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engineering
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    Study and Application on Random Inverse Analysis in Geomechanical Engineering
    岩土工程随机反演分析及工程应用
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    Systematical Research on the Stability of High Rock Engineering Slopes and Its Control
    岩质工程高边坡稳定性及其控制的系统研究
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    A Finite Element Approach for Contact Problems and Its Application in Geotechnical Engineering
    接触问题的一种有限元计算方法及其在岩土工程中的应用
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    Dynamic Variations of Subsurface Engineering Geological Environment on the Subaqueous Delta of Yellow River, China
    黄河水下三角洲表层工程地质环境动态变化研究
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    Information Processing on Rock Mass Structure and Its Application in Geological Engineering
    岩体结构信息化处理及工程应用
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    Finite-Cover-Based Element-Free Method for Continuous and Discontinuous Deformation Analysis with Applications in Geotechnical Engineering
    连续与非连续变形分析的有限覆盖无单元方法及其应用研究
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    Limit Analysis Method and Its Application to Geotechnical Engineering with Linear and Nonlinear Failure Criteria
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    Slope Engineering Risk Assessment Based on Reliability Theory
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    ON COMPUTATIONS FOR CERTAIN PARAMETERS OF VERTICAL EARTHQUAKE FORCE ON ENGINEERING STRUCTURES
    计算结构竖向地震力的某些参数
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That such a factorization is possible is well-known to algebraists (and expressed by the formulaSL(n;R[z, z-1])=E(n;R[z, z-1])); it is also used in linear systems theory in the electrical engineering community.
      
Frames have applications in numerous fields of mathematics and engineering.
      
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Biomimetic strengthening polylactide scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering
      
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Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study...

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their underlying theories recorded in literature. On account of this, the progress of hydrology in respect to theory as well as to prac- tice has been retarded. By means of hydrodynamic analysis, the author has tentatively made an approach to the establishment of such a scheme of theories, in which he divided the rainfall-runoff phenomena into three parts for separate analyses, i. e., the occurrence of runoff due to rainfall at a surface point, the surface flow, and. the conflux of channel flows. This paper is devoted to the first part, which is, in essence, an analysis of the basic hydrologic phenomena. The theories thus established may be used as a guide for various hydrologic analyses in practice, may be based upon to examine the validity of various methods of hydrologic calculations, and may be further used to develop an approximate yet rational method for computing discharges from precipitation data. In this paper, the author proposes a scheme of underlying theories for analyzing the hydrograph of surface flow due to rainfall at a point, in which the essence of basic hydrologic phenomena is revealed, and this is accompanied with calculations of an example. In the earlier years, R. E. Horton established a theory of correlations of rainfall and runoff from small drainage basins by analyzing the data of Homer's sprinkler experiments. Thereafter, researchers basing upon his theories and methods analyzed the relations between rainfall and runoff by sprinkler experiments or data from natural areas. On account of the fact that Horton's analysis does not begin with an accurate hydrodynamical viewpoint, problems are bound to arise in practice due to defects in the underlying theories. Shortcomings of Homer's analysis on the basis of the author's theories are pointed out and the practical value of sprinkler experiments estimated. A method proposed by E. V. Bodakoff for computing discharges due to storms on small basins has raised wide discussions among the Soviet scholars, many of whom hold different views. The author hereby points out the main shortcomings of Bodakoff's method, and gives a numerical example with results compared with those computed by the author's method, thus showing the limitations of Bodakoff's method in practical applications.

半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根...

半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根據作者的理論指出了郝登分析法的癥結所在,並估計了人工降雨实驗法的实用價值之限度。波達闊夫曾建議暴雨逕流之一种計算法,引起了苏联学者的廣泛討論,很多人持有不同的意見。作者於文中指出了波氏等方法發生問題的症結所在;並用实例計算和作者的方法比較,說明了波氏法在实用中的準確限度。

Through the use of approximate expessions in the form of quadratic equations for the sum as well as the difference of principal stresses along any definite vertical line in foundation soil subjected to triangular and trapezoidal loading due to earth embankments. the author has derived formulas for critical load corresponding to the condition that plastic zone developed it tangential to the vertical line under consideration. Based on studies of the developed plastic zones in the foundation soil due to such a...

Through the use of approximate expessions in the form of quadratic equations for the sum as well as the difference of principal stresses along any definite vertical line in foundation soil subjected to triangular and trapezoidal loading due to earth embankments. the author has derived formulas for critical load corresponding to the condition that plastic zone developed it tangential to the vertical line under consideration. Based on studies of the developed plastic zones in the foundation soil due to such a triangular and trapezoidal loading. it is proposed, that the criterion for determining the critical load on the foundation roil is that the developed plastic zone is tangential to a vertical line at one quater base width from the center line. Special considerations are given to the cases for convenient soil as well at for saturated clay of zero degree of consolidation. Charts convenient for pratical use are also prepared. Finally, numerical examples are presented which show that the proposed formulas are quite in conformity with field observations in engineering practice.

作者以二次方程代替在路堤及土坝的三角形与梯形荷载下地基中沿各铅垂线上的主应力和与主应力差的表示式,得出了相应于塑性区发展至与各指定的铅垂线相切的临界荷载公式.在比较全面地研究了三角形与梯形荷载下特有的塑性区发展规律的基础上,提出了以塑性区与铅垂线X=B/4相切作为确定的基的许可荷载的临界条件.文中还就无粘性土以及固结度为零的饱和粘土的临界荷载问题进行专门的讨论,给出了便于实际应用的图表. 最后举出的两个实际工程例子验证了本文提出的理论与实践的一致性.

The concept of earthquake intensity is re-examined. It is pointed out that earthquake intensity is the average degree of ground shaking in an area and can only be measured by physical quantities averaged over the said area. Engineering data should be determined by the average value plus certain deviation chosen on sound probabilistic basis. At present stage, both macroscopic and physical scales are needed, with the latter as standard and the former as qualitative description of the latter. Problems, such as...

The concept of earthquake intensity is re-examined. It is pointed out that earthquake intensity is the average degree of ground shaking in an area and can only be measured by physical quantities averaged over the said area. Engineering data should be determined by the average value plus certain deviation chosen on sound probabilistic basis. At present stage, both macroscopic and physical scales are needed, with the latter as standard and the former as qualitative description of the latter. Problems, such as the choice of physical measures, the revision of current intensity scale and the application of intensity in engineering practice are discussed at length.

本文对地震烈度这个概念作了重新审查,指出地震烈度是地面震动在一定面积范围内的平均程度,只能用在此范围内平均的物理数量来度量.在现阶段,工程设计数据应当选取这个平均数量加上一定的具有合理概率基础的偏差.宏观的和物理的烈度尺度都是需要的,但须以后者为准,以前者为后者的定性描述.对于物理尺度的选择、现行烈度表的修改以及烈度在工程实践中的应用等问题都作了较详细的讨论.

 
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