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canopy structure
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  canopy structure
The results show that small-diameter Korean pines' origination and growth have close relations to the overstory canopy structure dynamics and play an important role in the maintenance and development of Korean pine forest.
      
Canopy structure would influence DTS and DCR across canopy-atmosphere interface remarkably.
      
deltoides, was used to evaluate the genetic basis of canopy structure and function in a clonally replicated plantation.
      
Canopy structure, shoot design, and photosynthetic light recruitment were used to compare four coexisting dwarf shrub species with respect to light utilization.
      
Canopy structure and physiology of paper birch are examined in the field during two growing seasons.
      
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The relation of the canopy structures of five-years old Chinese firs (Cunn-inghamia lanceolata) to their biomass has beend iscussed in the paper. Some results obtained are as follows. 1. In the same stand there is no obvious difference in the proportion ofthe different parts between trees. Trunk has the highest propertier--36%,needles--32%, branches--17% and underground part has the lowest proportion--15% on the basis of dry weight.2. The needle dry weight density cf canopy of five-years old Chinese...

The relation of the canopy structures of five-years old Chinese firs (Cunn-inghamia lanceolata) to their biomass has beend iscussed in the paper. Some results obtained are as follows. 1. In the same stand there is no obvious difference in the proportion ofthe different parts between trees. Trunk has the highest propertier--36%,needles--32%, branches--17% and underground part has the lowest proportion--15% on the basis of dry weight.2. The needle dry weight density cf canopy of five-years old Chinese firs varies between 0.18 and 0.44 Kg m-3, and the average is 0.30 Kg m-3. The needle area density of canopy varies among trees between 0.97 and 2.40 m2m-3 and the average is 1.59 m2m-3. These weights are higher than those observed in the broad-leaf forest which are reported between 0.2 and 0.4 m2m-3.3. There are about 160 thousand needles on a five-years old Chinese Fir tree. They are mainly on the second-order and first-order branches. Among them, two-years old and more older needles are less than 10 per cent; one-year old and new needles are 48 and 43 percent respectively.4. The rate of dry matter production of Chinese firs in site of Class Ⅱ -Ⅲ in the four years after planted in North Fujian, China is 345 gm-2year-1 and the utilization efficiency of solar energy is 0.17 per cent on the average.5. In the stand cf five-years old Chinese firs, there are differences in branching habit, needle quantity, growth rate and so on, among trees with different canopy forms. There are obvious differences in branching habit, dry weight and wood volume between trees with dense canopy and those with sparse one.6. According to the canopy structural characters of young Chinese firs, some recommendations for forestry management are suggested as follows.a. The light condition in the middle and lower parts of young forest canopy should be improved.b. The planting density of Chinese firs in site of Class Ⅱ-Ⅲ should be between 2 ×2 m and 2 × 3m.c. Some crops can be intercropped in the young forest stand.d. Chinese firs with dense canopy are more productive and better as breeding material than those with sparse one.e. Trees with dense canopy should be reserved in thinning.

本文探讨了5年生杉木树冠的结构特点及其与植株生物量的关系。不问冠型如何,同一林分幼杉各器官干重的比重都比较稳定;树冠针叶干得密度为0.18—0.44千克/米~3,针叶面积(仅计一面)密度为0.97—2.40米~2/米~3,比Kira等(1969)报道的阔叶树的叶面积密度大4—5倍;针叶主要着生在二级和一级侧枝上,集中分布在树冠中下部。闽北地区Ⅱ一Ⅲ地位级杉木造林后4年内干物质生产速率平均为345克/米~2/年,对辐射能的利用率为0.17%。浓密型杉木的生长要显著快于稀疏型杉木。 根据幼杉冠层结构的特点,提出:(1)应加强幼林抚育,改善中下部林冠的光照条件,以发挥比重最大的中下部冠层针叶的光合潜力;(2)为使幼杉树冠发育良好,闽北地区Ⅱ—Ⅲ地位级杉木的栽植密度应在2×2米至2×3米之间;(3)为提高杉木幼林期林地的光能利用率,可在幼林内间作农作物;(4)抚育采伐时应尽量保留浓密型杉木而去除稀疏型杉木;(5)可以考虑把浓密型杉木单独造林;(6)可以指望把浓密型杉木作为优良的育种原始材料。

The spatial distribution of throughfall in Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in northern China demonstrated that: the amount of through-fall under a single tree increases as the distance from the increases. The maximum amount of throughfall is not always at the canopy gaps, this is because of the translocation effect of the canopy to precipitation. The amount of throughfall at a given point is positively proportional to the area that actually receives rain. Throughfall varies greatly in space, and the range is...

The spatial distribution of throughfall in Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in northern China demonstrated that: the amount of through-fall under a single tree increases as the distance from the increases. The maximum amount of throughfall is not always at the canopy gaps, this is because of the translocation effect of the canopy to precipitation. The amount of throughfall at a given point is positively proportional to the area that actually receives rain. Throughfall varies greatly in space, and the range is from 63.8% to 125.3% of the precipitation. Spectral analysis methods were used for the analysis of the throughfall distribution series, and the results are. the spatial distribution pattern of throughfall is mainly determined by the spatial distribution pattern of the canopy structure, periodicity has been found in the series, and it is cau- used by the periodicity of the canopy structure, but it has no evident relation to the periodicity of the trees spatial pattern.

华北油松人工林林下降雨(throughfall)的空间分布表明:单株树下的林下降雨量随着离树干距离的增加而增加;林下降雨的最大点并非总是在林冠的空隙处,这是因为林冠对降雨有空间位移作用;某点的林下降雨大小与该点的实际受雨面积成正比;林下降雨存在很大的空间变异,变动范围为降雨量的63.8~125.3%。对林下降雨分布的实测数据进行谱分析后得出结论:林下降雨的空间分布形式主要由林冠结构的空间分布形式决定,随着降雨量的增加,这一点表现得越来越明显;林下降雨的空间分布具有周期性,这种周期性是由林冠结构特征的周期性决定的,它与林木空间格局的周期性之间无明显关系存在。

From the mechanism of the stemflow formation, the conception of branch characteristic function is established, and a deep investigation of the relation of stemflow to canopy structure was conducted. The results indicated that the amount of stemflow increases with the increase of the branch characteristic function value. Therfore the branch characteristic function value should be used as the basis for choosing a tree for stemflow investigation.

从干流形成的机制出发,提出树枝特征函数概念,进而对油松树冠结构与干流的关系进行了研究。结果表明:干流量随着树枝特征函数值的增加而增加;应该把树枝特征函数值的大小作为选择干流观测树的依据。

 
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