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major factor     
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  主要因素
     The results showed that when n(DiC6) : n(AC) = 1 : 1. 04, the reaction time was the major factor on yield, which could up to 98. 83 % when temperature was maintained at 5℃ and the mixtures was agitated vigorously for 4 h.
     结果表明,当n(DiC6):n(AC)=1:1.04时,反应时间是影响产率的主要因素。 在5℃强烈搅拌反应4 h,产率可达98.83%。
短句来源
     Conclusion The results suggested that the ischemia was the major factor which influenced the QT and QTc.
     结论心肌缺血是影响QT和QTc的主要因素
短句来源
     The results show that during the early period of blowing, basicity (CaO/SiO_2) is the major factor influencing the erosion of the lining;
     结果表明,吹炼初期,炉渣的碱度(CaO/SiO_2)是影响炉衬侵蚀速度的主要因素;
短句来源
     This is the major factor leading to marketing risk.
     这是导致企业市场风险乃至营销风险的主要因素
短句来源
     The results show that the content of Na_2CO_3 is the major factor that affects the solubility of Fe_2O_3.As temperature increases,the solubility of Fe_2O_3 increases,but the extent of temperature effect is relatively small.
     结果表明,wNa2CO3是影响溶解度的主要因素,wNa2CO3的增加与温度的提高有利于Fe2O3的溶解。 随着温度的升高,Fe2O3的溶解度增大,但温度影响显著性相对较小。
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  重要因素
     Conclusions:XbaI RFLP of ER gene is major factor to affect bone metabolism and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women, X genotype can help preserving bone mass of femur, xx genotype related with lower apoA1and A1/B, Lp (a) also affected BMD of femur.
     结论 :ER基因XbaI RFLP是影响绝经后妇女骨和脂代谢的重要因素 ; X基因型可维持股骨骨量 ,xx基因型与低apoA1含量和A1/B比值相关 ,Lp(a)也影响股骨骨密度
短句来源
     Conclusion High incidence of hospital infection occurred in patients with severe hepatitis is a major factor leading to death.
     结论重型肝炎患者的医院感染发生率很高,是导致死亡的重要因素,有效地控制医院感染是提高存活率的重要手段。
短句来源
     Conclusions XbaI-RFLP of ER gene was major factor to affect bone metabolism and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women.
     结论ER基因XbaI-RFLP是影响绝经后妇女骨和脂代谢的重要因素;
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     The results show that the oxidation of the substrate surface is the major factor affecting the mobility of the epitaxial layer.
     结果表明 ,衬底表面氧化是影响外延层迁移率的重要因素
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     Conclusion The imbalance between intimal cell proliferation and apoptosis was a major factor in the development of the restenosis lesion.
     结论 内膜细胞增殖与凋亡的失衡是决定再狭窄的重要因素
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  主导因子
     Panaeolus paludosus is a coprophilous fungi, which emerges and develops in relatively steady environment where average temperature, humidity and soil water content were 26~32℃, 50~80% and 30% respectively. Among the environmental factors, temperature is major factor.
     沼生花褶伞是一种群生的草腐生菌,在相对稳定的生态条件下,子实体发生适宜温度26~32℃,相对湿度50~80%,降雨量30%以上,温度是主导因子
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     Although water was the major factor which influenced their differentiation, the mutation and differentiation of the grass was the result caused by various factors: temperature, altitude, latitude, longitude and soil type etc. together. These factors influenced each an other and the limiting factors in different natural habitats were alternative.
     虽然水因子是影响其分化的一个主导因子,但是在实际研究工作中认识到:羊草的变异和分化是多种生态因子综合起作用的结果(如温度、海拔、经纬度、土壤类型等),而且各因子之间又是相互影响,在不同的生境中限制因子又是变换的,这就造成不同地理种群的羊草遗传分化过程的复杂性,值得长期深入研究。
短句来源
     Base on field investigation, sampling and analysis, the major factor system to evaluate the suitability of regional green vegetable field was selected and established by the models of pricipal component and correlation analysis, and the quantity, quality and distribution of regional cropland suited for green vegetable production were evaluated by GIS integrated with dynamic cluster analysis model.
     在实地调查采样和测试分析基础上,利用主成分和相关分析模型筛选建立区域绿色蔬菜地适宜性评价主导因子体系,借助GIS和动态聚类分析模型评价区域耕地对绿色蔬菜生产的适宜数量、质量及其分布。
     ③Human interference is a major factor of the formation of rocky desertification under the humid climate conditions in the subtropical zone.
     3亚热带湿润气候带岩溶石漠的形成人文干扰是主导因子
短句来源
     It was concluded that the response to photoperiod was the major factor of the responses to photo temperature condition.
     通过研究我国大豆不同熟期组类型及不同品种的光温综合反应与短光照反应间关系 ,明确大豆对光温综合条件反应中对光照的反应是主导因子
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  主要因子
     the major factor of increasing wheat seed quality is air temperature.
     提高小麦质量的主要因子为空气温度。
短句来源
     Vegetation coverage (VC) is the most important index to measure the vegetation status of the earth's surface and the major factor to affect the soil erosion.
     植被覆盖度(Vegetation Coverage,简称VC)是衡量地表植被状况的一个最重要的指标,同时,它又是影响土壤侵蚀的主要因子
短句来源
     The results are as follows: N fertilizer was the major factor on the number of leaf,fibrous root,and the fresh weight of root and leaf,K fertilizer and P fertilizer then followed.
     结果表明:影响知母叶片数、须根数、根茎鲜重和叶片鲜重的主要因子是N肥,其次是K肥和P肥;
短句来源
     The results indi-cated that x_1 was the major factor to cause wheat yield damage and x_2was the second.
     结果表明,野燕麦密度是影响产量的主要因子,遏兰菜密度是次要因子。
短句来源
     Experiment on soil erosion at bamboo stand with stimulated raining showed that slope was the major factor of soil erosion, especially when slope was over 30. Coverage on soil could effectively decrease soil content on surface runoff.
     采用人工模拟降雨装置,对毛竹林地土壤流失进行了试验,结果表明:林地坡度是影响林地土壤流失的主要因子,坡度在30以上时,极易造成林地土壤冲刷; 地表覆盖能有效地降低地表径流中的泥沙含量;
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  major factor
The structure of the compounds was a major factor determining the degree of sorption.
      
Endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis are proved to be a major factor preventing the emergence of clinically manifested stages of human cancer.
      
It was concluded that the molecular mobility is the major factor determining the electron transport properties of the systems of interest.
      
As a rule, complexonates are much more effective them the corresponding acids; if the complexing agent is fixed, then the stability constants (Ks) of the complexes become the major factor.
      
The French-Russian cooperation in radiochemistry actively develops today and is a major factor in the progress of this science and nuclear industry in these two countries.
      
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The author's previous work indicated that the activity of granular fused iron catalysts decreased seriously with time due to the gradual plugging up of the pore volume of catalysts by the high boiling point products. In this paper, the activity data were treated with Wheeler's internal diffusion law mathematically. And the results suggest that the rate is a chemical controlling one in the initial period of the synthesis, and the coefficient of the catalysts surface is of 0.98 (with space velocity 1000 hr~(-1),...

The author's previous work indicated that the activity of granular fused iron catalysts decreased seriously with time due to the gradual plugging up of the pore volume of catalysts by the high boiling point products. In this paper, the activity data were treated with Wheeler's internal diffusion law mathematically. And the results suggest that the rate is a chemical controlling one in the initial period of the synthesis, and the coefficient of the catalysts surface is of 0.98 (with space velocity 1000 hr~(-1), CO conversion 90% or so). When the catalysts pore volume are plugged up by the high boiling point products (whether the pore to be micro or macro), the rate becomes an internal diffusion controlling one, and the effectiveness of the catalytic surface changed into 0.082. The calculated coefficient of diffusion is of 2.4 10~(-5) cm~2/sec, which is in agreement with the magnitude of liquid-phase diffusion. Under the diffusional controlling conditions, the activity level of catalysts depends upon Deff, ks and Sg, by the rate law k∝2~(1/Deff·ks·Sg.) Where change of effective diffusivity. Deff, under the liquid phase conditions is not essential. But both the specific reaction rate, ks, and the effective surface, Sg are the major factors to the catalytic activity improvements. Therefore the precipited iron catalysts, owing to its high specific surface area and high specific activity, may be the promising one of the granular catalysts suitable for the high space velocity synthesis.

已往的工作指出,顆粒熔鉄催化剂在合成过程中活性有随时間下降的現象,认为主要是由于腊液堵塞孔隙的关系,应用成型方法构成大孔,能够有利于腊液的流出,延緩了活性下降的时間,但当腊液堵滿孔隙时,活性下降的水平仍与未成型的顆粒催化剂相近。本文根据活性方面的数据,进行了宏观动力学的分析,由动力学計算再次指明:当腊液未堵塞孔隙吋,合成反应是化学反应控制,此时表面有效利用系数达0.98(空速1000,CO轉化90%以上)。而当腊液堵塞孔隙后,轉为液相扩散控制,对362-1大顆粒催化剂言,此时表面有效利用系数为0.082,并求得气体通过液柱的扩散系数为2.4×10~(-5)厘米~2/秒。在扩散控制的情况下,由动力学分析指明,能影响活性水平的主要是Deff、Ks、Sg。有效扩散系数Deff在液相扩散情况下的改变是不大的,增大孔径并不能提高扩散控制时的活性水平。因此,孔径的增大在合成烃情况下仅起延緩腊液的积聚作用,而不能提高終活性的水平。由动力学分析指出,沉淀剂由于有大的表面积(較熔鉄剂大数倍以至数十倍),因此,可能适用于高速固定床操作而不須进行再生。实驗也驗証了这个看法。

The tobacco aphid or peach aphid is a major insect pest of tobacco in Shuichang,Honan.This work was carried out during 1953-1958.The first part of this paper considers in detailthe annual cycle,which comprises 3 generations on the peach tree,15-17 generations on tobaccoand 4-6 generations on cabbage.The winged migrants,migranting from cabbage to peachtree,are the sexsuaparae which produce the oviparous females only.The males are born fromthose produced on cabbages.The second part deals with the host plants...

The tobacco aphid or peach aphid is a major insect pest of tobacco in Shuichang,Honan.This work was carried out during 1953-1958.The first part of this paper considers in detailthe annual cycle,which comprises 3 generations on the peach tree,15-17 generations on tobaccoand 4-6 generations on cabbage.The winged migrants,migranting from cabbage to peachtree,are the sexsuaparae which produce the oviparous females only.The males are born fromthose produced on cabbages.The second part deals with the host plants and the annualmigrations of the aphid among such hosts.The stem mother could survive only on the peachtree,although overwintering eggs were also found on many other fruit trees.The aphid passesthe winter(as both adult and nymphs)on several species of winter cabbages and weeds butthose from-cabbages possess,no more vitality on tobacco,when migration takes place.The fluctuations in population are dealt with in the third part.A considerable amountof quantitative data are handled to analyse the relations to various major factors.The favour-able range of temperature is 7-29℃,and temperatures below 6℃ or above 30℃ are severeto multiplication.The combined action of both temperature and humidity is even more im-portant.It was found that the 5-day average of temperature above 26℃ and of relativehumidity over 80%,or temperature above 30℃ or below 6℃ and relative humidity below40% decisively depressed the aphid population.The appearance of winged forms on peachtree is another factor favoring the population of the aphid in tobacco field.According to thecultural practice,top leaves and side branches of the tobacco plants should be pruned threetimes each year,colonies of the aphids inhabiting on those leaves and shoots are greatlydiminished thereby.During the unfavorable season,there appear aphids of“minute form”which possess lesser capacity of fecundity and their population simultaneously becomes smaller.The last part gives the result of a detailed study on control measures.Among various in-secticides tested,E1059 gives very good result in controlling the tobacco aphid and withoutresidual toxicity to higher animals.However,for eliminating the ravage of tobacco aphid,a systemic programme which comprises Chemical,biological and cultural control measures isrecommended.

菸蚜研究是1953—1961年在许昌进行的。一年之中,菸蚜的生活周期,春季在桃树上只有3代(包括干母代);在菸草上最多可繁殖15—17代;在白菜、萝卜等十字花科蔬菜上最多可繁殖5—6代。各代平均发育期:干母27天,干雌11天,春季迁移蚜17.4天;在菸草上各代平均7.9天;在白菜上各代平均8.3天,性母13天,产卵性雌蚜约21天。同时观察发现秋季从十字科蔬菜迁往桃树的有翅蚜本身就是性母,在桃树上只能产生产卵性雌蚜,雄岈则是从十字花科蔬菜迁往桃树的。关于寄主植物,菸蚜虽然经常在多种果树上产越冬卵,但干母除可在桃树上成活外,在其他树上的则全部死亡。此外,菸岈的孤雌胎生成蚜和若岈亦可在十字花科蔬菜上越冬,但次年大都不能再在菸草上成活。菸蚜适宜的温度范围为7—29℃,当5日平均气温低于6℃或5日平均相对湿度低于40%时,菸蚜数量均表现下降;温度与湿度对菸蚜消长有综合作用,当5日平均气温达26℃以上、相对湿度达80%以上时,数量亦表现下降。有翅幼蚜的大量出现,常是该寄主菸蚜数量下降的标志;同时有翅蚜的迁来,也常是该作物受菸蚜为害的起点。由于菸蚜喜集中在菸株幼嫩部分为害,所以菸株打顶和经过3—5次的打杈,常可除去部分菸蚜...

菸蚜研究是1953—1961年在许昌进行的。一年之中,菸蚜的生活周期,春季在桃树上只有3代(包括干母代);在菸草上最多可繁殖15—17代;在白菜、萝卜等十字花科蔬菜上最多可繁殖5—6代。各代平均发育期:干母27天,干雌11天,春季迁移蚜17.4天;在菸草上各代平均7.9天;在白菜上各代平均8.3天,性母13天,产卵性雌蚜约21天。同时观察发现秋季从十字科蔬菜迁往桃树的有翅蚜本身就是性母,在桃树上只能产生产卵性雌蚜,雄岈则是从十字花科蔬菜迁往桃树的。关于寄主植物,菸蚜虽然经常在多种果树上产越冬卵,但干母除可在桃树上成活外,在其他树上的则全部死亡。此外,菸岈的孤雌胎生成蚜和若岈亦可在十字花科蔬菜上越冬,但次年大都不能再在菸草上成活。菸蚜适宜的温度范围为7—29℃,当5日平均气温低于6℃或5日平均相对湿度低于40%时,菸蚜数量均表现下降;温度与湿度对菸蚜消长有综合作用,当5日平均气温达26℃以上、相对湿度达80%以上时,数量亦表现下降。有翅幼蚜的大量出现,常是该寄主菸蚜数量下降的标志;同时有翅蚜的迁来,也常是该作物受菸蚜为害的起点。由于菸蚜喜集中在菸株幼嫩部分为害,所以菸株打顶和经过3—5次的打杈,常可除去部分菸蚜,使菸蚜数量下降。在不适宜的条件下,菸株上常出现“小型蚜”。在防治方法方面,测定了几种药剂治蚜的药效,以 E 1059较为良好,并经测定菸叶对人并无残毒;防治菸蚜必须采用综合措施,参、春在桃树上防治菸蚜尤为重要。

Wide distribution and abundant production of wild ergots had been reported in China and many collections proved valuable because of their relatively high contents of alkaloids. According to informations so far available, 5 species of ergot were recorded, namely, Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., C. microcephala (Wallr.) Tul., C. paspali Stev. Hall., C. miscanthi Saw., and C. syntherismae Saw. Of the 70 recorded host species which were distributed in 35 genera, only one species (Carex subpediformis (Kuk) Suto et...

Wide distribution and abundant production of wild ergots had been reported in China and many collections proved valuable because of their relatively high contents of alkaloids. According to informations so far available, 5 species of ergot were recorded, namely, Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., C. microcephala (Wallr.) Tul., C. paspali Stev. Hall., C. miscanthi Saw., and C. syntherismae Saw. Of the 70 recorded host species which were distributed in 35 genera, only one species (Carex subpediformis (Kuk) Suto et Suzuki) belongs to Cyperaceae; the rest are all Gramineal, with 13 genera including 33 species distributed in the subfamily Poaeoidae, 9 genera including 19 species distributed in Agrostoideae, 13 genera including 17 species in Panicoideae. None were found in the subfamily Oryzoideae.In Poaeoideae, 25 host species of 9 genera belong to Hordeae, a tribe with largest number of host species; the tribe Agrostideae of Agrostoideae comes next, possessing 19 host species of 8 genera. Regardless of different localities (North and Northeast China), the alkaloid contents of ergot collections from Calamagrostis epigeios and Clinelymus dahuricus were relatively high (0.405—0.56% and 0.30—0.33% respectively).On the other hand, the alkaloid content of rye ergots was rather low (0.06—0.065%). Variations of alkaloid contents due to different localities as well as different years appeared inconspicuous. Consequently, genetic capability of ergot races appeared to be the major factor resposible for alkaloid content, while host species may also have considerable influence. C. microcephala is conventionally distinguished from C. purpurea by the size of perithecial stroma. However, it is apparent in our experiments that this is not a valid criterion because of its extreme variability. As a matter of fact, stromatal size varies proportionally with the size of Sclerotium which in turn is dependent on the size of host seeds. When these two organisms were inoculated to the same host species (rye for instance), the size of stromata of the resultant sclerotia showed virtually no conspicuous difference.Therefore, C. microcephala should not be differentiated from C. purpurea.

根据国内现有资料统计,目前已发现的麦角菌有Claviceps purpurea(Er.)Tul.,C.microcephala(Wall.)Tul.,C.paspali Stev.er Hall.,C.miscanthi Saw.以及C.syntherismae Saw.等5个种;已发现的寄主植物有35属70种,分别属于禾本科及莎草科。总计禾本科植物内共有麦角菌寄主植物34属69种;莎草科仅有1属1种为Carex subpediformis(Kuk)Suto et Suzuki。无论是在东北或是华北地区,寄生在拂子茅或披碱草上的麦角,其含碱量都是比较高的,两者的含碱量分别为0.405—0.56%及0.30—0.33%,相反地,寄生在黑麦上的麦角含碱量一致是低的,其麦角含碱量仅达0.06—0.065%。影响麦角碱含量高低的主要原因是麦角菌不同生态类型产碱能力的差异;寄主植物也有一定影响。历来麦角菌Claviceps purpurea及C.microcephala的分类标准,都是以子座头大小来区别的。但根据我们的观察,子座头的大小,并不是固定不变的特征。因此,以子座大小作为麦角菌分类的标准并不完全可靠。

 
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