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Tilting modules for classical groups and howe duality in positive characteristics
      
We use the theory of tilting modules for algebraic groups to propose a characteristic free approach to "Howe duality" in the exterior algebra.
      
In our paper [KR] we began a systematic study of representations of the universal central extension[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] of the Lie algebra of differential operators on the circle.
      
This study was continued in the paper [FKRW] in the framework of vertex algebra theory.
      
In the present paper we study the remaing nontrivial case, that of a negative central charge-N.
      
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1. Each spieces of plant possesses a particular kind of pollen grain, therefore the morphological characters of pollen grains may be used for the identification of the botanical origin of certain crude drugs. 2. 46 kinds of Chinese drugs included in the Pen-tsao have been examined for their pollen grains. Full descriptions of the pollen grains found in these drugs are given together with an analytic key and 31 figures. 3. The pollen grain was first observed under microscope in dry form to...

1. Each spieces of plant possesses a particular kind of pollen grain, therefore the morphological characters of pollen grains may be used for the identification of the botanical origin of certain crude drugs. 2. 46 kinds of Chinese drugs included in the Pen-tsao have been examined for their pollen grains. Full descriptions of the pollen grains found in these drugs are given together with an analytic key and 31 figures. 3. The pollen grain was first observed under microscope in dry form to see its side view, and then put into solution to absorb moisture and swell up to spherical form for the purpose of observing its polar view.

(1)每种植物的花粉,各有特殊的形状,因此花粉的形态特徵对於鉴定中药,尤其粉末生药的原植物有很大帮助。(2)本文叙述46种中药的花粉,除作形态的描述外,并编一分析检索表,另附三图版共31图。(3)本文所述花粉的形态,包括乾燥的侧面形,及吸湿膨胀後所现的极面形。本文曾由楼之岑教授提出宝贵意见,附图为刘安佑同志所绘特此致谢。

A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received...

A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard preparation and the other 2 groups received the test preparation. The standard deviation of a single determination based on 9 such assays was estimated to be 15.7 per cent. For rhubarb and its preparations, a“6-point”assay is advocated. With suitable restric-tion in the design of the assay, it is possible to calculate the potency by simple methods. Powdered crude drugs are used as laboratory standards in the assay of senna and rhubarb. The doses of cascara bark required to produce distinctive responses are too inconveniently large to be administered in suspension. It was found possible to use a potent extract of cascara in place of the powdered bark as a laboratory standard. Examples of the assay and the subsequent calculations are given. The method described is not only convenient in use but also gives a comparatively high degree of accuracy. The method has been successfully applied to senna leaf, senna fruit, rhubarb, cascara sagrada and extracts and commercial preparations made from these drugs, pure glycosides(sennosides A and B) and pure anthracene compounds(aloe emodin and aloe-emodine anthranol).

(1)本文详述植物性泻药的一种新的生物测定法,此法係用小白鼠在服药后所排出的濕粪数为基础,以定泻药的效价。(2)小白鼠服药後所排出的湿粪数与剂量指数的关係经证明为一直线。(3)本法所用鼠笼係特别设计,并证明在饲料内加入一定量的饮水,具有多种优点。(4)番泻效价的测定,每次用小白鼠4组,每组10只。2组给与标准品,另外2组给与试验品。根据9次试验的结果,试验的标准差是15.7%.(5)大黄效价的测定,以采用“6点”法为宜,即每次试验用小白鼠6组,3组给与标准品,另外3组给与试验品,所得的准确度与上述相仿。波希鼠李皮浸膏的效价测定,则用“4点”法或“6点”法均可。(6)所有试验一律采用粉状生药为实验室的比较标准,但是波希鼠李皮的效价太低,它的粉末不适於作为标准之用,可用波希鼠李皮乾浸膏来代替,作为比较标准。(7)本文对於效价测定及其计算方法都举例说明,并介绍了比较常法为简捷的相关效价计算法。(8)本法不但方便易行,而且有相当高的准确度;曾用在番泻、大黄、波希鼠李皮及其制剂,以及一些纯粹的蒽醌衍生物的效价测定,都获得了满意的结果。

Chang Shan, the subterranean portion of Dichroa febrifuga Lour. (family Hydrangeaceae), and Shu Chi, the leafy tops of the same plant, have been used in Chinese medicine more than two thousand years, but their antimalarial action has been scientifically proved and constituents investigated only in recent years. A brief account of their history, botanical source, plant habit, cultiva-tion and collection and a detailed description of their sensory, macroscopical and microscopical characters are given....

Chang Shan, the subterranean portion of Dichroa febrifuga Lour. (family Hydrangeaceae), and Shu Chi, the leafy tops of the same plant, have been used in Chinese medicine more than two thousand years, but their antimalarial action has been scientifically proved and constituents investigated only in recent years. A brief account of their history, botanical source, plant habit, cultiva-tion and collection and a detailed description of their sensory, macroscopical and microscopical characters are given. The important diagnostic features of Chang Shan are:-vessels with long oblique end-plates having well-marked scalariform perforations and often containing tyloses; septate xylem-fibres; idioblasts containing bundles of acicular crystals embedded in mucilage; thick-walled pericyclic fibres; the deep-seated origin of the cork. A well-marked medullary sheath of thick-walled, lignified and pitted parenchyma occurs in the pith of both the stem and rhizome. The important diagnostic features of Shu Chi are:-thick-walled, warty, unicellular trichomes; paracytic (rubiaceous) stomata; epidermal cells with pitted anticlinal walls and finely striated cuticle; water-pores in the teeth of the leaf; idioblasts with bundles of acicular crystals em-bedded in mucilage; droplets of fixed oil in most of the cells of the leaf; thick-walled pericyclic fibers from the stem as well as deep-seated cork and characteristic vessels as seen in the subterranean organs. The significance of some of the microscopical findings as a further illustration of the connexion between anatomy and taxonomy is also discussed.

1.常山是八仙花科植物黄常山Dichroa.febrifiuga Lour.的地下部分,而蜀漆是本植物的带叶枝梢,两者都有抗疟的效力。2.木文简单地介绍了前人研究常山的情况,然後详细地描述了,常出和蜀漆的性状和组织构造;并指出了某些组织特徵在分类学上的意义。3.常山的重要特徵是:(1)导管,末梢壁长而斜置,有显著的梯纹穿孔,并常含有侵填体;(2)分隔木纤维;(3)含草酸钙针晶束的异细胞,针晶束外有粘液包围;(4)厚壁的中柱梢纤维;(5)内生性的木栓层。根茎和茎的根部周围有显着的根鞘,根鞘由厚壁的木化细胞所成,壁上有单纹孔。 4.蜀漆的重要特征是:(1)厚壁有疣的单细胞毛;(2)平轴式气孔;(3)垂周壁上具有纹孔的表皮细胞;(4)叶绿锯齿上的水孔;(5)含草酸钙针晶束的异细胞,针晶束外有粘液包围;(6)脂肪油珠,存在於大多数叶肉细胞中。此外、并有由茎中来的厚壁的中柱鞘纤维和内生性的木栓层,以及特殊的梯纹导管,其形状和在地下器官部分所见的一样。

 
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