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aphids
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  蚜虫
    THE POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CITRUS APHIDS IN FUZHOU
    福州地区柑桔蚜虫的种群动态
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    SURVEY FOR THE NATURAL ENEMIES OF SOYBEAN APHIDS IN TONGHUA
    通化县大豆蚜虫天敌调查
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    SELECTIVE TOXICITY OF SIX COMMON INSECTICIDES TO EIGHT SPECIES OF APHIDS
    六种常用杀虫剂对八种蚜虫的选择毒性
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    EFFICENCY ANALYSES OF INTEGRETED BIOCONTROL OVER RAPE APHIDS
    天敌对油菜蚜虫的综合控制作用分析
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    Study on Technique of Immune Electrophoresis of BYDV Carrying Vector Aphids
    介体蚜虫个体带毒(BYDV)免疫电泳测试技术初步研究
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    The biochemical mechanism of wheat resistance to aphids and G protein expression in insect cell lines、purification and activity assays
    小麦抗生化机理和G蛋白在离体昆虫细胞系中表达、纯化及活性测定
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    The Niche Analysis of Wheat Ear Aphids and Their Natural Enemies
    小麦穗及其天敌的空间生态位分析
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    The Population Dynamics of Aphids on Apple in Western Henan Province
    豫西地区苹果种群动态的研究
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    A FUZZY SYNTHETIC DECISION FOR THE RESISTANCE OF RAPE VARIETIES TO RAPE APHIDS
    油菜品种抗性多目标模糊综合决策
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    Determination of the Resistance to Several Insectcides of Shaanxi Cotton Bud Aphids
    陕西棉花苗对几种杀虫剂的抗药性测定
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    A STUDY OF RESISTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTS TO INSECTICIDES——Ⅱ.AN EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE OF COTTON APHIDS TO INSECTICIDES IN JIANGSU PROVINCE
    农业害虫的抗药性研究——Ⅱ.江苏省棉蚜对几种常用杀虫剂的抗性测定和评价
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    The Influence of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Population Growth of Wheat Aphids
    温度和光照对麦蚜种群增长的影响
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    Studies on the Numerical Response of Aphids Population to Natural Enemy
    麦蚜天敌自然种群数值反应研究
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    SUCCESSION OF PREDOMINANT SPECIES OF WHEAT APHIDS IN SICHUAN
    四川小麦蚜虫优势种群演替的研究
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    Monitoring of Resistance of Cotton Aphids to 5 Pesticides in Shanxi
    山西省棉蚜对常用五种农药抗药性普查与监测研究
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  aphids
Investments of the members of a multispecies ant association to the numerical potential of aphids as their common symbionts
      
At the population level, aphids reared on nasturtium have shown higher developmental instability and lower fitness.
      
In the arid environment of the Chu Valley in Kyrghyzstan, this species preys on aphids sitting on sugar-beet roots, thus changing its normal habit of dweller on green parts of plant to partly soil-dwelling.
      
Aphids of the genus Dysaphis B?rner (Homoptera, Aphididae) living on plants of the family polygonaceae
      
Ant species found as syninclusions with aphids in Rovno and Saxonian ambers are listed for the first time.
      
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Experiments concerning the translocation of Systox of different concent-rations for the control of cotton aphids by means of water culture, seed treat-ment, soil application and spraying were conducted both in the greenhouseand field. Data are given which show that toxicants may be taken up byseeds, roots or leaves of cotton. A very good control of cotton aphids resultedin using soil application of 0.25% Systox water emulsion (about 2 catties ofBayer's concentrate per mou) for which the moderate...

Experiments concerning the translocation of Systox of different concent-rations for the control of cotton aphids by means of water culture, seed treat-ment, soil application and spraying were conducted both in the greenhouseand field. Data are given which show that toxicants may be taken up byseeds, roots or leaves of cotton. A very good control of cotton aphids resultedin using soil application of 0.25% Systox water emulsion (about 2 catties ofBayer's concentrate per mou) for which the moderate toxicity is retained atleast for 66 days in greenhouse and 23 days in the field. It is of great signi-ficance in agricultural practice to diminish labor and increase the residualeffect of control measures against the haphazard of aphids year after yearin the cotton belt of North China.

E1059应用于棉花防治棉蚜的试验是分别在温室及田间进行的。无论浸种、水培、灌溉、喷射,它都有内导作用。此即说明棉花的种子、根或叶的组织都可吸收药液。随体液传输全体,使棉蚜产生内毒作用。从药效保持期来看,以药液灌溉最为持久。在温室内0.25%处理可保持66天;在田间(用1:400的稀释液。每亩800斤的用量)可以保持23天,如何使这个初步结果经济有效的应用於生产实践上,还需从多方面作最大的努力。

In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf...

In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf sheath and spike,particularly the bristle,while that onthe "green-stem" varieties was the yellowing of the leaf blade.In all instances,thediscoloration was usually accompanied by shortening of internode,stunting of thewhole plant.wrinkling of leaf surface,slight waviness of leaf margin,deformationof spike and underdevelopment of root systems.Plants infected at an early stagewere severely stunted and on heads were produced. It has been demonstrated that the red-leaf disease of the foxtail millet was causedby a virus readily transmitted by at least three different species of grain-infestingaphids:corn aphid,Rhopalostiphum maidis Fitch;grain aphid,Macrosiphum granari-um Kirby;and green-bug,Toxoptera graminum Rond.Tests with non-viruliferouscorn aphid eliminated the possibility of direct aphid injury as the cause of the disease. ??The virus was not transmissible by mechanical inoculation,by seeds nor through thesoil. Studies on the mode of transmission of red-leaf virus by corn aphid indicatedthat the virus was persistent in its insect vector and could infect in succession aseries of at least 27 tested millet seedlings.The aphid was unable to acquire thevirus in a 5-minute feedling period on the virus source but was able to pick up thevirus in 10-minute period.The 8-hour acquisition feeding period was optimum forthis aphid.The testing feeding period was found to be not more than 5 minutesand a 4-hour period of confinement on the diseased plant was ample for the aphidto cause maximum infection.Attempts to transmit the virus with cotton aphid.Aphisgossypii Gloner peach aphid,Aphis persicae Sehult and soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMats,have given negative results.The incubation period for symptoms of the red-leaf virus in foxtail millet ranged from 10 to 32 days with the model period beingbetween 14 to 20 days. Under natural conditions,certain cultivated cereals and grass weeds showed thesymptoms resembling the red-leaf disease of foxtail millet.Among them,were ZeaMays L.,Panicum miliaceum L.,Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.,S.viridis (L.)Beauv.,Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Roem.,Eragrostiscilianensis (All.) Link,E.pilosa (L.) Beauv.,Arundinella anomala Steud,Spodiopogonsibiricus (Steud.) Trin.,Bothruochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.,Capillipedium parviflor-um (R.Br.) Stapf and Poa practensis L..Artificial inoculation with the corn aphidproved that the first six named plant species,including the two cereals,were susce-ptible to the red-leaf virus and they produced,in all cases,the typical symptoms.Tests with the rest sexen grass weeds are in progress. The results of disease control experiments by timely spraying with an insecticide,E605,under field conditions were inconsistent.Among the 349 foxtail millet varie-ties of foxtail millet examined in the experimental field,nine of them were foundto be highly torelant to and suffered only very slightly from the attack of the red-leaf virus.These varieties were,however,succeptible in aphid transmission experiments. Available evidences point to the conclusion that the red-leaf virus of the foxtail millet herin reported is quite different from all the previously described cereal viruses.Among the cereal virus that closely resembles the red-leaf virus is the yellow-dwarfvirus reported by Oswald tnd Hauston.These two viruses are similar in the follow-ing respects:both are transmissible by the same species of aphids (Rhopalosiphummaidis,Microsiphum graminium andToxoptera granarium) and neither virus can betransferred mechanically.But they differ strikingly from each other in their hostranges.According to Oswald and Hauston,there were 19 of 55 grasses tested thatappeared to be immune from the yellow-dwarf virus.Digitaria sanguinalis,Echino-chloa crus-galli Setaria viridis and Zea Mays were among the immune hosts.On thecontary,all these four gramineous plants were found to be extremely susceptible tothe red-leaf virus both under natural condition and in artificial inoculation experi-ments.Accordingly,the red-leaf,a persistent aphid borne virus affecting the foxtailmillet,is herein reported as a new virus of the cereals.

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油...

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油芒均感染小米紅叶病病毒。其它紅化杂草和接种試驗,正在进行中。紅叶病病毒对小米植株所产生的影响,因植株發育的阶段不同而輕重有所差异,植株感病愈早病害愈剧烈。用杀虫剂E605在田間噴射小米防治紅叶病,未能表現药剂有防病的效能,在田間观察349个品种,选得9个高度耐病和农艺性状优良的品种。抗病选种可能是当前防治小米紅叶病最有效的防治措施。根据病原的傳染方法,寄主范围和所表現的症状,小米紅叶病病毒和以往所报道的禾本科植物的病毒病害的病毒均不相同,因此它是禾谷类作物的一个新的病毒。

The results of exitensive transmission experiments of the Red-leaf virus on millet revealed that it was neither seed nor mechanically transmissible.In addition to Aphis maidis Fitch. Macrosiphum granarium Kirby and Toxoptera graminum Rond, 13 additional aphids, namely Acyrthosiphum pisum Kaltenbach, Aphis glycines Matsumura, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis medicagini Koch, Aphis sacchari Zehntner, Cavariella salicicola Matsumura, Hyalopterus arunidis (Fabricius), Myzus momonis Matsumura, Macrosiphum sp.,...

The results of exitensive transmission experiments of the Red-leaf virus on millet revealed that it was neither seed nor mechanically transmissible.In addition to Aphis maidis Fitch. Macrosiphum granarium Kirby and Toxoptera graminum Rond, 13 additional aphids, namely Acyrthosiphum pisum Kaltenbach, Aphis glycines Matsumura, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis medicagini Koch, Aphis sacchari Zehntner, Cavariella salicicola Matsumura, Hyalopterus arunidis (Fabricius), Myzus momonis Matsumura, Macrosiphum sp., Perphyllus sp. & two un-determinated sp. have been proved to be the vectors of the Milled Red-leaf virus. The efficiency of the disease transmission of several of these aphids was arranged in regressive order as follows Aphis maidis 100%; Aphis sp. (from Prunus trilola Linde) 50%; Hyalopter arunidis (from Prunus persicae) 40%; Aphis medicagini (from Vicia fabae) 40%; Myzus momonis (from Prunus persicae) 30; Aphis sacchari (from Holcus sorghum) 20%; Toxoptera graminum 20% & Macrosiphum granarium 10%. The efficiency of these aphids in transmitting the virus was largely influenced by the kind of plants on which they had fed for aquisiting the virus.Experiment conducted in large screen cages indicated that it was the winged corn aphis which mainly responsible for the destination of the disease. These evidences have been confirmed by fields observations, and the non-winged aphids were rather inactive.

比較大規模的传病試驗的結果証知小米红叶病病毒不借种子传播,很难或者不能用机械式方法传染。除玉米蚜、麦长管蚜和麦二岔蚜以外,在人工传病試驗中,試用豌豆无网长管蚜、大豆蚜、棉蚜、苜蓿蚜、甘蔗蚜、桃大尾蚜、桃蚜、桃拟瘿蚜、Cavariella salicicola Matsumura和四种未定名的蚜虫中有一些蚜虫能传染小米紅叶病病毒,它們的传病力以病株百分率核計为玉米蚜100%;榆叶梅上的一种未定名的蚜虫50%;桃大尾蚜40%;苜蓿蚜40%:桃拟瘿蚜30%;甘蔗蚜20%;麦二岔蚜20%和麦长管蚜10%。蚜虫的食性决定蚜虫的传病效能,一般的情况是发生在小米上的玉米蚜,把红叶病传染給小米的效能比传染給小麦的較高,相反的,发生在小麦上的麦二岔蚜,把病毒传染給小麦的能力比传染給小米的較高。但同时飼育蚜虫的寄主种类也影响蚜虫的传病率。凡是在小米上面吃食的蚜虫传病給小米和小麦,都比在小麦上面吃食的蚜虫,接种植株发病的百分率均較高。籠罩試驗表明小米紅叶病主要的借有翅玉米蚜传播,无翅蚜的传播效能不大。在田間作观察以及根据药剂噴射試驗均証明这个事实。

 
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