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canopy structure
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  canopy structure
The results show that small-diameter Korean pines' origination and growth have close relations to the overstory canopy structure dynamics and play an important role in the maintenance and development of Korean pine forest.
      
Canopy structure would influence DTS and DCR across canopy-atmosphere interface remarkably.
      
deltoides, was used to evaluate the genetic basis of canopy structure and function in a clonally replicated plantation.
      
Canopy structure, shoot design, and photosynthetic light recruitment were used to compare four coexisting dwarf shrub species with respect to light utilization.
      
Canopy structure and physiology of paper birch are examined in the field during two growing seasons.
      
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This paper presents new ideas and recent progress in our joint effort to model the interaction mechanism of radiant flux with discontinuous canopies. At the scale of a small volume in which leaves can be regraded as homogeneously distributed, some recently develop-ped RT (Radiative Transfer) theories are the btst to model the phenomenon by using descriptors such as leaf scattering characteristics, leaf size, volume density of leaf area, etc. However, at the scale of a stand or TM pixel, GO (Geometric Optical)...

This paper presents new ideas and recent progress in our joint effort to model the interaction mechanism of radiant flux with discontinuous canopies. At the scale of a small volume in which leaves can be regraded as homogeneously distributed, some recently develop-ped RT (Radiative Transfer) theories are the btst to model the phenomenon by using descriptors such as leaf scattering characteristics, leaf size, volume density of leaf area, etc. However, at the scale of a stand or TM pixel, GO (Geometric Optical) models catch the basic features of such stands under sunlight, i.e., foliage are clustered into crowns and crowns cast shadows. Hence in present practi ce, simple pure GO models are the only models which can be applied for natural discontinuous canopies.However, pure GO models require signatures of sunlit and shaded crown surface and background as known parameters under given situation or to be determined in situ. This has been proven a major restricting factor in applications and model inversion. And it is also a drawback that these signatures have not been related to leaf descriptors, wavelength, and sky conditions.In this paper, we proposed an integrated GO-RT approach to model the radiation climate in a discontinuous canopy. A key link in this approcah is gap probability (Pgap) model which we developped earlier. Gap probability, on one hand, can be obtained through pure GO model which reflects the structure at the stand scale. On the other hand, gap probability within crown is closely related to the pro cess that radiation collides and is scattered by foliage at the scale of RT models. Hence it becomes a natural link between two kinds of models best at the corresponding scales.In Li and Straheler (1988), Pgap was modeled at the ground only. In this paper, the way to model Pgap at any height within canopies is developed. Vertical distributions of sunlit crown surface and within-crown pathlength distributions for different canopy structures are demonstrated. Since the penetration depth of direct sunlight into canopies play an important role in many fields other than remote sensing, we present here the results at this early stage of our modeling work to share with our colleagues in China for comments and possible validations. The way to model multiple scattering is also suggested in this paper. The concept of "Qpenness(Kopen) distribution" is introduced, and the (Kopen) at ground has been applied to shrub sites in HAPEX-Ⅱ-Sahel experiment and got good results. (Franklin et al. submitted to Agricultural and Forest Meteor., Feb., 1993). The approach is still under development, though the initial results are encouraging.

本文论述作者对不连续植被冠层与辐射间相互作用机理研究的最新进展,提出了建立不连续植被二向性反射分布函数的几何光学与辐射传输一体化综合模型的设想和基本理论。该综合模型的建立以Li-Strahler间隙概率模型为基础,在大尺度上用纯几何光学模型反映植被的结构特征,在适于辐射传输模型的尺度上则以冠层内的间隙概率处理叶丛的截获辐射与散射。本文详细说明了冠层内任意高度的间隙率模型,也介绍了多次散射的建模方法。

Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter for describing vegetation canopy structure in the terrestrial ecosystem. LAI can be obtained using spectral information such as simulated relation of VI( vegetation index) , however, many VIs are affected by soil. For row crop, it is difficult to remove the effect of soil, and the error is large using the method of VI. Multiangular remote sensing is capable of providing more three-dimensional information of vegetation, and it is powerful in obtaining the...

Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter for describing vegetation canopy structure in the terrestrial ecosystem. LAI can be obtained using spectral information such as simulated relation of VI( vegetation index) , however, many VIs are affected by soil. For row crop, it is difficult to remove the effect of soil, and the error is large using the method of VI. Multiangular remote sensing is capable of providing more three-dimensional information of vegetation, and it is powerful in obtaining the parameter of the plants. However, currently, the retrieval of multiangular remote sensing seldom considers the use of spectral information. We use MSAVI2 as an index to get the a priori knowledge of LAI. As a result, the a priori knowledge is more objective. From the comparison of using or not using this MSAVI predicted a priori knowledge, we found that this approach is effective.

叶面积指数是陆地生态系统的一个十分重要的结构参数。用遥感数据求取叶面积指数可以利用光谱的信息,比如通过植被指数来拟合一个经验关系,但很多植被指数明显受土壤背景的影响,对于有明显行结构的农作物,土壤的影响很难消除,植被指数的方法误差较大。多角度遥感包含了大量的地面目标的立体结构信息,具备求解植被特征参数的潜力,但通常多角度遥感反演对光谱信息的利用不足。与以往的反演方法相区别,该文利用行播作物二向反射模型,将多角度与多光谱数据结合进行行播作物LAI反演实验,并对反演算法进行了详细的敏感性分析实验,结果表明采用多角度、多光谱遥感数据相结合的方法可以有效反演行播作物的叶面积指数。

Leaf area index(LAI)is a crucial parameter of vegetation canopy structure and controls a number of biophysical processes of vegetation. In this paper, a mixed model which combines the statistics model with the optical model is presented to estimate LAI from Landsat-5 TM image data. Firstly, the model calculates and outputs a lookup table (LUT) by useing of FCR model. and then, LAI mapping is conducted based on the empirical relations resulting from the LUT. The results indicate that, being simple and easy...

Leaf area index(LAI)is a crucial parameter of vegetation canopy structure and controls a number of biophysical processes of vegetation. In this paper, a mixed model which combines the statistics model with the optical model is presented to estimate LAI from Landsat-5 TM image data. Firstly, the model calculates and outputs a lookup table (LUT) by useing of FCR model. and then, LAI mapping is conducted based on the empirical relations resulting from the LUT. The results indicate that, being simple and easy to operate, the method can be used to estimate accurately the LAI of reed marsh.

叶面积指数(LAI)是植被冠层结构的一个重要参数,它的改变标志着植被发生了生物物理变化。本文提出了一种利用混和模型从TM图像上获取叶面积指数的方法。首先,利用冠层反射率(FCR)模型计算并得到查找表;然后,利用从查找表得到的统计关系进行LAI制图。试验表明,该方法简单易行,并可较精确地用来反演芦苇地的叶面积指数。

 
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