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dose
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     dose irradiation.
     含量比未经辐射的低,表明适宜剂量辐射可以提高幼苗耐热性。
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     the low dose group;
     自卫颗粒低剂量组;
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  dose
Studies in rats revealed dose dependency/ non-linearity in arteether pharmacokinetics with in the dose levels used.
      
In this study, we find that prodigiosin could effectively inhibit the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells H8898 in a dose-and-time-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 75μmol according to the results of MTT and cell proliferation assays.
      
Prodigiosin may effectively enter cells and promote the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROSin) in a dose-dependent manner.
      
Doses ranging from 12.5-50 μM provided a dose-dependent reduction in the number of viable cells when compared to controls.
      
At the 50 μM dose, the number of viable cells was reduced by 65% suggesting potential antineoplastic effects of 9-O-methylfusarubin.
      
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A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard...

A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard preparation and the other 2 groups received the test preparation. The standard deviation of a single determination based on 9 such assays was estimated to be 15.7 per cent. For rhubarb and its preparations, a“6-point”assay is advocated. With suitable restric-tion in the design of the assay, it is possible to calculate the potency by simple methods. Powdered crude drugs are used as laboratory standards in the assay of senna and rhubarb. The doses of cascara bark required to produce distinctive responses are too inconveniently large to be administered in suspension. It was found possible to use a potent extract of cascara in place of the powdered bark as a laboratory standard. Examples of the assay and the subsequent calculations are given. The method described is not only convenient in use but also gives a comparatively high degree of accuracy. The method has been successfully applied to senna leaf, senna fruit, rhubarb, cascara sagrada and extracts and commercial preparations made from these drugs, pure glycosides(sennosides A and B) and pure anthracene compounds(aloe emodin and aloe-emodine anthranol).

(1)本文详述植物性泻药的一种新的生物测定法,此法係用小白鼠在服药后所排出的濕粪数为基础,以定泻药的效价。(2)小白鼠服药後所排出的湿粪数与剂量指数的关係经证明为一直线。(3)本法所用鼠笼係特别设计,并证明在饲料内加入一定量的饮水,具有多种优点。(4)番泻效价的测定,每次用小白鼠4组,每组10只。2组给与标准品,另外2组给与试验品。根据9次试验的结果,试验的标准差是15.7%.(5)大黄效价的测定,以采用“6点”法为宜,即每次试验用小白鼠6组,3组给与标准品,另外3组给与试验品,所得的准确度与上述相仿。波希鼠李皮浸膏的效价测定,则用“4点”法或“6点”法均可。(6)所有试验一律采用粉状生药为实验室的比较标准,但是波希鼠李皮的效价太低,它的粉末不适於作为标准之用,可用波希鼠李皮乾浸膏来代替,作为比较标准。(7)本文对於效价测定及其计算方法都举例说明,并介绍了比较常法为简捷的相关效价计算法。(8)本法不但方便易行,而且有相当高的准确度;曾用在番泻、大黄、波希鼠李皮及其制剂,以及一些纯粹的蒽醌衍生物的效价测定,都获得了满意的结果。

It has been shown in our previous paper that intravenous injection of adrenalin and stimulation of the splanchnic nerve in the dog produced an inhibition of gastric secretion induced by histamine. Baxter, working on cats under experimental conditions comparable to ours, however, reported that intravenous injection of adrenalin either had no marked effect or a slightly augmentative effect on the histamine-induced secretion, and that stimulation of the splanchnic nerve yielded similar results. The question thus...

It has been shown in our previous paper that intravenous injection of adrenalin and stimulation of the splanchnic nerve in the dog produced an inhibition of gastric secretion induced by histamine. Baxter, working on cats under experimental conditions comparable to ours, however, reported that intravenous injection of adrenalin either had no marked effect or a slightly augmentative effect on the histamine-induced secretion, and that stimulation of the splanchnic nerve yielded similar results. The question thus arose as to whether the discrepancy between Baxter's and our reports was due to the use of different experimental animals. Experiments were therefore carried out on cats in our laboratory in an attempt to throw some light on the question. It was observed that, in both acute and chronic experiments, intraveous injection of adrenalin in most cases produced a marked diphasic effect on the secretion induced by histamine. The effect consisted of an initial phase of inhibition followed by one of augmentation, the two phases being usually about equal in size, sometimes the second phase somewhat larger than the first. When a dose of 0.02-0.1mg of adrenalin was administered in a single injection intravenously, the total duration of the diphasic response lasted 10-15min. It would be evident that if rather long intervals, e.g. 10-30min. were chosen for the collection of gastric juice, the diphasic feature of the response would be missed, and one might easily come to the conclusion that in the cat adrenalin either had no marked effect or an augmentative effect on the histamine-induced secretion, as Baxter did. In acute experiments, the stimulation of the splanchnic nerve showed an inhibitory effect on the secretion, disregarding whether the adrenal veins were ligated or not. In contrast with the adrenalin effect, that of splanchnic stimulation was rarely diphasic. We wish to express our deep gratitude to Prof. T. P. Feng for his constant guidance throughout this work.

(一)靜脈注射腎上腺素對組織胺引起的貓胃分泌不論在急性或慢性實驗,通常是双相的,開頭抑制分泌,接着增加分泌,兩相大小相似,有時第二相還稍為大些。在一次注射0.02—0.1毫克腎上腺素之後,整個效應過程歷時約10—15分钟。若用較長的間隔如每10—30分鐘收集一次胃分泌,則此双相效應就會被掩蓋,因而得出腎上腺素對貓胃分泌無明顯效應或有增加分泌的效應的結論,如Baxter等人所得到的一樣。 (二)在急性實驗中,刺激大内臟神經對组織胺引起的貓胃分泌有顯著的抑制效應。与腎上腺素的效應不同,刺激大內臟神經的效應通常是單相的。我們在工作中经常得到馮德培所长的指导。谨致谢意.

Four 14 to 19, year old boys are used as subjects in this study. The first part of this study attempts to investigate the vitamin C status of these subjects when they are consuming the ordinary diet served in the college staff dining room. The vitamin C content of the whole meal is determined by the dye titration method for ten days. During the first 2 days, blood samples are taken from finger tips and the plasma analyed for vitamin C by the Farmer and Abt method. 24-hour urine samples are also collected and...

Four 14 to 19, year old boys are used as subjects in this study. The first part of this study attempts to investigate the vitamin C status of these subjects when they are consuming the ordinary diet served in the college staff dining room. The vitamin C content of the whole meal is determined by the dye titration method for ten days. During the first 2 days, blood samples are taken from finger tips and the plasma analyed for vitamin C by the Farmer and Abt method. 24-hour urine samples are also collected and the vitamin C content determined.After the first 3 days, in addition to the vitamin C in the diet, the subjects are subjected to vitamin C saturation by taking orally 400 mg of vitamin C form orange juice for two days followed by 5 days of 100 mg supplementation of crystalline vitamin C. Plasma vitamin C and 24-hour urinary vitamin C are ag(?) studied. Following this procedure, the subjects are considered ready for experimentation. They are put on an experimental diet similar to their ordinary d(?) but devoid of vitamin C. The vitamin C intake level is controlled. Three lev(?) are tried: 70 mg, 50 mg, and 30 mg daily. Each level is fed for 14 days. The vitamin C of the first seven days is provided by vegetables frequently used (?) Canton and crystalline vitamin C is used during the latter 7 days for comparison. Cantonese cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.), Kan Lan Tsai(Brassica alboclabia, R.) and Chinese celery cabbage(Brassica pekinensis, R.)are used for supplying vitamin C during the 70, 50 and 30 mg levels respectively. Plasma vitamin C and 24-hour urinary excretion are determined for the last 5 days of each period.The vitamin C content of the medical college diet averages 43.7 mg per day for the 10 days analyzed. Plasma vitamin C of the subjects ranges from 0.25 to 0.61 mg percent, averaging 0.37 mg percent. 24-hour urinary excretion varies between 3.3 and 74.8 mg daily.During saturation, plasma vitamin C of one subject increases after the first dose, while its content in the plasma of the other three subjects also shows gradual rise. Urinary excretions show immediate and considerable increases on the first day with each of the subjects.During the 70 mg vitamin C daily intake level, plasma vitamin C average 0.45 mg percent and 0.48 mg percent for Brassica chinensis, L. and for crystalline vitamin C respectively. Daily urinary excretions average 19.4 and 18.4 mg. for the two periods. When the vitamin C intake is reduced to 50 mg daily, an average of 0.40 mg percent of plasma ascorbic acid is found for Brassica alboclabia, L. and 0.32 mg percent for crystalline vitamin C. Urinary excretion decreases to 15.2 and 11.9 mg daily. At the 30 mg daily intake level, plasma vitamin C falls to 0.32 mg percent for Chinese celery cabbage and 0.31 mg percent for crystalline vitamin C. Total urinary vitamin C falls to 9.9 and 9.0 mg.The vitamin C from these 3 vegetables are at least as efficiently utilized as crystalline vitamin C.While it is not quite possible to draw definite conclusions in regard to vitamin C requirement of these subjects from the results of this study, there are suggestions however that a daily intake of about 50 mg of vitamin C may be able to maintain a fairly satisfactory state of vitamin C nutrition.

本研究的目的在于初步探讨广州市一般维生素C的营养水平,测定广州所产的三种蔬菜所含维生素C在人体内的利用率,并观察在每日维生素C进食量为70、50、30毫克时,血浆维生素C与尿液维生素C排量的变化,从而商讨广州地区人民的维生素C需要量问题。

 
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