Rigid Frames", published in the first issue of the Journal. Its purpose is to amplify as well as to improve the method of propagating joint rotations developed, separately and independently, by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, so that the formulas are applicable to rigid frames with non-prismatic bars and of closed type. The method employs joint propagation factor between two adjacent joints as the basic frame constant and the sum of modified stiffness of all the bar-ends at a joint as the auxiliary frame constant. The basic frame constants at the left of right ends of all the bars are computed by the consecutive applications of a single formula in a chain manner. The auxiliary frame constant at any joint where it is needed is computed from the basic frame constants at the two ends of any bar connected to the joint, so that its value may be easily checked by computing it from two or more bars connected to the same joint.Although the principle of this method was developed by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, the formulas presented in this paper for computing the basic and auxiliary frame constants, besides being believed to be original and by no means the mere amplification of those presented by the two predecessors, are of much improved form and more convenient to apply.By the author's formula, the basic frame constants in closed frames of comparatively simple form may be computed in a straight-forward manner without much difficulties, and this is not the case with any other similar methods except Dr. Klouěek's.The case of sidesway is treated as usual by balancing the shears at the tops of all the columns, but special formulas are deduced for comput- ing those column shears directly from joint rotations and sidesway angle without pre-computing the moments at the two ends of all the columns.In the method of propagating unbalanced moments proposed by Mr. Koo I-Ying and improved by the author, the unbalanced moments at all the bar-ends of each joint are first propagated to the bar-ends of all the other joints to obtain the total unbalanced moments at all the bar-ends, and then are distributed at each joint only once to arrive at the balanced moments at all the bar-ends of that joint. Thus the principle of propagating joint rotations with indirect computation of the bar-end moments is ingeneously applied to propagate unbalanced moments with direct computation of the bar-end moments, and, at the same time, without the inconvenient use of two different moment distribution factors as necessary in all the onecycle methods of moment distribution. The basic frame constant employed in this method is the same as that in the method of propagating joint rotations, so that its nearest approximate value at any bar end may be computed at once by the formula deduced by the author. Evidently, this method combines all the main advantages of the methods proposed by Profs.T. Y. Lin and Meng Chao-Li and Dr. Klouěek, and is undoubtedly the most superior one-cycle method of moment distribution yet proposed as far as the author knows.Typical numerical examples are worked out in details to illustrate the applications of the two methods.

本文為著者前文“剛構常數與剛構分析”之補充,其目的在將角變傳播法及不均衡力矩傳播法加以改善,以便實用。此二法均只需一個公式以計算剛構中所有各桿端之基本剛構常數(即任何二相鄰結點间之角變傳播係數),將此項公式與柯勞塞克之公式相比較,藉以指出前者較後者為便於應用,並亦可用之以直接分析較簡單之閉合式剛構,此外補充說明此法中之剛構常數與定點法之關係,剛構有側移時計算各結點角變所需之各項公式亦行求出。不均衡力矩傳播法係顧翼鹰同志最近研究所得者,既係直接以桿端力矩為計算之對象,而且只須採用不均衡力矩分配比將各結點作用於各桿端不均衡力矩之總和,一次分配,即得所求各桿端分配力矩之總值,實係力矩一次分配法之一大改進,著者將顧氏之法加以推廣与改善,使其原則簡明而計算便捷,著者認為此法係將林、柯、孟三氏法之所有優點熔冶於一爐,實可稱為现下最優之力矩一次分配法。最後列舉算例,以說明此二法在實際工作中之應用。

 
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