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government     
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  政府
     Analysis and Government Functional Location of Social Insurance
     社会保险分析与政府职能定位
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     Political Interaction: Interest Groups and American Government's Policy Making
     政治互动:利益集团与美国政府决策
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     Local Government Investment in China
     中国地方政府投资研究
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     On Government Saving
     政府储蓄论
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     Studies on Chinese Government's Agricultural Functions in Market Economy
     论市场经济下的中国政府农业经济职能
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  政务
     Informational Mode of Government Innovation--Research on E-Government
     政府创新的信息化模式——电子政务研究
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     A Study on the Development Mechanism of Electronic Government
     电子政务发展机制研究
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     Research on Knowledge Management Based Electronic Government Information Platform
     基于知识管理的电子政务信息平台研究
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     In the construction of the electronic government system,worldlow is one of the key technologies.
     电子政务是我国政府信息化建设的重要内容之一,工作流技术是其中的一项核心技术。
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     Based on the theory of digital signature and the one of ECC,first,ECC was applied in electronic government security.
     基于数字签名与ECC的理论,将ECC应用于电子政务安全之中。
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  国家
     Research on the Government Quality of Various Countries with Different Systems as Well as the Improvement of Government Quality of China
     世界不同体制国家政府质量研究——兼论中国政府质量优化问题
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     Market Economy and Government's Control
     市场经济与国家干预
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     Government Promulgate the Third Part Program of Environment Pollution Treatment Time Limited Items
     国家下达第三批环境污染限期治理项目计划
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     Economic function of government concerns with the border between market and state.
     政府的经济职能涉及市场自由与国家干预的边界,在不同的制度、经济背景下,政府的经济职能往往要作适应性调整,以期契合现实的需要。
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     On the basis of the statistics of the physical condition of the Han students aged from seven to eighteen publicized four times by the national government,the paper adopted the GM(1,1) Model of the grey prediction theory and established the grey prediction model to predict the physical growth of the urban juveniles in 10 years in China to provide information and statistics for the education administrative department.
     根据国家先后4次测试公布的7~18岁城市汉族学生体质调研的原始数据,运用灰色系统理论GM(1,1)模型,建立城市青少儿生长发育的灰色预测模型,预测未来10年我国城市儿童青少年生长发育的期望值,为教育行政部门了解和掌握城市青少儿生长发育状况提供信息和参考数据。
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  政府的
     The Policy of Alliance-with the US to Subdue Japan of the Qing Government from 1905 to 1911
     1905-1911年清政府的联美制日政策
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     Economic Reform by the Ershad Government
     艾尔沙德政府的经济改革
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     HIGH TECHNOLOGY, THE POLITICAL CHOICE OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
     高技术:美国政府的政治选择
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     A COMMENT ON THE FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC POLICIES OF THE THATCHER GOVERNMENT
     评撒切尔政府的内外政策
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     TRANSPORTATION POLICY OF THE US GOVERNMENT
     美国政府的运输政策
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    The paper examines the factors that are likely to influence the pharmaceutical industry in India in the new WTO regime and the preparedness of government, research organizations and firms to compete in this scenario.
          
    The study shows that government has made some important changes after the signing of WTO agreement in 1994, but there are still some contentious issues that require attention.
          
    Recursive utility, productive government expenditure and optimal fiscal policy
          
    Pollution, government expenditure, taxes and stochastic growth
          
    Its natural habitat has been well protected by the Chinese government.
          
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    This special issue is on the request of the Yunnan provincial government to fullfill a new Plan in the following years to establish series of Nature Conservation Stations throughout this province. As the Socialism construction in our country is so fast, especially the influence of the great-leap forward of 1958, that stimulate everything to meet the modernization of new China. Plans for the establishment of Naturc Conservation Station in Yunnan is also one of the new things omorged in that year. There...

    This special issue is on the request of the Yunnan provincial government to fullfill a new Plan in the following years to establish series of Nature Conservation Stations throughout this province. As the Socialism construction in our country is so fast, especially the influence of the great-leap forward of 1958, that stimulate everything to meet the modernization of new China. Plans for the establishment of Naturc Conservation Station in Yunnan is also one of the new things omorged in that year. There are five main articles containing in this volumc, they are, first one, the Ta-Mon-Lung Nature Conservation Station, second one the Mong-Run-Station; third the Mon-La Station; fourth, the Mon-Yang-Station; and finally the Ching-Tung, Wu-Liang-Shan Nature Conservation Station. All of the five stations are situated along the east and west banks of the Lan-Tzeong-Kiang river, and lie between 21°-25°latitude north. The first four Stations lie within Si-Shion-Ban-Na district, which is the southernmost part of the Yunnan province, on the latitude 21°-22°30′ north longitude 99°55′-101°45′ east. In general the altitude of this district is 540-1000 moters above the sea level, except a few mountain peaks reach 1800 meters high. The total area is estimated to be 25,000 square km. and with Lan-Tzeong-Kiang lows all throngh the entire territory from the north west to the south east. It is one of the richest and most lovable tropical and subtropial regions in China. Clinatically, it is a hot and humid place, without seasenal changes in the year, but having very distinct rain and dry seasons, or a fog eason in adlition. Yearly priptation is 1000—1800 mm. Yearly average temperature is above 18℃. Ching—Tung Station has the same type of limate as that of Si-Shion-Ban-Na. Geographically the mountain range and river course are running in the direction from north west to south east, throughout this whole district and topographically there are flat mountain tops, steep-walled slopes, astal lands, and inter-mountain basins, provided with rich vegetation type. The live nature conservation stations in this special issue have each mphasized on different topics. Such as Ta-Mon-Lung Station sticks to the dry type of sasonal rain forest, Mon-Rung Station has emphasized on the description of the castal type of rain forest, Mon-La Station descries the wet type of seasonal rain forest, Mon-Yang Station is on the south subtropic, montane type rain forest. On the other hand Ching-Tung Wu-Liong Shan is on the vertical distribution of vegetation. Ta-Mon-Lung Nature Conservation station is the one located on the west bank of the Lan-Tzeong-Kiang river on the border of Burma, about 50 Kilometers south of Yun-Ching-Hwung, the capital of the Tai peoples autonomous district, It is a large inter mountain river basin, about 600 meters above the sea level, the entire area of the basin is estimated 38 kilomtrs in length end only 2-3 kilometers in width. It is surounded by middle sized mountains, The seat of the Station is on the north side of the basin, from the ground level up to the mountains slopes, with the Hsiao-Ke-Ho river as its east border & Men-Chuon village on the west side. The mine vegtation type within the statin is the "Lung-Shan" forest of the Men-Yong-Kwang and Men-Leon-Suan of the Tai villages. In the classification of plant, communities this type of vegetation has been called the dry type of the seasonal rain forest. The first story trees of this type ofcommunity are Antiaris toxicaria and Gironniera subaequalis and many others, forming, very complex structures. On the base of the different local habitat of this plant community, it may be subdivided into: 1. community type on low terraces and lowslopes, 2. community type on eroded hill tops, 3. community type on slopes of mountain ravinas. Besides are monsoon type of forest communities and the evergreen oak forest communities on higher elevations above 800 m. in altitude, Between 700—800 m. in altitude above, the sea level is usuay a transtional zone with the tropical rain forest type below and the subtropical oak forest type above. Secondary vegetation types are various. There are young forest and shruby lianae combinations, vast areas of bmboo (Dendromus strictus) community, the Eupatorium odorum community, the different kinds of grass communities, and other aquatic types of communities. The Mon-Rung Nature Conservation Station is the second one to be mentioned in this specie. issue. It is located on latitude 21°41′ north and longitude 101°25′ east, to the east side of the Lan-Tzcong-Kiang River. The basin of Mon Rung is 540 m. above the sea level in altitude, with Loo-Soo-Kiang river flowng through its entire territory, and it is about the middle way of the Shiao-La-Highway. This nature conservatisn station is divided into two parts. The first part, situated near the highway, has sand shale rocks in nature. In mountain, ravines and low hills, vegetations are of the wet type of seasonal rain forest. It is also redivided into 3 eubtypes: 1. in narrow ravincs and on foot of slopes with the Pometia tomentosa as its dominant species in the first story; 2. in now ravin and on flat plas, with the Terminalia myriocarpa as its dominant species in its first story; 3. in narrow ravines and swampy places, with the Erythriua lithosperma as its dominant species in the first storg. Other types are the transitional ones of the south subtropial rain orest and the dry type of the south subtropical rain forest distributed on the higher part of the mountain slope, forming the vertical distribution of plant communities in this region. The second part of the nature conservation of Mon-Rung Station is a lime stone type, located on the upper part of the Loo-Soo-Kiang river, its baslc rock is made of permian lime stone. This type of seasonal raiu forest community has loosely spaced diciduous tall trees in the first story and very characteristic evergreen rain forest in the lower stories. and has poor undergrowth of the forest floor. It may be redivided into two other subtypes: 1 in narrow ravines with the Mallotus pseudoverticellata as the main dominant spocies in the second story of this tnpe of community. It has been found that the line stonetype of community is rich in species, and many new spocies, even new genera and new records are continuously discovered in recent years, some families have been reported to be new distributions in Chiua. The Mon-La Nature Conservation Station is on the east bank of the ran-Tzcong-Kiang River, the southern-most one among the five stations. It is located on th lower course of the Nan-La-Ho River, 640 m. above the sea level in altitude. All the natural forest land, on the low hills and terraces are included in this station. The main types of vegetation within this station in the wet type of the seasonal rain forest in which, Pometia tomentosa and Manglietia sp. are dominant spcies. This is in turn redivided into subtypes: 1. narrow ravine foot slope type of wet seasonal rain forest; 2. narrow ravine flat place type of wet seasonal rain forest; 3. narrow ravine swampy type of wet seasonal rain forest; 4. the Manglietia community type etc. Another type of vegetation within this territory is the sonth subtropical transitional rain forest which contains Alstonea pachycarpa and sovery species or Castanopsis as the first story trees, the under stories are rich in rain forest elements. On range tops of the lower mountains are commonly south subtropial dry ever-green oak forest, containing many species of the gencra Pasania and Castanopsis as dominant ones. The Mon-Yang Nature Conservation Station, is another one located on the east bank of the Lan-Tzcong-Kiang River, at 23°6~1-23°24~1 north latitudc, 100°-101° longitude east. The total area is estimated to bo 180 square kilometers, It is bordered on the west by Lan-Tzeong-Kiang River, on the east by thy Kun-Loo-Highway, on the south by the upper mountain ranges of the Mon-Yang-Ho River, and on the north by Mon-Men village. The highest mountain peak within this area reaches 1800 m. above the sea level, but most of the mountain ranges are below 1500 m. A so-called the south subtropial montane rain forest is. occurcd on back mountain slopes of the Kun-Men village distributed at 1200—1500 m. above the sea level. The main componints of this kind of forest community are the Calophyllum thorelii. Semecarpus albesccns. Vitex quinata, Reevesia siaminsis, and Dysoxylum haanensis etc. This knd of rain forest has occured comparatively on hghcr altitude in this place is a phenomeno quit different from other types of rain forest. The next eategory of vegetation is the tropical dry seasonal rain forest, distributel along terraces of stream sides about 720 m. above the sea level. It is a luxuriant rain forest rich in tropical species. The most conspicuous ones are: Pometia tomentosa, Daubanga grandiflora, Lagerstroemia intermidea, Cryptocarya caesia and Hrpultia cupanoides etc. The most common type of vegetation occupying most of the areas in the south subtropical region in the evergreen oak lorest. Common trees of this community are the species of the genera: Castanopsis, Pasania, Cyclobalanopsis, and Annaslea fragrans, Schima Wallichii etc. Among. the secondary vegetations, Dendrocalamus strietus is one of the most prominent type occupying vast areas. There are also vast areas of grass communitis, containing tall grasses like Themda giganta, Thysanolaena maxima, Neyrandia arundinacea, Microstegium vagans and mddle grasses: Imperatus eylindrica and Arundinella hirta etc; they togcther form different kinds of pure and mixed communities. The fifth and the last nature conservation station is the Ching-Tung, Wu-Lion-Shan Station. It is located at 24°29′3″ latitude north, 101°4′5″ longitude east. The highest mountain peak within this area is 3200 m. above the sea leval. It is a large mountain with the total area of the station estimated (to be) 180 square kilometers, stepwalled slopes and narrow deep anyans, with distinct vertical vegetational distributions. River bed and basins in Lan-Tzeong-Kiang, Pa-Pien-Kiang and Chuan-Ho are pro vided with the pine and oak forest community, dorainanted by Pinus yunnanensis, and Quercus alicna, Q. acutissima, Q. variabilis. Others like Kcteleeria evulyniana, Annaslea ragrans Myrica esculata, Rhododendron Delavayi are also not uncommon. Isolato large trees in this areas are Gossampinus malabaricus, Mallotus phillipinensis, Wendlandia paniculata etc. Secondty, there are the evergreen oak forest type and the subtropical rain forest, mainly occupy in the mountain ravines and valleys. It is one of the largest plant communitis within this station, estimated to had 5045 hectare in area. It contains different community types as follows: 1. Castanopsis hystrix-Cyphotha montana community. 2. Siima waihii+Illicium yunnannsis-Shinatala chinensis+Indoclamus pedolis community. 3. Manglietia forrosti+Acer pictum-Justicia petentiira commity. 4. Anus npalensis+Hartia yunnanenis Shinatala chinensi+Cyphtha montana community. 5. Hyna trijaga-Cyathea spinulosa community. Third one is hemlock forest distributed on the upper part of the mauntain about 2400-2800 m. above the sea level It is subdivided into hemlock pure forest and Tsuga-Rhoodendron communities. Tsuga yunnannsis is the. dominant species, othrs like Tsnga chinensis and Tsuga forrestii and many spies of Rhodendron are also there. The coniferous epiphytic moss forest type is a spial featrue among the plant communities. Mountain top moss Rhododendron forest and shrubs, are distributed at 2800-3100 m. above the sa level. The layer of moss is as thick as 10-20 cm. and completlely covering the tree surface especially the tree trunks. Moss Rhodldcndron shruby community are dominated by many spies of Rhodedendrom, Lyonia, Enkianths, Picris, Eurya and Vaccininm etc. Secondary vegetion are of varions forms, such as grassland, with Arundinella and Pteridium aquinum as dominant species; shruby comunitics with Cletyra delavayi, Gaultheria forrstii as common species; Alnus nepalensis and Jugans eathayonis are rather two pure forest stands. A small pond is formed t 2600 m. above the sea level, densely vegstated by Scirpus macronata, Eleocharis palustris, carex dispalata and other species of the families Cyperaceae and ca. Finally a dingram for the vertieal distribution of types of plant communities of the Wu-Lion-Shan mountain has been prepared to show the differences between the oast and west slopes. In this special issu the authors wish to amphasize their point of view in the science of vegetation as follows: (A) An attcpt to bring out a preliminary syem of classifieation of the tropical plant communities Ⅰ. Seasonal rain forest type-A cmbination of the nature of tropical rain forest and monsoon forest, distributed below 00 m. in atitude above the sea level. 1. Dry seasonal rain forest type-on terras and Knolls surrounding the intermountain basing. Charaetristic largo trees in this plant community are Antiaris toxicaris and Carnarium abum This is again redivided into three subtypes, depeuding of their loal habitats. (1) Flat terraces dry seasonal rain forest with Plonemia lenzeana as it dominant of the ground cover. (2) On the knoll tope dry seasonal rain forest type With Geophila hebacea as dominant of the ground cover. (3) On slopes near by the ravines dry seasonal rain forest type with Selaginella pieta as dominant of the ground cover. 2. Wet seasonal rain forest type inside the ravines and narrow mountain streams. Dominant arge trees are Terminalia myrioarpa and Erythrina lithosperma etc. This is also redividd into 4 subtypes as fallows. 1) On foot of slopes inside the narrow ravines, wet seasonal rain forest type. 2) Flat bottom land inside the narrow ravines, wet seasonal rain forest type. 3) Swampy land inside the narrow ravines, wet seasonal rain forest type. 4) Local manglietia pure stand, wet seasonal rain forest type. 3. Lime stone seasonal rain forest type. Distributed on lime stone mountains and castal lands. Dominant large tree speceis are Pterospermum lanciofolium, Ulmus laneiofolia, Mallotus pseudovertieellata snd Gironniera nitida, etc. 1) Ledge of narrow ravines type. 2) Flat sloping type. First stry trees are deciduous large trees Colona sinica, Garuga floribunda, Celtis sp. and ulmus lanceofolia. etc. predominant tree in the second layer is the Gironiera nitida. Ⅱ. Tropical monsoon forest type. 1. River bed monsoon forcst is characterized by Gossampinus malabaricus. 2. Stream side monsoon forest is characteristic by Pterocarya tonkinensis and Salix araeostachya. 3. Flood-plain monsoon forest, is characteristic by shruby communities Homonia riparia as the dominant species, one of the successional stages. Ⅲ. Transitional south subtropic rain forest type (Usually distributed as a narrow strip on the middle part of the mountain slopes.) Their top layers are evergreen oaks, sublayers are characterized by rain forest structures. Ⅳ. suth subtropical montanc rain forest. Diatributed on higher elevations. 1300—1500 m. in altitude above the sea level. Dominant trees are Dysoxylon hainanenae and Calophyllum thrllii. V. Soutlr subtiopic evergen oak forest type distribution in general on evations above 800 m. in altidde above the sea level. 1. Dry oak forest type oecupies vast areas over this region. Dominated by evergreea oaks, Schima Wallichii, and Annaslea fragrana etc. 2. Wet oak forest type occupies crtain part with better moisture condition. dominant species are usually with more Lauraceae elenets. (B) Another concept to be mintioned in this special issue is the special featuere of the epiphytie moss: coniferous forest type at Wu-Liang than, Ching-Lung Station. We assume that the Tsuga yunnanensis pure forest community is originated from the north stretching southwardly to the Ching-Lung, Wu-Liang than region. It is. thought be the most souther end of the Tsuga forest community coming over the 250 latitude north, one of the nearest points toward the Eustor. On the other hand, the, tropical and subtropical piphytic moss forsts. One of the southern elements, are, common in Hainan Island and many plaoes in Yunnan. Naturally, the epiphytic moss forest is a kind of ever-green broad-leaf forest type but not coniferous type as we thonght before. The epiphytic moss forest is combined with the Tsuga eniferous forest forming & special feature at Wu-Liang than. This is a new disovery by the students of Yunman University. This now fcature has two scientific significances: (1) a new combination of plant community (2) discovry of a new florestic distribution. This scientific achievenent is apparently due to our socialist educational policy and our correct sicentific dire

    本專号包括五个自然保护区的植被調查报告,其中大勐籠、勐崙、勐臘及勐养等四个自然保护区在西双版納境內,景东无量山自然保护区在景东境內,五个自然保护区都排列在瀾滄江兩岸分佈在北緯21°—25°之間。西双板納位於云南南部,北緯21°—22°30′,东經99°55′—101°15′。全区皆为海拔540—1000公尺的盆地和低山中山,个别山峯达1800公尺。面积約25000平方公里,瀾滄江縱貫其間,一片熱帶亞热帶的风光,是一个可爱的祖国边疆。本区气候炎熱湿潤,沒有明显的四季,只有明显的乾季和雨季(或乾季、雨季、霧季三季)。年降水量1000—1800公厘。年平均温度都在18℃以上。景东无量山,受干热河谷热带气候的影响,基本上与西双版納地区相似,具有大型高山特点。在大地構造上,位于中越地台西部的横断山块断带,紅河大断裂与康滇台背斜分开,及燕山运动对本区有着巨大的影响,其基底組成,由元古代昆阳系之千枚岩、板岩和石英大理岩構成;盖层以三迭紀陆相紅色砂頁岩广泛复盖其上,厚度不下于500公尺。本区山脈走向,均是西北东南向,由西北逐漸向东南降低。澜滄水系和盆地也具有与山脈走向相一致的情况。地貌的发育是严格受着地壳構造,近代地壳运动及...

    本專号包括五个自然保护区的植被調查报告,其中大勐籠、勐崙、勐臘及勐养等四个自然保护区在西双版納境內,景东无量山自然保护区在景东境內,五个自然保护区都排列在瀾滄江兩岸分佈在北緯21°—25°之間。西双板納位於云南南部,北緯21°—22°30′,东經99°55′—101°15′。全区皆为海拔540—1000公尺的盆地和低山中山,个别山峯达1800公尺。面积約25000平方公里,瀾滄江縱貫其間,一片熱帶亞热帶的风光,是一个可爱的祖国边疆。本区气候炎熱湿潤,沒有明显的四季,只有明显的乾季和雨季(或乾季、雨季、霧季三季)。年降水量1000—1800公厘。年平均温度都在18℃以上。景东无量山,受干热河谷热带气候的影响,基本上与西双版納地区相似,具有大型高山特点。在大地構造上,位于中越地台西部的横断山块断带,紅河大断裂与康滇台背斜分开,及燕山运动对本区有着巨大的影响,其基底組成,由元古代昆阳系之千枚岩、板岩和石英大理岩構成;盖层以三迭紀陆相紅色砂頁岩广泛复盖其上,厚度不下于500公尺。本区山脈走向,均是西北东南向,由西北逐漸向东南降低。澜滄水系和盆地也具有与山脈走向相一致的情况。地貌的发育是严格受着地壳構造,近代地壳运动及不等量上升和热带亞热带的各种外引力相互作用之结果,形成各种不同的地形形态,具有热带亞热带丰富的植被类型。本專号的五个自然保护区中,在大勐籠方面以乾性季节性雨林为中心,勐崙方面以石灰岩季节性雨林为中心,在勐臘方面以湿性季节性雨林为中心,在勐养方面以南亞热带山地雨林为中心,在景东无量山方面以垂直分佈带为中心,前三者結合此較紧密,后兩者皆單独論述,与其他自然保护区沒有联带关系。大勐籠自然保护区却在大勐籠地区,位于允景洪西南方約50公里处,是瀾滄江西岸一个較大的山間盆地之一,壩区海拔600公尺,南北長达38公里,东西平均寬兩公里,四周为10′30、50—60公尺高度不等的阶地,多巳为近代溝谷切割,环繞壩区的低山相对高度200公尺上下。大猛籠自然保护区,位于壩区的北面山坡上,上以山脊为界,下以壩区边緣为界,东至小街河,西至曼庄村。以小街为中心、以曼养光、曼涼傘的龙山森林为主要对象而划定的。保护区中以热帶乾性季节性雨林为主要类型,有箭毒木(Antiaris toxicaria)、大叶白顏树(Gironniera subaegualis)等极其复杂的种羣所組成,依其分佈局部地形特点及林下草被层变化特点又可分为三种亞类:①低平阶地类型,②殘丘上部类型,③近沼地坡地类型等,其次是南亞热带乾性常綠櫟树,以壳斗科为主的羣落类型。分佈在800公尺以上的垂直帶类型,在700—8000公尺之間形成一个热带、亞热带植被交錯分佈的过渡帶,不仅兩个类型交錯,嵌鑲分佈,而且种羣层片之間互相交錯。次生植被中以牡竹(Dendrocalamus strictus)羣落、佔据較大的分佈面积,其他还有藤灌羣落(Liauae and shruby community)、鉄刀木羣落(Cassia siamea community)、飞机草 羣落(Eupatorium odosatum community)等为普遍分佈的羣落类型。勐崙自然保护区位於北緯21°41′,东經101°25′。在瀾滄江东岸,支流罗梭江下游,勐崙壩区海拔540公尺,界于勐养与猛臘之間,正当小臘公路中段(58—65公里处)。自然保护区分兩大片,一为小臘公路側一段溝谷和低山,母質为砂頁岩。以湿性季节性雨林为主要类型,可分三个亞类:①狹谷坡脚类型,上层以番龙眼(Pometia tomentoca)为主;②狹谷平地类型,上层以干果欖仁树(Terminalia myriocarpa)为主;③狹谷沼地类型,上层以石果刺桐(Erythrina lithosperma)为主。还有过渡性南亞热带雨林,和南亞热帶乾性常綠櫟林等,分佈在較高的山坡上,成为垂直分佈带植被类型。另一大片自然保护区在石灰山区,位于罗梭江及其支流的上游,母質为二迭纪石灰岩。以石灰山季节性雨林为主要植被类型,上层散生落叶大乔木,中层常綠性強,郁闭性最大,下层贫乏。又可分为兩个类型:①狹谷坡脚类型,中层以假輪叶野桐(Mallotus pseudoverticellata)为主。②平緩坡面类型,中层以光叶白顏树(Gironniera nitida)为主。本保护区的特点是植被类型多(包括原生的和次生的)其中以石灰山植被最为特殊,组成种类中新种新屬新分佈繼續发現。勐臘自然保护区位于西双版納东南角的边緣上,紧靠勐崙自然保护区的南面,在澜滄江的东岸,支流南臘河的中下流。壩区海拔640公尺,沿河兩岸的丘陵和低山植被,保存最良好的地段,就是自然保护区所在。保护区內以湿性季节性雨林为主要植被类型,分佈面积最大,保留也良好,其中最常見的是番龙眼(Pometia tomentosa)为主的狹谷坡脚类型,局部地段見有以木蓮(Manglietia sp.)为优势。狹谷平地的类型的雨林,一般可分为四个亞类:①狭谷坡底湿性季节性雨林类型,②狹谷平地湿性季节性雨林类型,③狭谷沼地湿性季节性雨林类型,④木蓮(Manglietia sp.)羣落类型等。此外自然区內还有过渡型南亞热带雨林,上层以厚果鴨脚木(Alstonea pachyearpa)、錐栗(Castanopsis spp.)为主,下层多雨林成分。在保护区低山的山脊部分,普遍分佈南亞热帶乾性常綠櫟林,以柯屬(Pasania)和錐栗屬(Castanopsis)若干种为优势。井傘困滿(勐养)自然保护区,位於瀾滄江的东岸,紧靠江边,約当北緯23°6′—23°24′和东經100—101°的地方。面积估計約为180平方公里,西界瀾滄江边,东界昆洛公路,南界勐养河以北的山脊,北界勐满至大渡崗一线。自然保护区以內的海拔最高点达1800公尺,一般的山嶺都在1500公尺以下。本区的植被类型以南亞热帶山地雨林为主要对象,主要分佈在困满背后,海拔1200—1500公尺的山坡上。該羣落组成主要种类有:小叶海棠(Calophyllum thorelii)、單叶漆(semecarpus albescens)、布刺(Vitex guinata)、暹罗利未花(Reevesia siamensis)、海南葱臭木(Dysoxylum haianensis)等,具有丰富的雨林結構。它分佈在这样高海拔的山上是局部温度和湿度造成。一般在这样的海拔高度上,应该是屬于南亞热带常綠櫟林的范圍了。比较次要的是热帶乾性季节性雨林类型,分佈在局部河灣阶地上,海拔720公尺的地方,主要組成种类有:番龙眼(Pometia tomentosa)、八宝树(Daubanga grandiflora)、西南紫薇(Lagerstrocmia intermedia)、桂皮(Cryptocarya caesia),还有Horputtia.cupanoides 等丰富的植物种类。保护区內佔面积最大的是南亞热帶常綠櫟林,主要組成种类有,錐林屬(Castanopsis)、柯屬(Pasania)、青杠屬(Cyelobalanopsis)等屬多种植物及桉納树(Annaslea fragrans),西南木荷(Schima wallichii)等組成。次生植被中竹林佔面积亦大,以牡竹(Dendrocaeamus stsictus),为主要种类。次生的草本植物羣落类型較多,其中最主要的种类有:大管草(Themeda gigantea)、白茅草(Imperata cylindrica),棕叶蘆(Tnysanolaena maxima)、类蘆(Neyrandti arundinacea)、野古草(Arundinella hirta)及馬鹿草(Microstegium vagans)等,分别組成單优、多优、高草、中等等不同类型草本羣落。动物比較珍貴稀有的:野象羣,各种犀鳥、大斑鳩、孔雀、野牛及华南虎。其他普通种类甚多。景东无量山自然保护区位於北緯24°29′30″,东經101°4′15″,面积估計180平方公里,海拔最高点3200公尺,当地相对高度2100公尺应屬大型高山类型,山峯峻峭,山谷峽深,植被垂直分佈明显,羣落类型复杂,最主要者有下列各类。河谷壩区乾旱性植被类型,分佈在瀾滄江把边江,者干江及川河谷等河壩区上,主要为松櫟林羣落單位,以云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)为主,与多种壳斗科植物混生如:槲櫟(Quorens aliena)、麻櫟(Q.acutisama)、全皮櫟(Q.variabilis)等。油杉(Keteleeria Evulyniana)、安納树(Annasloa fragrans)、楊梅(Myrica、esculata)、馬櫻花(Rhododendron Delavayi)等亦常混生其中。尚有散生树木有:木棉(Gossampinus malabaricus),菲島桐(Mallotus phillpinensis),水錦树(Uendlandia panioulata)等。亞热带溝谷雨林,常綠闊叶林类型,主要分佈在溝谷中,为自然保护区最优势的羣落类型,估計佔面积5045公頃之多,其中包括以下几个羣落类型。 (1)椎櫟(Caotanopsis hystrix)——山腫藥(Cyphotheca montana)羣落; (2)西南木荷(Shima wallichii)十滇八角(Illicium yunnanensis)——滑竹(Shinatala chinensis)十小金竹(Indocalomus podolcis)羣落; (3)木蓮(Manglietia torrestii)十五角楓(Acerpictum)——牛克膝(Tustieia petntifera)羣落。 (4)旱冬瓜(Alnus nepalcnsis)十云南黑德木(Hartia yunnanensis)——滑竹(Shin atals chinensis)十山腫藥(Cyphothea montana)羣落。 (5)海木(Heynea trijuga)——桫欏(Cyathea spinulosa)羣落。鉄杉针叶林羣落,分佈在海拔2400—2900公尺的亞高山帶,可分鉄杉純林(苔蘚針叶乔木林),以云南鉄杉(Tsuga yunnanensis)为主,中国鉄杉(Tsuga chinensis)次之,福氏鉄衫(Tsuga forrestii)最少。及鉄衫(TSuga)——杜鵑(Rhododendron)林,其中杜鵑种类甚多。高山苔蘚杜鵑林和杜鵑灌叢,分佈在海拔2800—3100公尺,山的頂部,地面上,树身上都有极发达的苔蘚,厚10—20公分以上。 (1)苔蘚杜鵑林羣落,主要种类有:杜鵑屬(Rhododendron)20—30种之多,南燭屬 (Lyonia)、吊鍾花屬(Enkianthus)、馬醉木屬(Pilris)、柃木屬(Eunya)等屬多种植物组成。 (2)杜鵑灌叢羣落,由多种杜鵑植物組成,另有假馬醉木(Picris formosa)、米飯花(Vaccinium donianum)等。次生植被类型包括多种多样的羣落單位,如草地羣落主要种类有:关公草(Arundinella)蕨菜(Pteridium aquilium)等。灌叢羣落中有山柳(Elethra delavayi)、杜鵑、南燭、米飯花、香白珠(Gaultheria focrestii)等,次生乔木林羣落中有旱冬瓜(Alnus nepalensis)林、野胡极(Juglans cathaynsis)林。在海拔2600公尺处,有一山間死水塘,全部为沙草种植物Scirpus macronata、E1eocharis、Carex dispulata等所充塞。最后附有景东无量山植被垂直分佈图一幅,东坡面临川河河谷,相对潮湿,共有17个羣落單位,西坡面临瀾滄江河谷,相对乾燥,共有10个羣落單位。在本專号中,作者們提出了一些学术性間題如下:划分羣落类型系統,羣落类型分佈,植物区系等方面分述于下: (A)我們对热帶植被类型提出的一个初步分类系統如: 一、季节性雨林类型——具有热带雨株及季雨林混合特点。 (1)乾性

    The 1974 International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea entered into force on 25 May 1980. The Government of Our Country deposited an instrument of ratification to IMCOon 7 January 1980 and became Party to the Convention. This paper introduces the background, SOLAS Conference,SOLAS Convention in brief and supplies some recommenda-tions for implementation of the Convention.

    《1974年国际海上人命安全公约》于1980年5月25日生效,我国已于1980年1月7日向政府间海事协商组织交存了批准文件,成为该公约的缔约国。本文就该公约的修订背景、1974年国际海上人命安全会议情况、该公约内容概要作一介绍,并对实施中的若干问题提出一些建议。

    China is a large country, with abundant resources and a long history. Accord- ing to legend, in Shanxi Province, mining for copper dates as far back as 5300 years ago. It has been verified by modern archaeology that in Gansu Province copper mines and lead mines were worked not later than 4000 years ago. During the Shang Dynasty (1600 B. C. -- 1100 B. C.), extensive mining was carried out for copper, tin and lead, and covered a very broad area from Inrier Mongolia in the north to the Five Mountain Ranges in the...

    China is a large country, with abundant resources and a long history. Accord- ing to legend, in Shanxi Province, mining for copper dates as far back as 5300 years ago. It has been verified by modern archaeology that in Gansu Province copper mines and lead mines were worked not later than 4000 years ago. During the Shang Dynasty (1600 B. C. -- 1100 B. C.), extensive mining was carried out for copper, tin and lead, and covered a very broad area from Inrier Mongolia in the north to the Five Mountain Ranges in the south and from Gansu Province in the west to Shandong Province in the east. During the Western Zhou Dynasty government officials were appointed for the organization and management of the mining industry. In the earliest mining operations, stone implements were used. In the excavation of the Linxi Ancient Copper Mining Site in Inner Mongolia, more than 1060 pieces of buried stone hammers and other mining implements were found. Mining at this ancient site possibly began in the Western Zhou Dynasty and continued to the Tang and Song Dynasties. Thirty-eight open-pits were found there, the largest pit had a maximum length of more than 500 meters and a maximum depth of 17 meters. Large amounts of furnace slag were also found, indicating a comparatively large scale of operation. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (known as the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods), the mining of iron ore became common. The Qi Kingdom carried out the policy of "nationalization of mountain and sea," which encouraged the development of mining and metallurgical enterprises, and the mining of various metal minerals became common. Some of these were recorded in detail in the ancient book "Shan-Hai-Jing" (the book of Mountain and Sea). This book recorded more than ten kinds of metallic mineral products, 176 old mining sites, and information about various types of ore deposits and metallic mineral association. This book is among the world's oldest literature on mining. Since 1974, an ancient underground copper mine of the Zhou Dynasty has been explored by excavation at Tonglushan, Hubei Province. This find has been of important significance in the study of the history of ancient mining and social de- velopment in China. At this ancient mine site many vertical shafts were sunk since the Western Zhou Dynasty. The depth of the shafts reached more than 50 meters during the Warring States Period. The hoisting, drainage and ventilation problems of underground mining were solved successfully. The windlass used for hoisting was much improved from those commonly used and more scientific. Through the development of many types of timber-sets, the ancient miners successfully overcame the difficulty of mining in fissured ground, thus greatly advancing the technique of underground mining and contributing to the development of mining in ancient China.

    由近代考古工作证明,我国最晚大约于四千年前,就在现今的甘肃省开始开采铜矿和铅矿。商代(公元前1600~1100年)铜、锡、铝矿已大量开采;西周时设有矿官,负责矿业的组织管理。文章着重引证了内蒙林西露天古铜矿和湖北铜录山古铜矿井的出土文物资料,说明我国开采矿业历史悠久,古代劳动人民在采矿技术方面有很多发明创造,做出了很大贡献。

     
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