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breast augmentation
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  隆乳术
    Anatomical study of breast augmentation with the anesthesia of intercostal nerves block
    局部麻醉下隆乳术应用解剖
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    Objective: To provide anatomical basis for breast augmentation with local anesthesia.
    目的:为局部麻醉下隆乳术提供解剖学依据。
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  breast augmentation
At the beginning of the sixties the injection of liquid silicon oil was frequently used for breast augmentation.
      
Silicone gel breast augmentation with a periareolar incision
      
Clinical and morphological results after breast augmentation
      
In 85 patients, breast augmentation mammaplasty (often bilateral) was performed in the course of 5 1/2 years when the breast was too small or after subcutaneous mastectomy.
      
The aim of the paper is to establish a method of breast augmentation which will reduce capsular contracture.
      
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Objective: To provide anatomical basis for breast augmentation with local anesthesia. Methods: T2 -T6 anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve (ACIN) and T2 - T6 lateral cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve (LCIN) were dissected on 52 sides of adult female specimens. Results: Anatomical data about nerves was provided. The diameters of T2 - T6 LCIN of the site perforating were gradually decreasing. The diameter of T2 's was 2.12 ±0.26 mm and the diameter of T6' s was 0.94 ± 0.25 mm. The distances...

Objective: To provide anatomical basis for breast augmentation with local anesthesia. Methods: T2 -T6 anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve (ACIN) and T2 - T6 lateral cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve (LCIN) were dissected on 52 sides of adult female specimens. Results: Anatomical data about nerves was provided. The diameters of T2 - T6 LCIN of the site perforating were gradually decreasing. The diameter of T2 's was 2.12 ±0.26 mm and the diameter of T6' s was 0.94 ± 0.25 mm. The distances from the site of LCEV perforating to anterior middle line were gradually augmenting. The distance of T2' s was 8.87±0.57 cm and the distance of T6' s was 10.17 ± 0.83 cm. The distances from site of LCIN perforating to axial anterior line were gradually augmenting. The distance of T2 's was 1.94±0.91 cm and the distance of T6's was 1.06±0.18 cm. The position of T2-6 anterior cutaneous branch of intercostals nerve (ACIN) perforating were invariant. Conclusions: The nerve of breasts include superclavicular nerve, the breast branch of ACIN and the breast branch of the lateral cutaneous branch of anterior branch of intercostal nerve (LCIN) . It is possible to block ACIN and LCEV to obtain the ideal anesthesia effect.

目的:为局部麻醉下隆乳术提供解剖学依据。方法:对26具成年女性的52例标本胸部进行解剖,观测第2~6肋间神经外侧皮支(LCIN)和第2~6肋间神经前皮支(ACIN)的分支分布。结果:第2~6肋间神经外侧皮支穿出点横径依次递减,T2为(2.12±0.26)mm,T6为(0.94±0.25)mm;穿出点至前正中线的距离逐渐增大,T2为(8.87± 0.57)cm,T6为(10.17± 0.83)cm;穿出点至腋前线距离亦逐渐增大,T2为(1.94±0.91)cm,T6为(1.06±0.18)cm。第2~6肋间神经前皮支(ACIN)在胸骨旁穿出点位置恒定。且肋间神经呈重叠性、节段性分布于乳房区的皮肤。结论:乳房的神经支配主要有锁骨上神经分支和T2~6LCIN的乳房支及T2~6ACIN的乳房支。采用阻滞LCIN和ACIN完全可以满足隆乳术的镇痛要求。

Mammary epithelial stem-like cells (MESCs), isolated from mouse mammary glands by immunological methods combined with flow analysis cytometer sorting, have the characteristics of stem cells, can differentiate into each cell type in mammary glands in vitro and can regenerate mammary glands in vivo. Surprisingly, only one MESC can regenerate a developed and functional mammary gland. Therefore, regenerated mammary glands by MESCs may be widely used in female mammary gland reparation after sectioned the mammary...

Mammary epithelial stem-like cells (MESCs), isolated from mouse mammary glands by immunological methods combined with flow analysis cytometer sorting, have the characteristics of stem cells, can differentiate into each cell type in mammary glands in vitro and can regenerate mammary glands in vivo. Surprisingly, only one MESC can regenerate a developed and functional mammary gland. Therefore, regenerated mammary glands by MESCs may be widely used in female mammary gland reparation after sectioned the mammary glands because of cancer or tumor; may provide new and safe materials for female breast augmentation; may establish an matured experimental animal model in rebuilding cow or sheep mammary glands in order to lactate useful protein; and may help us understand the mechanism of stem cell differentiation and organogenesis. We reviewed the mammary genesis, the relationship between mammary gland development and its stem cells, the types and biological characteristics of MESCs, the mechanism of mammary gland development, and so on. To this day, although we have found many specific marked proteins in hematopoietics and their daughter cells, there will be a long way to go in finding the specific markers in MESCs.

最近的研究表明 ,利用干细胞抗原抗体从小鼠乳腺中分离得到的类乳腺干细胞具有干细胞的特性 ,体外诱导可以分化为乳腺中的各种细胞 ,在体内可以再生乳腺。小鼠的一个乳腺干细胞可以重新构建一个发育良好的、有功能的乳腺。因此 ,研究乳腺干细胞再生乳腺将对因乳腺肿瘤和癌症而切除乳腺的妇女再生功能性乳腺 ,为隆胸的女性提供安全可行的新材料 ,为健康家畜乳腺改造提供成熟的实验动物模型 ,为研究干细胞分化机理、再生器官的研究提供理论依据。本文综述了乳腺发生、发育 ,乳腺与乳腺干细胞的关系 ,乳腺干细胞的分类和生物学特性及其发育调控机理 ,有关人和啮齿类动物乳腺干细胞存在等方面的研究进展。尽管目前已经发现了许多关于血液干细胞及其子代细胞的标记性蛋白 ,但要找到乳腺干细胞的特异性标记性蛋白仍需花费很长的时间。

 
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