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pathogen     
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  病原菌
    Study on Anthracnose Pathogen of Persimmon and Its Infection Mechanisms
    柿树炭疽病病原菌及其侵染机制研究
短句来源
    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON BACILLUS SP., A PATHOGEN OF WHITE GRUBS
    蛴螬病原菌(Bacillus sp.)的初步研究
短句来源
    STUDIES ON BACTERIAL STRIPE OF RICE (PSEUDOMONAS AVENAE MANNS )——I. THE PATHOGENICITY AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE PATHOGEN
    水稻细菌性褐条病(Pseudomonas avenae Manns)的研究——Ⅰ. 病原菌的致病性及分类地位
短句来源
    A STUDY ON SMUT OF BAMBOO AND ITS BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATHOGEN (USTILAGo SHIRAIANA P. HENN)
    竹黑粉病及其病原菌(Ustilago shiraiana P.Henn)生物学的研究
短句来源
    STUDIES ON BROWN SHEATH OF RICE——Ⅳ. PHAGE AND SOURCE OF PRIMARY INFECTION OF THE PATHOGEN
    水稻褐鞘病研究——Ⅳ. 病原菌噬菌体及初侵染来源
短句来源
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  病原
    Identification, Detection and Molecular Variability of Coat Protein Gene of the Pathogen of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Disease
    玉米矮花叶病病原鉴定、检测及外壳蛋白基因变异研究
短句来源
    Pathogen Identification and Mechanism Study of Ginger Laipi Disease
    生姜癞皮病病原鉴定及发病机理研究
短句来源
    Studies on the Occurrence, Harmfulness of Valencia Orange Green Spot Disease and Genetic Diversity of Pathogen
    夏橙绿斑病发生、危害和病原遗传多样性研究
短句来源
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE BIOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF THE PATHOGEN OF ZEBRA DISEASE (Phytophthora nicotianae Breda) IN AGAVE HYBRID NO. 11648
    龙舌兰麻杂种11648斑马纹病病原烟草疫霉菌(Phytophthora nicotianae Breda)生物学及形态特征的初步研究
短句来源
    A STUDY ON PATHOGEN AND THE ALTERNATE HOST OF BLISTER RUST OF MASSONIANA PINE
    马尾松疱锈病病原及转主寄主的研究
短句来源
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  致病菌
    Fusarium oxysporum was a main pathogen of soybean root rot, of which the research was focured on the pathology.
    尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum)是大豆根腐病的主要致病菌
短句来源
    The pathogen (Fusarium javanicum Koord) of the root rot of sweet potato survived about thirty-six months in the storage under the dry condition, and about thirty-one months in the soil of 10 cm depth.
    甘薯根腐病主要致病菌(Fusarium javanicum Koord),在室内干贮条件下可存活36个月,在10厘米土层,可存活31个月。
短句来源
    Colletotrichum acutatum was found to be a new Anthracnose pathogen infecting mango trees in China.
    发现Colletotrichum acutatum是我国芒果的一种新的致病菌
短句来源
    Paecilomyces farinosus 8318 has been reported as an important pathogen to Dendrolinius tabulaeformis (Tsai et Liu).
    粉拟青霉(Paecilomyces farinosus 8318)是油松毛虫(Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu)的致病菌
短句来源
    The pathogen of cucumber Fusarium wilt in Beijing Suburbs was identified as Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.
    京郊黄瓜枯萎病致病菌经鉴定为尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.)
短句来源
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  病原学
    Research Advance on the Pathogen of Phytophthora Sojae
    大豆疫霉根腐病病原学的研究
短句来源
    Comparison of the Pathogen of Cinnamomum camphora,Euonymus japonicus and Citrus reticulata Anthracnose
    樟树、柑橘、冬青卫矛炭疽病病原学比较研究
短句来源
    Studies on the Pathogen Causing Dark Leaf Spot Disease of Atractylodes Lancea
    苍术黑斑病病原学研究
短句来源
    Some positive study results have been obtained on pathogen, pathology, epidemiology and control strategies over last decades, but the disease has been spreading rapidly because there are still some difficulties in using some control methods in fields.
    十多年来,科研工作者一直致力于该病害的病原学、病理学、流行学和防治学方面的研究,已取得一定成果,但某些防治措施在生产实际和大范围应用中仍存在着操作困难、难以持久、防效不稳定等问题,大部分病区的疱锈病仍未得到有效控制且继续蔓延扩张。
短句来源
    The wheat leaf blight caused by an unknowing pathogen occurred in the middle reaches of Yellow River from the 1970s.
    自 70年代以来 ,在黄河中游麦区发生了一种病原菌未知的小麦叶枯病 ,1993年至 1996年依据柯赫氏证病律进行了病原学研究。
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  pathogen
Changes in trypsin inhibitor activity, lectin activity, and the content of endogenous salicylic acid after administration of exogenous salicylic acid or a pathogen were shown to depend on the resistance of maize strains to Fusarium.
      
A change in the activity of lectins may be a nonspecific response of plants to infection with the pathogen.
      
Infection of tubers with a compatible race of the pathogen or treatment with a suppressor (laminarin) decreased both the degree of hydrolysis of conjugated forms of salicylic acid and the accumulation of its free form.
      
An increase in the soil pool of Trichoderma harzianum as a result of application of a biological preparation based on this antagonistic fungus correlated with its effectiveness against the soil pathogen Fusarium sp., which causes root rot.
      
Interaction of proteinases secreted by the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani with natural proteinase inhibitors produced
      
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1. The percentage of Piricularia infested rice seeds (botanic ally,the ricegrain) from different epiphytotic areas in Yunnan province has been found tobe high. 2. The pathogen is mostly located in the glumes and the residual pedicelsof the rice grain,while in the case of dehulled rice kernel,it is usually foundin the tissue around the ridges of the kernel. 3. Under storage condition in Kunming,the fungus can survive more thaneight months after harvest without any decrease of its vitality. 4. A simple method...

1. The percentage of Piricularia infested rice seeds (botanic ally,the ricegrain) from different epiphytotic areas in Yunnan province has been found tobe high. 2. The pathogen is mostly located in the glumes and the residual pedicelsof the rice grain,while in the case of dehulled rice kernel,it is usually foundin the tissue around the ridges of the kernel. 3. Under storage condition in Kunming,the fungus can survive more thaneight months after harvest without any decrease of its vitality. 4. A simple method for examination of the percentage of Piricularia-infestedseed has been deviced.The seeds or dehulled kerned to be examined are washedin tap water and then placed seperately in a moistened Petri-dish in the laboratoryunder favorable temperature (20-25℃).By this method,the fungus-infested seedsshowing abundant conidial growth after 3-4 days can be easily counted under lowpower microscope.

云南省水稻栽培地区几乎均有稻瘟發生,各地大力号召采用种子处理以杀灭病原,虽然文献中对种子帶病問題有所报导~[1,2,3,4,5],但其細节尚须有更多的資料加以补充。

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface...

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface of the soil with mycelium cultured on wheatgrain shortly after planting,and an "artificial rain" by frequent spray of water tothe plants was supplied after heading.Investigations were made on the develop-ment and dissemination of ascospores and conidia of the pathogen,the seasonaldevelopment of the disease and the meteorological factors involved. Field observations showed that the headblight fungus on the soil surface inthe inoculated plots produced both kinds of spores with ths ascospores much morepredominant than the conidia.Perithecia and mature ascospores could be formedboth in the fall and in next spring through early summer under conditions ofadequate moisture and warm temperature suitable for their development.It wasindicated by trapping the spores in the air that the ascospores produced on thesoil surface were the chief source of inoculum for primary infection although theconidia formed on the infected spikes were equally important in spreading the di-sease in the field later in the season.The frequency and amount of ascosporesand conidia present in the air depended upon the height in spore trapping.Whilespores were found most frequently and most abundantly at a height of 17 cm.above the ground,much less spores were caught at heights of 33 cm.and up to117 cm.There was a tendency to decrease in the amount of spores with theincrease in height.A comparative survey of the spores in the air in the inoculated ??and uninoculated plots indicated that a great majority of spores could not bedisseminated very far from their source of production.This,together with thefact that comparatively more spoies were trapped on raining days,made it rea-sonable to consider splashing rain as the more important agent than wind forspore dissemination. The amount of inoculum existing in the soil and the rainfall were proved tobe the factors of utmost importance for the epiphytotic of the disease.In 1955,the average percentages of headblight for the inoculated plots with and withoutthe spray of water were 29.4 and 13.4% respectively,in comparison with the neigh-bouring fields where only very few infected heads were observed.In 1956,theaverage percentages for headblight in the four experimental plots:(1) inoculatedand sprayed with water,(2) inoculated and not sprayed,(3) uninoculated andsprayed,and (4) uninoculated and not sprayed,were 42.98,42.05,11.91 and6.26%,respectively.In these four corresponding plots,the average percentagesfor culm rot were 4.27,3.89,3.65 and 2.17%.Although there was no significantdifference in the final percentages of both headblight and culm rot between thesprayed and unsprayed plots either with or without inoculation,probably due tothe continuous heavy rain in the latter part of the wheat-growing season,yethigher percentages were always observed in the sprayed plots than in the un-sprayed ones throughout the period of disease development.Under conditions ofabundant inoculum in the soil and heavy rainfall,increase in percentage of head-blight could reach as much as 32% within a period of two days even when theplants were already near maturity.In 1955,a daily average temperature over20℃ was found to be favorable for the development of headblight,but observa-tions made in 1956 did not show significant effect of the temperature on thedevelopment of disease.

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害...

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害的發展,但兩年的結果不很一致,可能由于其他因子的影响。

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on...

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号...

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉籽是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉籽所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉籽內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入籽內,也有研究的价值。

 
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