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developmental
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  发育
    RADIOBIOLOGY OF FRUIT FLY(DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER)WITH RUBY MICROBEAM LASER IRRADIATION——2.Effects on developmental phases,death-rate,and sex ratio
    红宝石激光微束照射黑腹果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster)的辐射生物学 Ⅱ 对各发育阶段的时间、死亡率及性比的影响
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    Study on the Developmental Zero and the Active Accumulated Temperature of the Phytophagous Ladybird, Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motsch.
    马铃薯瓢虫Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata Motsch发育起点温度及有效积温的研究
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    A STUDY ON DEVELOPMENTAL ZERO AND TOTAL EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE OF Lycoriella pleuroti
    平菇厉眼菌蚊(Lycoriella pleuroti)的发育起点温度和有效积温
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    STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL RATE OF AGASICLES HYGROPHILA (COLEOPTERA : CHRYSOMELIDAE)
    空心莲子草叶甲Agasicles hygrophila(鞘翅目:叶甲科)发育速率的研究
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    The developmental threshold temperature(DTT) and effective accumulated temperature(EAT) of the larvae and whole larval stage and whole generation of Acyrthosiphon pisum were determined under 80% relative humidity and 6 temperature treatments(12 ℃,15 ℃,18 ℃,21 ℃,24 ℃ and 27 ℃).
    将豆无网长管蚜在12、15、18、21、24和27℃及相对湿度80%的条件下进行饲养,结果表明,豆无网长管蚜1~4龄若虫在整个若虫期的发育起点温度和有效积温分别为1龄7.309 1℃,22.974 6日. 度;
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  “developmental”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Studies on Resistance and Developmental Characters of "Zhongmiansuo 29" in Coastal Cotton Area of Jiangsu Province
    中棉所29"在江苏沿海棉区的抗性及生育特性研究
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    The developmental period of larvae and pupaeaveraged 5.3 days and 26.4 days, respectively. The life span of adult averaged
    幼虫期平均 5.3d,蛹期平均 26.4d,成虫寿命平均 200.5d。
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    The developmental duration of B. odoriphaga egg was shortest at 25℃, 3.7 days among the treatments at temperatures of 10℃, 15℃, 20, 25℃ and 30℃, whereas those of larvae and pupae were the shortest at 30°C 10.2d and 2.9d respectively, and grew faster with the increase of temperature.
    初步掌握了韭蛆的几个基本生物学特性。 在10℃,15℃,20℃,25℃和30℃等5个温度条件下,韭蛆的卵期和产卵前期在25℃下最短,分别为3.7d和2.0d;
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    The developmental period also came at the highest at 22.5℃.
    产卵历期在22. 5℃时最长为29.4 d;
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    The results from the ELISA showed that Cry1 Ac protein could be detected in all the organs along the developmental process of cry1Ac/CpTI transgenic rice.
    Cry1Ac杀虫蛋白基因在转Cry1Ac/CpTI双价抗虫水稻(Oryza sativa)各部位中均得到了表达。
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  developmental
When the spider mites were transferred from apple to other fruit trees, negative effects on developmental duration, fecundity and life table parameters were found in the first generation, but the effects faded out in succeeding generations.
      
tabulaeformis populations with tending and shelterwood cutting practices belong to one developmental type and the P.
      
The emergence date of parasitoid asynchronously inosculated with the optimum developmental instars of the earliest host larvae, which was the result of a long-term co-evolution between the two species.
      
At the later stage of the developmental phase, Ca2+ was distributed in the tonoplast and vacuole phagocytosis, and the vacuole became the main calcium storage in this phase.
      
The cortical reaction was divided into four parts that included latent period, developmental period, climactic period and declining period.
      
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The present paper gives a report on the observations of the citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, found in Focchow and Changchow of Fukien Province. The insect has been reported as an important citrus pest in south-eastern Asia, and is heretofore recorded from Kwangtung by Hoffmann (1936) and from Taiwan by Shiraki (1934). The citrus psylla attacks l3 species of plants of the family Rutaceae. Eggs are laid on the leaves of the young growth. The feeding of both the nymphs and adults on foliage of the new...

The present paper gives a report on the observations of the citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, found in Focchow and Changchow of Fukien Province. The insect has been reported as an important citrus pest in south-eastern Asia, and is heretofore recorded from Kwangtung by Hoffmann (1936) and from Taiwan by Shiraki (1934). The citrus psylla attacks l3 species of plants of the family Rutaceae. Eggs are laid on the leaves of the young growth. The feeding of both the nymphs and adults on foliage of the new terminal growth results in the leaves, becoming thick and leathery. The leaves and the young shoots are usually distorted, dwarfed, or in severe cases, even dried. The annual life cycle of the insect in Fukien Province has not been investigated thoroughly. However, preliminary observations made during the year of 1952 show that different developmental tsages of citrus psylla could be found all the year round. There is no marked phenomenon of hibernation. Concentration of a number of adults on the same leaf usually occurs during the winter months. Both nymphs and adults become very abundant in April when dam- ages are most severe. Sixteen days are required for the insect to complete a generation in August. The number of individuals de- creases after September. The nymphs are attacked heavily by three species of chalcid parasites of the family Encyrtidae. Morphological descriptions of the different stages of the insect are also given in this paper.

柑桔木虫分布于亚洲东南的热带和亚热带地区,为害芸香科植物,是柑桔类主要害虫之一。国内除台湾、广东外,其他各地尚无报告。现知福建的福州、漳州也都有,本文系在福州观察的记述。成虫栖息取食常在芽和叶里的叶脉上。产卵于嫩芽,若虫孵化后就在新梢为害。被害叶芽枯干,枝梢萎缩,新叶畸形卷曲。生活史尚待详细研究,但根据一年来的初步观察,一年到头都可以找到各个虫期;自四月以后为害渐见严重,至九、十月则逐渐减少。夏季完成一个世代约需十六天。冬季多以成虫密集叶里,但无休眠迹象。育得跳小蜂科寄生蜂三种,九月至十一月若虫被寄生者甚多。本文对于柑桔木虫各期形态有简略的叙述。

Anatomical studeis of the epidermal structures of the various organs at different developmental stages of different citrus species indicate that the density and maturity of the natural pores are intimately related with the amount of infection by the canker organism, Xanthomonas citri. Leaf and stem infections have been found to be heaviest during the stage of shoot elongation when large number of new stomates and lenticels are in the process of formation. No infection occurs at the top of new shoots where...

Anatomical studeis of the epidermal structures of the various organs at different developmental stages of different citrus species indicate that the density and maturity of the natural pores are intimately related with the amount of infection by the canker organism, Xanthomonas citri. Leaf and stem infections have been found to be heaviest during the stage of shoot elongation when large number of new stomates and lenticels are in the process of formation. No infection occurs at the top of new shoots where the natural pores have not yet been formed. Old shoots with mature pores also cease to be susceptible to infection. Fruits are exposed to infection longer than the shoots. They are most susceptible from the end of May to the middle of June when stomatal development is most active. Few infections take place after 60 days of the fruit growth. Susceptibility is correlated with the density and size of stomates of various organs of different species in the following descending order: Citrus senensis, C. aurantium, C. lirnon and Poncirus trijolia.

利用柑桔不同品种的同样器官或同一品种同一株上不同部位以及不同发育时期的器官,作表皮組織結构的比較观察,証明气孔的形成及发育状态与柑桔潰瘍病的自然侵染(即非伤損侵染)有密切的关系。当柑桔枝梢生长到伸长停止期,枝叶上的表皮气孔的形成量为最大,此时达到最大的侵染,当枝梢停止生长后,枝叶表皮組織不再形成新气孔,原有气孔已漸老熟,此时便进入侵染的末期。徒长性枝梢的生长期較长,延迟了伸长的停止期,頂端不断形成新組織,而下部的組織已形成气孔,因此枝梢下部生长較久的茎叶先得病,而其頂部組織不受侵。果实的生长期甚长。在5月底至6月間果实的增长最快,形成气孔最多,故不断受侵染。当幼果生长60天左右,果实趋于定形,原有气孔已老熟,从此便絕少侵染。在器官上大量气孔形成时期如遇天旱,侵染便因病原菌的限制而減低或避免;如遇多雨时,侵染期可以延长。气孔分布最密的組織或器官最易侵染。品种間的抗病性亦与此有关,例如各器官的表皮气孔密度及气孔中隙的尺度均以甜橙为最高,順次为酸橙、檸檬及枳壳等。不产生气孔的表皮組織例如叶片的上表面不易受侵。伤損及人工接种可以使任何气孔形成时期受侵,說明突破表皮时便失去抗病力。但在自然情况下虫伤及其他損伤极易栓化,...

利用柑桔不同品种的同样器官或同一品种同一株上不同部位以及不同发育时期的器官,作表皮組織結构的比較观察,証明气孔的形成及发育状态与柑桔潰瘍病的自然侵染(即非伤損侵染)有密切的关系。当柑桔枝梢生长到伸长停止期,枝叶上的表皮气孔的形成量为最大,此时达到最大的侵染,当枝梢停止生长后,枝叶表皮組織不再形成新气孔,原有气孔已漸老熟,此时便进入侵染的末期。徒长性枝梢的生长期較长,延迟了伸长的停止期,頂端不断形成新組織,而下部的組織已形成气孔,因此枝梢下部生长較久的茎叶先得病,而其頂部組織不受侵。果实的生长期甚长。在5月底至6月間果实的增长最快,形成气孔最多,故不断受侵染。当幼果生长60天左右,果实趋于定形,原有气孔已老熟,从此便絕少侵染。在器官上大量气孔形成时期如遇天旱,侵染便因病原菌的限制而減低或避免;如遇多雨时,侵染期可以延长。气孔分布最密的組織或器官最易侵染。品种間的抗病性亦与此有关,例如各器官的表皮气孔密度及气孔中隙的尺度均以甜橙为最高,順次为酸橙、檸檬及枳壳等。不产生气孔的表皮組織例如叶片的上表面不易受侵。伤損及人工接种可以使任何气孔形成时期受侵,說明突破表皮时便失去抗病力。但在自然情况下虫伤及其他損伤极易栓化,故影响不大。

Studies on the effect of European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner, on yield were carried out in Peking, 1963. A single cross hybrid was planted in pots in a moth-proof screen cage and manually infested with several levels of egg masses at mid-whorl stage, late whorl stage and early silking stage. Yield reduction was found to be affected by the developmental stages of corn, at which infestations were being made. The reduction it_ yield of corn infested at whorl stages was greater than that of early...

Studies on the effect of European corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner, on yield were carried out in Peking, 1963. A single cross hybrid was planted in pots in a moth-proof screen cage and manually infested with several levels of egg masses at mid-whorl stage, late whorl stage and early silking stage. Yield reduction was found to be affected by the developmental stages of corn, at which infestations were being made. The reduction it_ yield of corn infested at whorl stages was greater than that of early siIking stage. Corn infested at late whorl stage suffered significantly more loss than that of mid-whorl stage. Reduction in yield in all treatments, except those infested at early silking stage, was significant when compared with the check plots. The difference in yield due to variation in time of infestation was much more prominent than that caused by difference in borer population of a particular infestation time. The correlations between borer population and yield in those treatments infested at mid-whorl stage and early silking stage were statistically significant. For every additional borer per plant, a yield reduction of 3.17% was calculated in corn infested at mid-whorl stage, and 1.84% finro that of early silking stage. The authors point out that the current recommendation for borer control with granulated insecticide at late whorl stage not only proves to be effective in reducing the borer population, but also seems to be profitable from the point of view of crop yield.

1963年在北京防蛾网室的条件下,在盆栽春玉米上分期用人工接种螟卵,試驗螟害对产量损失的影响,得出如下的結果: 玉米产量的损失与玉米螟为害当时玉米的生育时期有密切的关系。在螟虫数量相同或接近的情况下,心叶期(心叶中期、心叶末期)被害较穗期(灌浆期)影响产量显著为大;心叶末期孵化的螟虫,其为害所造成的損失又显著较心叶中期为大。心叶期被害的处理,产量較对照区显著減低,但穗期被害的处理,每株平均虫数为3.5—15.1时,产量仍与对照差异不显著。同一接种时期,处理間平均虫数的差异大部分是显著的,但产量間的差异則不显著。玉米受害时期对产量的影响远較同一时期不同虫量的影响为明显。虫数与心叶中期和穗期接种的两个处理的产量有显著的負相关,相关系数分別为-0.89和-0.88;虽然产量随着虫数的增加而递減的趋势是明显的,但每株虫数在1—12头的范围內,产量间差异不一定显著。虫数与心叶末期接种的处理的产量,相关不显著,这可能是由于供試株数太少的原因。应用迴归方程式計算时,每增加一虫产量的損失,心叶中期为3.17%,穗期为1.84%。接种后被害玉米发育受到影响,心叶期遭受螟害植株高度減低17%。作者等指出心叶末期孵化为害的螟虫影响...

1963年在北京防蛾网室的条件下,在盆栽春玉米上分期用人工接种螟卵,試驗螟害对产量损失的影响,得出如下的結果: 玉米产量的损失与玉米螟为害当时玉米的生育时期有密切的关系。在螟虫数量相同或接近的情况下,心叶期(心叶中期、心叶末期)被害较穗期(灌浆期)影响产量显著为大;心叶末期孵化的螟虫,其为害所造成的損失又显著较心叶中期为大。心叶期被害的处理,产量較对照区显著減低,但穗期被害的处理,每株平均虫数为3.5—15.1时,产量仍与对照差异不显著。同一接种时期,处理間平均虫数的差异大部分是显著的,但产量間的差异則不显著。玉米受害时期对产量的影响远較同一时期不同虫量的影响为明显。虫数与心叶中期和穗期接种的两个处理的产量有显著的負相关,相关系数分別为-0.89和-0.88;虽然产量随着虫数的增加而递減的趋势是明显的,但每株虫数在1—12头的范围內,产量间差异不一定显著。虫数与心叶末期接种的处理的产量,相关不显著,这可能是由于供試株数太少的原因。应用迴归方程式計算时,每增加一虫产量的損失,心叶中期为3.17%,穗期为1.84%。接种后被害玉米发育受到影响,心叶期遭受螟害植株高度減低17%。作者等指出心叶末期孵化为害的螟虫影响玉米产量特别严重的原因,可能是由于玉米抽雄时,这批幼虫尚未成熟,大量轉移蛀入茎稈或为害正在成长中的雌穗,妨碍营养物的輸送和雌穗的正常受粉所致。本文試驗所得的結果,初步指出当前用颗粒剂防治玉米螟,提倡在心叶末期施药的措施,不仅从減少虫数上看是适当的,从保証产量的角度来看也是有利的。

 
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