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  nerve tube
In addition, some immunopositive cells existed in the most proximal part of the caudal nerve tube and may be motoneurons.
      
These axon bundles joined in the posterior sensory vesicle, ran posteriorly through the visceral ganglion and branched into two caudal nerves which ran along the lateral walls of the caudal nerve tube.
      
It is found for the first time that the immunoreactivity of GnRHR exists in the nerve cells and fibers in the amphioxus's brain and nerve tube and the epithelial cells of Hatschek's pit at the different stages of gonadal development.
      
Because the nerve tube wall and the basement membraneremain intact, they are able to containthese tissues.
      


Objective:The author tried to observe the anatomical base of the far lateral approach of post-fossa. Methods :Microsurgical anatomy and measurement have been performed in both sides of 30 adult cadaver’s heads according to the procedures of this approach under the surgical microscope.Results:Dealing with the barriers to the surgical view such as sigmoidal sinus(SS),vertebral artery(VA),atlas-occipital junction(AOJ)were the key manipulations in this approach,the anatomical measurement showed that there are:10...

Objective:The author tried to observe the anatomical base of the far lateral approach of post-fossa. Methods :Microsurgical anatomy and measurement have been performed in both sides of 30 adult cadaver’s heads according to the procedures of this approach under the surgical microscope.Results:Dealing with the barriers to the surgical view such as sigmoidal sinus(SS),vertebral artery(VA),atlas-occipital junction(AOJ)were the key manipulations in this approach,the anatomical measurement showed that there are:10 mm(diameter of SS),23 mm(length of AOJ),12 mm(internal entrance of hypoglossus nerve tube to posterior edge of AOJ),7 mm(thickness of occipital condylar in where the internal entrance of hypoglossus nerve tube seats).respectively.Conclusions:Horse-shoe shaped skin incision,inferior-posterior direction of VA stretch,section of the SS,removing the posterior 1/3 of AOJ are safe and reasonable.

目的:为后颅窝远外侧入路的临床应用提供解剖学基础。方法:模拟该入路对30例(60侧)国人成年带颈头颅标本,在手术显微镜下进行了解剖和测量。结果:处理阻碍术野的乙状窦(SS)、椎动脉(VA)、寰枕关节(AOJ)是关键步骤;结果:SS横、纵径均约10mm,枕髁长约23mm,舌下神经管内口处枕髁深厚约7mm,该内口至AOJ后缘约12mm。结论:马蹄形皮切口、向后下方牵移VA、结扎切断SS、磨除枕髁后1/3(厚度小于7mm)及依病变位置采用不同操作间隙较为安全而实用。

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue - engineered artificial nerve on bridging a 2. 5c -long sciatic nerve defect. Methods 21 Lewis 1W female rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into three groups of nerve grafting, with 7 rats in each group. A group: collagen nerve tubes with an intrinsic framework were seeded with syngeneic Schwann cells, which were referred as tissue - engineered artificial nerves; B group: collagen nerve tubes were filled with an intrinsic...

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue - engineered artificial nerve on bridging a 2. 5c -long sciatic nerve defect. Methods 21 Lewis 1W female rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into three groups of nerve grafting, with 7 rats in each group. A group: collagen nerve tubes with an intrinsic framework were seeded with syngeneic Schwann cells, which were referred as tissue - engineered artificial nerves; B group: collagen nerve tubes were filled with an intrinsic framework only; C group: autografts. Six months later, a series of examinations were performed, including: electrophysiological methods, hisotological staining of nerves and muscles, S - 100 and Neurofilament immunostaining and axon counts. Results A significant compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was evoked in every nerve graft of A and C groups. Regenerating axons were observed in the whole length of nerve grafts, with mild atrophy of their innervated muscles. On the contrary, no or only a tiny CMAP was recorded in B group. The distal parts of nerve grafts were fdled with fibrotic tissue, while regenerating axons were rarely seen. There was a significant atrophy occurred in the related muscles. Conclusions Our preliminary results demonstrated that the tissue - engineered artificial nerve could effectively repair a long nerve defect in rats.

目的 研究组织工程化人工神经修复大鼠2.5cm长坐骨神经缺损的效果。方法 21只2月龄Lewis lw雌性大鼠随机分成三个神经移植组,每组7只。A组:种植同源雪旺细胞并具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管,即组织工程化人工神经。B组:无雪旺细胞但具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管。C组:自体神经移植组。术后六个月,进行系列神经电生理监测,神经肌肉组织学观察,S-100和神经微丝蛋白(Neurofilament)免疫组化染色,轴突计数等检查。结果 在A组和C组移植神经上均能诱发出波幅明显的神经肌肉复合动作电位(CMAP),再生轴突已通过移植神经全长,远端肌肉轻度萎缩。而B组中没有或仅记录到极小波幅的CMAP,移植神经远端结缔纤维组织增生,再生轴突罕见,所支配肌肉明显萎缩。结论 初步结果显示:组织工程化人工神经可用来修复大鼠长段神经缺损。

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue engineered artificial nerve on bridging sciatic nerve defect 2.5 cm in length in rats. Methods 90 female Lewis 1W rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into three groups, with 30 in each. Three types of materials were used as graft: group A, collagen nerve tubes with an intrinsic framework seeded with syngeneic Schwann cells, which were referred as tissue engineered artificial nerves; group B, collagen nerve tubes filled...

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a tissue engineered artificial nerve on bridging sciatic nerve defect 2.5 cm in length in rats. Methods 90 female Lewis 1W rats aged 2 months were randomly divided into three groups, with 30 in each. Three types of materials were used as graft: group A, collagen nerve tubes with an intrinsic framework seeded with syngeneic Schwann cells, which were referred as tissue engineered artificial nerves; group B, collagen nerve tubes filled with an intrinsic framework without Schwann cells; and group C, nerve autografts. Six months later, a series of examinations were performed as follows: electrophysiological testing, hisotological staining of nerves and muscles, S 100 and neurofilament immunostaining as well as axon counts.Results Until now, the assessment has been finished in 21 rats (7 rats in each group). A significant compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was evoked in anterior tibial muscle in group A and C. Regenerated axons were observed in the whole length of nerve grafts, with mild atrophy of their innervating muscles. On the contrary, nothing or only a tiny CMAP was recorded in group B. The distal parts of nerve grafts were filled with fibrotic tissue, while regenerated axons were rarely seen. There was a significant atrophy of the related muscles. Conclusions Our preliminary results demonstrated that the tissue engineered artificial nerve could effectively repair a long nerve defect in rats.

目的 研究组织工程化人工神经修复大鼠 2 .5cm长坐骨神经缺损的效果。方法  90只 2个月月龄的Lewis 1W雌性大鼠 ,按手术先后顺序随机分成 3个神经移植组 ,每组 3 0只。A组 :用种植同源雪旺细胞并具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管桥接 ,即组织工程化人工神经组。B组 :用无雪旺细胞但具有内部支架结构的胶原神经管桥接 ,即对照组。C组 :自体神经移植组。术后 6个月 ,进行神经电生理监测 ,神经肌肉组织学观察 ;用S 10 0和神经微丝蛋白免疫组化染色后 ,行轴突计数等检测。结果 完成对 2 1只大鼠 (每组 7只 )的实验评估。从A组和C组的胫前肌中均能诱发出波幅明显的神经肌肉复合动作电位 (CMAP) ,再生轴突已通过移植段神经全长 ,远端肌肉轻度萎缩。B组中则没有或仅记录到波幅很低的CMAP ,移植神经远端结缔纤维组织增生 ,再生轴突罕见 ,所支配肌肉明显萎缩。结论 组织工程化人工神经可用来修复大鼠长段神经缺损。

 
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