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canopy structure
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  canopy structure
The results show that small-diameter Korean pines' origination and growth have close relations to the overstory canopy structure dynamics and play an important role in the maintenance and development of Korean pine forest.
      
Canopy structure would influence DTS and DCR across canopy-atmosphere interface remarkably.
      
deltoides, was used to evaluate the genetic basis of canopy structure and function in a clonally replicated plantation.
      
Canopy structure, shoot design, and photosynthetic light recruitment were used to compare four coexisting dwarf shrub species with respect to light utilization.
      
Canopy structure and physiology of paper birch are examined in the field during two growing seasons.
      
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The experiment was carried out with two grape varieties,‘Kyoho’(Vitis vinifera ×V. labrusca)and ‘Early Agatc’(V. vinifera),and with five di- fferent canopy structures through which a series of different canopy PAR intercention and distribution types were establishe, in vineyards of Beijing area(North China)during 1988-1992.The results showed that there existed significant or very significant positive linear correlations between canopy PAR interception and net photosynthetic rate,between canopy...

The experiment was carried out with two grape varieties,‘Kyoho’(Vitis vinifera ×V. labrusca)and ‘Early Agatc’(V. vinifera),and with five di- fferent canopy structures through which a series of different canopy PAR intercention and distribution types were establishe, in vineyards of Beijing area(North China)during 1988-1992.The results showed that there existed significant or very significant positive linear correlations between canopy PAR interception and net photosynthetic rate,between canopy PAR interception rate(PFRL) [and single leaf(PFRI)] and the percentages of total fruit dry weight in aerial biomass dry weight, between PFRL(and PFRI)and the contents of total berry sugar in fruit, and between PFRL(and PFRI)and the millesmal values of total anthocyanin production in the sink to total fruit dry weight.It suggested that varying canopy PAR interception and distribu- tion through management of canopy structure of vineyards could regulate efficiently photosynthate “sink-source”relation of vines and metabolic dire- ction in grape berry.The canopy having a high PAR interception and a good PAR distribution in the canopy could not only supply grapevine with afull photoassimilate “source”to satisfy the needs for grape yield and quality,but also permit a higher partitioning coefficient of photoassimilate to fruitsby regulating the “sink” relations between organs,and be favourable for thebiochemical comosition of berry quality in metablism of fruit.

田间自然条件下在葡萄园群体水平上多年的研究证明:叶幕PAR光能截留率与葡萄群体净光合速率、叶幕和单叶PAR光能截留率与果实干物质总量占地上部生物量干重的百分比、与果实总糖产量占果实本身干物质总量的百分比、以及与果皮色素产量占果实本身干物质总量的千分比之间呈现显著或极显著的线性正相关关系。说明利用叶幕结构变异调节叶幕PAR光能截留和分配,可以对光合同化物源库关系和果实中物质代谢方向进行有效的调控。PAR光能截留率较高和分配合理的叶幕,不但通过较高的群体光合速率为产量和品质形成提供了丰富的同化物“源”,而且通过调节器官间“库”关系使同化物以较高的比例流向果实,同时使果实中物质代谢过程有利于合成构成品质的要素

It is almost impossible to measure the canopy structure of orchard bes using routine direct measurement. At present, canopy structure is primarily measured by indirect method. In this paper, canopy structure was measured by the gap fraction inversion method. Three apple orchards (with M9, MMl06 and Hashabi rootstocks) with different canopy structure were chosen for the study.The results showed that leaf area index (LAI) was not significantly different for each rootstock even though measured...

It is almost impossible to measure the canopy structure of orchard bes using routine direct measurement. At present, canopy structure is primarily measured by indirect method. In this paper, canopy structure was measured by the gap fraction inversion method. Three apple orchards (with M9, MMl06 and Hashabi rootstocks) with different canopy structure were chosen for the study.The results showed that leaf area index (LAI) was not significantly different for each rootstock even though measured leaf area (LA) per tree differed greatly. Results also showed a difference of less than I LAI between the destructive measurements and the gap fraction inversion technique which is reasonable. In addition no significant differences in LAI between the two orchards (M9, MM106) were found in either measurement method indicating good relative accuracy of the gap fraction inversion method.

常规直接测定果树冠层结构几乎是不可能的,目前主要用间接测定的方法。利用林窗部 分转换技术(GFTT)测定三种不同砧木(M9,MM106,Hashabi)金冠苹果园的冠层结构,结果表明,不同 砧木苹果树叶面积相差很大,但叶面积指数差异不大。用林窗部分转换技术测定的叶面积与用叶 面积积仪测定的结果差异少于1个叶面积指数,说明这一技术是可行的。此外,两个苹果园(M9, MM106砧木)用上述两种方法测出的叶面积指数均无差异,又说明林窗部分转换技术测定的叶面 积指数具有相对的准确性。

Crop water use (sap flow) was measured with heat pulse techniqu e.Three apple orchards (M9,MM106 and Hashabi,rootstock is M9,MM106 and Hashabi,respectively) with different canopy structure were chosen for the study.The results showed that water use of the M9 orchard is much less than that of MM106 and Hashabi orchards,and measured water use is not well correlated with orchards water application according to the Class A Pan for the three orchards.The dwarfing rootstock,M9 orchard,having the lowest canopy...

Crop water use (sap flow) was measured with heat pulse techniqu e.Three apple orchards (M9,MM106 and Hashabi,rootstock is M9,MM106 and Hashabi,respectively) with different canopy structure were chosen for the study.The results showed that water use of the M9 orchard is much less than that of MM106 and Hashabi orchards,and measured water use is not well correlated with orchards water application according to the Class A Pan for the three orchards.The dwarfing rootstock,M9 orchard,having the lowest canopy conductance,was found to have lower sunlit leaf conductance in the porometer measurements,so it is in a condition of water stress.However,M9 orchard received enough irrigation,therefore,any water stress in M9 orchard was probably not caused by insufficient irrigation,but by high resistance to water transport in the stem or root.

应用热脉冲技术测定了 3种不同砧木 (分别是 M9,MM1 0 6,Hashabi砧木 ) ,其冠层结构不同的果园 (分别是 M9,MM1 0 6,Hashabi果园 )苹果树的水分利用量 (汁液流量 )。结果表明 ,M9果园的水分利用比 MM1 0 6和 Hashabi果园低 ,并且 3种不同砧木苹果园测定的水分利用量与根据 A皿的灌溉量相关性差。矮化砧木 M9果园的冠层传导度最低 ,这与用气孔计测定照光叶的传导度低相符 ,因此它可能受到水分胁迫的影响。由于 M9果园是足量灌溉的 ,因此 ,M9果园苹果树任何水分胁迫可能不是灌溉不够 ,而是水分在茎或根内运输时阻力较高之故。

 
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