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agro ecosystem     
相关语句
  农业生态系统
     Discussion on agroecosystem services and sustainable utilization
     农业生态系统的服务功能与可持续利用对策探讨
短句来源
     Research directions of agroecosystem health in the early 21st century.
     21世纪初农业生态系统健康研究方向
短句来源
     Study on the Protein Producing Efficiency and Population Carrying Capacity of Agroecosystem in Miyun County of Beijing Suburb.
     京郊密云县农业生态系统蛋白质生产效率和人口承载力研究
短句来源
     Research progress of agroecosystem health
     农业生态系统健康研究进展
短句来源
     Analysis and Design of Sustainable Agroecosystem
     可持续农业生态系统分析与设计
短句来源
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  农业生态系统
     Discussion on agroecosystem services and sustainable utilization
     农业生态系统的服务功能与可持续利用对策探讨
短句来源
     Research directions of agroecosystem health in the early 21st century.
     21世纪初农业生态系统健康研究方向
短句来源
     Study on the Protein Producing Efficiency and Population Carrying Capacity of Agroecosystem in Miyun County of Beijing Suburb.
     京郊密云县农业生态系统蛋白质生产效率和人口承载力研究
短句来源
     Research progress of agroecosystem health
     农业生态系统健康研究进展
短句来源
     Analysis and Design of Sustainable Agroecosystem
     可持续农业生态系统分析与设计
短句来源
更多       
  农田生态系统
     NITRIFICATION-DENITRIFICATION LOSSES OF FERTILIZER NITROGEN AND N2O EMISSION FROM SOIL IN AGROECOSYSTEM
     农田生态系统中氮素硝化反硝化损失与N_2O排放的研究
     Effect and the acting mechanisms of the habitats and vegetational diversity on arthropod community in agroecosystem
     农田生态系统中生境与植被多样性对节肢动物群落的影响及其作用机制探讨
短句来源
     A numerical model for simulating N 2O emissions in agroecosystem was established.
     综合大气化学等多学科最新研究进展 ,建立了农田N2 O排放数值模式 ,模式较好地模拟了农田生态系统中N2 O排放过程 .
短句来源
     Gray Model for Ecological Risk Assessment and Its Application in Salinization Oasis Agroecosystem
     生态风险灰色评价模型及其在绿洲盐渍化农田生态系统中的应用
短句来源
     Study of Canopy Photosynthesis and Evapotranspiration Coupled Model in the Agroecosystem
     农田生态系统冠层光合与蒸散耦合模型研究
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  农业生态
     Subturopical region in Southern China has special physical and agricultural conditions where agro ecosystem and its spatial pattern were restricted by ecological characteristics of zonal vegetation.
     我国亚热带具有特殊的自然环境与农业生产条件 ,其农业生态—经济带系统与配置格局受到该地带植被生态学特点的制约。
短句来源
     The study conduct ecological economic regionalization of subtropical region in Southern China,designed optimal agro ecological landscape patterns in different geographic units,which aimed to make u pthe break up and unbalance of bio geo chemical cycle due to simplicity of agro ecosystem structure.
     文章对我国亚热带山地进行了生态—经济带划分 ,设计不同地理单元上农业生态景观的优化配置 ,弥补农业生态系统结构简单造成的生物地化循环不完善 ,以形成更好的生物—环境关系
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      agro ecosystem
    In agro ecosystem, a large amount of litter is turned over during the cropping season, fallow period and land preparation.
          
    Incorporating rhizosphere processes into field-scale (agro)ecosystem models
          
    The effect of organic amendment applications on the activity of exocellular enzymes were examined on a silty clay loam soil of a subtemperate hill-agro ecosystem.
          
    In the absence of any effective bio-agents, the level of IPM integration is limited to cultural practices, thresholds, agro ecosystem analysis and use of insecticides according to good agricultural practices.
          
    We interpret the latter to be the result of the loss of resilience in the agro-ecosystem.
          
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    During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster...

    During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster sp. (gregarious endoparasite)Platygaster sp. (solitary endoparasite)Neanastatus grallarius MasiNeanastatus oryzae PerriereObtusiclava oryzae Sabba RaoThe morphology of the various stages of these parasites are described and a brief account of their bionomics is also given. Usually the gregarious Platygaster parasite is the predominant species, but during the seedling and tillering stage of the late crop (both in the seed-beds and in the field) the population of Neanastatus may increase to as high as 70-80% of the 5 species in total. These parasites possess different characteristics in biology and play different roles in suppressing the outbreaks of the rice gall midge. Further investigations will help us to know how to utilize these parasites in the program of integrated pest management in rice fields.2. The percentage of parasitism of the rice gall midge in the seed-beds and fields of the late crop was found to be very high, in some cases as high as, 90% or more. This contributes an important factor in controlling populations of the gall midge. The outbreak of the gall midge is closely correlated to the cropping system; the late crop and the triple rice crop afford a "bridge" for the favorable reproduction of the gall midge. The irrational application of insecticides kills the natural enemies and is also one of the factors leading to the resurgence of the insect pest.3. According to the investigations made in 1976 in San-Hua brigade, Hua county, the percentage of parasitism on the rice gall midge in the overwintering generation in the wild rice (Oryzae rufipogon) reached as high as 65%, and in the first aad second generations of the early crop the parasitism was found to vary from 32.5% to 33.3%. But in the seed-beds of the late crop, due to the frequent applications of insecticides, usually with a spraying of Methyl parathion-BHC and Dimethoate at an interval of 4-5 days, the percentage of parasitism dropped to 1.53-4.5%, whereas in the field with no insecticide treatment it was about 44%. This indicates that the conventional method of the application of insecticide produces adverse effects to the parasites.4. Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the toxicity of several insecticides to the parasites of the rice gall midge. As a contact poison the organophosphorus compound Pyrimioxythion (N-23) was the most toxie, and chlorodi-meform was the least toxic. The order of toxicity to Platygaster sp. was: Pyrimioxy-thion > Trichlorofon > Dimethoate > (2,5-Dimethylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) > Chlorodimeform. The LC50 of the five compounds was estimated to be 1.1, 3.5, 5.5, 15.0 and 24.0 ppm, respectively. As a foliar spray, Pyrimidoxythion is also more toxic than Methyl parathion-BHC to Obtusiclava oryzae and Neanastatus spp. The formulations and methods of applications of the insecticides is very important to the protection of the parasites. As a rule, broadcasting of impregnated-dusts is less hazardous to the natural enemies and the root-zone method of application givea good protection to the parasites and the spiders in the rice field. Thus there is a possibility that the rational use of insecticides will help to increasing the stability of the paddy agro-ecosystem and it may be of great utility in developing an efficient integrated control program for the rice gall midge as well as other insect pests.

    在广东稻瘿蚊常见的寄生蜂有5种:(1)黄柄黑蜂Platygaster sp.(群居内寄生天敌);(2)单胚黑蜂Platygaster sp.(独居内寄生天敌);(3)黄斑长距旋小蜂Neanastatus grallartus Masi.;(4)稻长距旋小蜂Neanastatus oryzae Ferriere;(5)斑腹金小蜂Obtusiclava oryzae Subba Rao。这5种寄生蜂中黄柄黑蜂发生较普遍,在一年间大部分时间发生数量多于长距旋小蜂及斑腹金小蜂。稻瘿蚊寄生蜂在晚造秧田及本田寄生率有时达90%以上,对抑制稻瘿蚊的发生起了相当大的作用。 几种常用农药对寄生蜂毒杀作用的比较试验,分别在室内及田间进行。以嘧啶氧磷对寄生蜂毒杀最大,杀虫脒最小。对寄生蜂的毒力大小比较为:嘧啶氧磷>敌百虫>乐果>叶飞散>杀虫脒。

    The following aspects of agro-ecosystem are being studied in terms of economics : ( 1) Agro-ecosystem is the result of human economic activities with a definite economic goal. After the formation of agro-ecosystem, it is unable to exist without continued human asistance or interference. (2 ) The function of agro-ecosystem is determined by human economic behavior. Various measures are being employed to control or interfere with the natural environment, plants, animals,...

    The following aspects of agro-ecosystem are being studied in terms of economics : ( 1) Agro-ecosystem is the result of human economic activities with a definite economic goal. After the formation of agro-ecosystem, it is unable to exist without continued human asistance or interference. (2 ) The function of agro-ecosystem is determined by human economic behavior. Various measures are being employed to control or interfere with the natural environment, plants, animals, and microbes so as to ameliorate the function of the agro-ecosystem. (3) The economic result of energy transformation and material cycle is to create use value. The divers factors and elements within the agro-ecosystem can be refered as potential use values which move synchronously with energy flow and material flow . When the potential use values are gradually accumulated to a certain degree, they will be transformed into use values that can satisfy human wants. (4) The exchange of commodities is the major cause for the output and input of energy and material between agro-ecosystems. As the energy and material go out together with the commodities from the original agro-ecosystem the need for an input of proper amount of energy and material by suitable way is unavoidable. The complements maintain the balance of output and input in order to allow the agro-ecosystem to play its role continuously in the future economic reproduction.

    本文从经济学角度对农业生态系统进行下列几方面探讨:(1)农业生态系统是人类抱着一定经济目的进行经济活动的产物。建成后没有人类扶持或干预农业生态系统就不能继续存在。(2)农业生态系统的功能主要是受人类经济活动所控制。对自然环境、植物、动物和微生物四个要素。采取各种不同办法进行干预和控制,以提高整个农业生态系统的功能。(3)能量转化和物质循环的经济成果是创造使用价值。农业生态系统内的各种因素是潜在的使用价值,与能量流和物质流同步运动。逐渐积累而转化为能满足人类需要的使用价值。(4)商品交换是造成农业生态系统间的能量和物质输出及输入的主要原因。由于商品交换,能量和物质随着农产品离开本农业生态系统,必须采取适当办法输入适量的能量和物质作补充,以保持其平衡,才能使农业生态系统在进行经济再生产时继续发挥作用。

    In this article the relationship between agro-ecosystem and agricultural resources is being discussed. The process of the movement of agro-ecosystem and that of the use of agricultural resources are identified in nature . In order to give full play to the advantages of agricultural resources, the principles of ecological economics must be applied in the use of those resources. Four major eco-economic principles and their application approaches are mentioned in this papers i. e. the principle...

    In this article the relationship between agro-ecosystem and agricultural resources is being discussed. The process of the movement of agro-ecosystem and that of the use of agricultural resources are identified in nature . In order to give full play to the advantages of agricultural resources, the principles of ecological economics must be applied in the use of those resources. Four major eco-economic principles and their application approaches are mentioned in this papers i. e. the principle of the integration of reforming and conforming the ecological environment, the principle of the use and conservation of the components of ecosystem, the principle of the application of value flow of agro-ecosystem, and the principle of food chain of agro-ecosystem. For the purpose of transforming the advantage of resources into the advantage of the whole economy, research on the issues of eco-economics is considered extremely important. At present, the problem of rational combination in the use of resources, the relation between the regional specialization in production and the development of social economy, and the issue of the renewal of agricultural resources related to economic growth are recognized as the urgency of study.

    本文论证了农业生态系统与农业资源的关系,农业生态系统运动过程与农业资源利用过程在本质上是一致的。为了充分发挥农业资源的优势,在利用过程需要应用生态经济原理。文章论述了四条主要原理及其在农业资源利用过程的应用方法。这些原理包括:生态环境的改造与适应原理;生态系统组成成分的利用与保护原理;农业生态系统价值流原理和农业生态系统食物链原理。为了把资源优势转化为经济优势,必须加强生态经济的研究。亟待研究的如资源利用的合理组合问题;地区分工与社会经济发展的关系和经济发展与资源更新问题。

     
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