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As an application we produce complete hyperbolic 5-manifolds that are nontrivial plane bundles over closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds and conformally flat 4-manifolds that are nontrivial circle bundles over closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds.
      
As an application of the results we prove a generalization of Chevalley's restriction theorem for the classical Lie algebras.
      
The proof is an application of a recent result by W.
      
The application arises because of a very strong homological property enjoyed by certain cell filtrations forq-permutation modules.
      
We give as an application a family of singular Schubert varieties.
      
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Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions,...

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions, such as solid-solvent, solute-solute, solute-solvent, have been neglected in this theory. In the theoretical study of chromatography it is necessary to know the equation for the adsorption isotherm when more than one solute are present in the solution. The most widely adopted equation for this purpose is (x/m)_a=k'_aC_a/(1+k_iC_i) (1) This equation can be easily derived from that for a single adsorbate: x/m = k'C/ (1+kC) (2) by assuming that the presence of an additional solute merely reduces the available surface area of the solid. Formally, this equation is analogous to that of Langmuir for the adsorp- tion of gaseous mixtures, replacing pressures by concentrations, but it is actually an empirical equation, because the numerical values of the k's can be obtained only from experimental data and their physical significance is not at all clear. This equation predicts the de-pression of the adsorption of one solute by another. While it is in line with the current idea, there is no experimental proof of its validity. It is the dual purpose of the present investigation to substantiate or disprove the dis- placement theory and to test the applicability of equation (1). We have studied the adsorption from binary solutions of hydrochloric, acetic, and oxalic acids by sugar char. The adsorbates are chosen because of their widely different strength. Sugar char is chosen because it has been shown from previous studies that with this adsorbent the experimental data for single adsorbate follow equation (2). The experimental results are given below: HCl-CH_3COOH and CH_3COOH-H_2C_2O_4 systems: (1) The adsorption of any acid is less than when it is present alone; (2) When the corresponding (x/m)'s are plotted, straight lines with negative slopes are obtained; (3) The slopes of these straight lines vary with the concentration of the acid being displaced; (4) The order of the displacing power, measured by the slope, is HCl> CH_3COOH > H_2C_2O_4, while the order of adsorption is just the reverse; (5) Equation (1) is not valid. HCl-H_2C_2O_4 system: (6) The adsorption of HCl is decreased; (7) When its concentration is higher than about 0.005 N, the adsorption of oxalic acid is increased; at lower concentrations the adsorption is decreased; (8) The higher the concentration of HCl is, the more pronounced will be the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid; (9) Corresponding (x/m)'s give straight lines whose slopes change sign as C_ox increases beyond 0.005 N. From (3) and (4) it is concluded that the observed decrease of adsorption is not due to simple displacement. Based on the hypothesis that it is primarily the solvent which is displaced with the subsequent shift of equilibrium, a mechanism is proposed to account for the effect of one solute on the adsorption of another, which seems to agree with all the observed results. The increase of the adsorption of oxalic acid disproves conclusively the displacement theory. The fact that there is a critical concentration below which the adsorption of oxalic acid is decreased indicates that there are two opposite influences at work. It is suggested that three factors contribute to the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid: (a) the decrease of dissociation; (b) the lowering of solubility; and (c) electrostatic effect. To determine the relative importance of these factors requires further investigation. Finally, an empirical equation involving three constants has been derived to represent the adsorption of oxalic acid in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

在此工作中我們研究了三種混合酸的吸附。在鹽酸-酸的體系中,鹽酸增加糖炭對於草酸的吸附量,倘若草酸的濃度超過0.005N。這個事實否定了在混合酸中各溶質間的作用是彼此頂替的說法。在醋酸-草酸及醋酸-鹽酸的混合溶液中,各酸的吸附量皆較其單獨存在時低。根據實驗的數據我們指出了各家說法的可疑之點。我們認為在混合溶液中吸附量之減少主要是因為溶質甲頂替了表面上的溶劑,因而使溶質乙的吸附量降低。若是溶質甲能使溶質乙的電離度或溶度降低,或增加溶質乙的Gegen-ion,則能使乙的吸附量增加。因為Langmuir式的混合吸附公式不能代表吸附之增加,我們提出了一個可以此較滿意的代表實驗結果的三常數經驗公式。各溶質的吸附量皆成直線關係。對此結果我們不能作定量的解釋,雖然此種現象與我們的假設並不矛盾。

Although nitriding provides us with an iron catalyst of good durability and resistance to carbon deposition,it brings at the same time a higher methane form- ation during synthesis,this has hindered its application in industry. Accordingly,factors effecting this main side-reaction were thoroughly studied. They are:reaction temperature and pressure,space velocity,particle size of catalyst, alkaline content in catalyst,method of reduction,degree of nitriding,and aging of catalyst.With the exception of space...

Although nitriding provides us with an iron catalyst of good durability and resistance to carbon deposition,it brings at the same time a higher methane form- ation during synthesis,this has hindered its application in industry. Accordingly,factors effecting this main side-reaction were thoroughly studied. They are:reaction temperature and pressure,space velocity,particle size of catalyst, alkaline content in catalyst,method of reduction,degree of nitriding,and aging of catalyst.With the exception of space velocity,all of these independent variables play quite important roles iu effecting the yield of methane.The relative impor- tance of these variables are discussed in detail.Among them,the alkaline content and operation pressure are the most influential.With the increase of the alkaline content from 0.8 to 1.7g K_2O/100g Fe (by impregnation),methane formation can be effectively depressed,for example,at 7 atm.and 15 atm.,CO converted to methane is reduced from 7-9% to 5-6% and from 5-7% to 3% respectively.Further- more,the tendency of increase in methane formation with time can also be checked by addition of alkaline. The product distribution has been correlated with methane formation by sum- marizing data reported in literatures and our own results.Presumably methane is essentially formed on some special locations on the catalyst.However,the operation conditions which favor the formation of light hydrocarbons always enhance the for- mation of methane at the same time,so that there appears some parallelism between them. The mechanism of methane formation and the reason for its steady increase in life tests are also discussed.

在已经解决了氮化熔铁催化剂的活性维持问题及原料气体合理利用的基础上,进一步研究了合成时的一个主要副反应——CH_4的生成——与各项操作变数的关系.确定了反应温度、压力、空间流速、催化剂粒度、催化剂的酸含量、还原方法、氮化度及催化剂的存放时间等独立变数对 CH_4生成率的影响,指出应用浸渍法适当增加催化剂的碱含量并采用较高的反应压力(15气压左右)可以抑制 CH_4的生成率到已转化的 CO 的3%左右.以上措施对和缓 CH_4生成随时间增加的趋势也有良好的影响.综合实验结果,论证了 CH_4生成率与产品轻重间的依附关系,并对 CH_4生成的原因及其随合成时间而逐渐增加的现象作了初步理论上的探讨.

An attempt was made to synthesize 2,5-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-quinazoline (Ⅰ) through the application of a reaction similar to Biginelli condensation. 4-(2'-Chlorophenyl)-2,5-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-quinazoline (Ⅰ) (R=2'-Cl'C_6H_4-),changing gradually at 250° from the fine crystals into somewhat larger rectangular crystals and melting at 290-292°, was isolated through the condensation of cyclohexanedione-(1,3 ), o-chlorobenzaldehyde and urea in ethanol in presence of acid.Nevertheless,...

An attempt was made to synthesize 2,5-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-quinazoline (Ⅰ) through the application of a reaction similar to Biginelli condensation. 4-(2'-Chlorophenyl)-2,5-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-quinazoline (Ⅰ) (R=2'-Cl'C_6H_4-),changing gradually at 250° from the fine crystals into somewhat larger rectangular crystals and melting at 290-292°, was isolated through the condensation of cyclohexanedione-(1,3 ), o-chlorobenzaldehyde and urea in ethanol in presence of acid.Nevertheless, the use of n-butyraldehyde, p-methoxy-benzaldehyde or p-dimethyl-amino-benzaldehyde instead of o-chloro-benzaldehyde in the above mentioned reaction gave 1,8-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-xanthene derivatiws (Ⅱ), urea being not involved in the reaction. The melting points of various 9-R-1,8-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-xanthene were as follows:Compound Ⅱ with R= m.p.n-propyl 118-119°p-Methoxy-phenyl 191°p-Dimethylaminophenyl 215-216°resolidifying at this m. p., changing, in crystal form from needles into fine, long hair-like crystals, remelting at 220-221°.9-n-Propyl-1,8-diketo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-xanthene was identified as follows: n-Propyl-bis-(2,6-diketo-cyclohexyl)-methane (Ⅲ), m.p. 94-96°, was first prepared by condensing cyclohexanedione (1,3) with n-bmyraldehyde in ethanol in presence of piperidine. This compound (Ⅲ) was heated with ethanol-hydrochloric acid, and was then converted into 9-n-propyl-1,8-dikcto-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-xanthene, m.p. 119-120°, which was proved to be identical with the compound isolated from the condensation of n-butyraldehyde, urea and cyclohexanedione (1,3) in ethanol in presence of acid.

環己烷二酮(1,3),隣氯代苯甲醛及尿素在乙醇-鹽酸中按照Biginelli式縮合反應生成4-(2′-氯代苯基)-2,5-二酮-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-八氫化-1,3-二雜氮萘。於上述反應中用正丁醛,对甲氧基苯甲醛或对二甲氨基苯甲醛代替隣氯代苯甲醛,作者未析出2,5-二酮-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-八氫化-1,3-二杂氮萘,而得到1,8-二酮-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-十氫化-10-杂氧蒽衍生物,所用尿素並未參加反應。

 
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