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the country
相关语句
  国家
     The Party's Basic Line——Lifeblood of the Party and the Country
     党的基本路线是党和国家的生命线
短句来源
     With the development of economy globalization,international competition is becoming more and more serious,the path of innovational country is the common choice and goal for most of the country even the whole world.
     随着经济全球化浪潮风起云涌,国际竞争更加激烈,走创新型国家之路,成为世界许多国家,乃至整个世界的共同选择和所追求的目标。
短句来源
     It is essential from the perspectives of college students, the long-term development of colleges and the prosperity of the country to explore the effective approach to combining the practical condition of college students and cultivating the social responsibility of college students.
     结合大学生自身的实际,探索培养大学生社会责任感的有效途径,无论从大学生本身还是从高校的长远发展乃至国家的兴旺发达等方面来看都是十分必要的。
短句来源
     The development of education provides abundant intelligent resources for its economic development and becomes a persistent impetus for the development of the country.
     教育事业的发展为其经济发展提供了雄厚的智力资源,成为促进国家发展的持久推动力。
短句来源
     The purpose of penalty is an intrinsic unity of punishment and prevention,an objective effect that the country pursues in penalty's establishment,application and enforcement.
     刑罚的目的是报应与预防的有机统一,是国家确立、适用与执行刑罚所追求的客观效果,其实质是对刑罚客观效果的一种主观认识状态。
短句来源
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  农村
     To be specific, men students do more than women students (36.9%) than women students (21.84%), the country (34.11%) is higher than that of city (25.71%), medicine profession (36.46%) is high out 34.27percentage points of finance and economics profession (2.19%).
     其中3次以上的选择上,男生(36.90%)高于女生(21.84%),农村(34.11%)高于城市(25.71%),医学专业(36.46%)高出财经专业(2.19%)34.27个百分点。
短句来源
     The positive infected rate was 5.29%(10/189 cases) from the country and 14.52%(9/62 cases) from urban areas(P<0.05).
     来自农村 10例新兵阳性感染率为 5.2 9%( 10 / 189)、城市为 14.5% ( 9/ 62 ,P <0 .0 5)。
短句来源
     In a year the patients who could not live alone and carry on their normal daily activities because of sickness and wound accounted for 68.6%, but the males were 70.9%, the females were 66.3%, the citizens were 69.8%, the country dwellers were 64.7%.
     1年内未发生因病伤不能独自进行日常活动者占68.6%,其中男性的比例为70.9%,女性为66.3%,城市居民为69.8%,农村居民为64.7%。
短句来源
     The Grey Model GM(1,1 ̄r)and Application of Per Capita Living-Space in the Country
     GM(1,1 ̄r)灰色模型及其在农村人均居住面积中的应用
短句来源
     Results The mortality rate of the city was between 4 66‰ and 5 66‰,while it was between 6 57‰ and 7 14‰ in the country from 1995 to 2000.There were no much differences in every year.
     结果  1995~ 2 0 0 0年杭州市城市死亡率在 4 6 6‰~ 5 6 6‰之间波动 ,农村在 6 5 7‰~ 7 14‰之间波动 ,各年间变化不大。
短句来源
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  该国
     Through the analysis on logistics cost and GDP of the United States, Japan, China and others countries, the relationship between logistics total cost and its components with the country's GDP was analysed.
     通过对美国、日本、中国等国家与地区宏观物流成本及其构成与GDP的关系分析,解析出一国物流总成本及其构成与该国GDP关系的一般性规律。
短句来源
     The putting into education is decided by the developing level of the country.
     一国对教育的总投入 (包括政府和公民 )取决于该国经济的发展水平。
短句来源
     However, even if a country doesn't have comparative advantage in resource endowments, but there are transaction efficiency advantage and scale economy in the country, the enterprises in the country also possess viability.
     而如果一国存在交易效率的比较优势和规模经济 ,即使该国没有资源禀赋的比较优势 ,企业也具有自生能力
短句来源
     The executive effect of international economic treaties (IETs) includes two aspects: One is the legal status of IETs in one country, the other is how to execute the rights and liabilities between the subjects of IETs in the country, i.e. how are IETs taken into force?
     国际经济条约的国内适用效力包括两方面的内容:一是国际经济条约在一国法律体制中的法律地位; 二是该国以何种方式实现国家承担保证义务的国际经济条约中所涉主体之间法律权利义务,即如何让国际经济条约在国内中发生实际效力。
短句来源
     Monetary policy efficiency depends on country's monetary policy transmission mechanism, and in turn, it is the economic and financial structure of the country that determines transmission mechanism.
     货币政策效率的发挥依赖于一国货币政策传导机制的模式,而货币政策传导机制又取决于该国特定的经济、金融结构。 目前我国经济正处于转轨时期,货币政策正在向间接调控为主的货币政策体系转变过程中,这决定了货币政策传导机制的复杂性,而这种多元化最终要由我国的经济金融结构所决定。
短句来源
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  “the country”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Culture-Speaking of the Country Politics in the Context of Modernity
     现代性语境中的乡村政治文化言说
短句来源
     A superficial study on the relationship between gold mineralization and the country rocks
     浅析金矿化与围岩的关系
短句来源
     Some Problems on RE Tricolored Phosphorescent Powder and Lamp inside the Country
     关于我国稀土三基色荧光粉与灯的问题
短句来源
     The New Trend of the Country policy-making.
     乡村决策工作的新趋势
短句来源
     Comment on Relation Between Ancient Culture in Ning Zhen Region And other Culture in the Country
     论宁镇地区古代文化与其他文化的关系
短句来源
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  the country
Its plantation area covers more than 7 × 106 hm2, accounting for 24% of the total area of plantation forests in the country.
      
In the meantime, there is a larger gap in the aspect of practical application of mechanism in the country compared with advanced countries in the world.
      
By analyzing the challenges of China's energy supply, an excellent perspective of nuclear power development in the country has been described.
      
China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation III to ensure a long-term, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power.
      
Great efforts have thus been undertaken for the control of air pollution in the country.
      
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(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designed pottery are the evidences of

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

In China, Cufex uitattriorhynchus has a wide distribution. It has been found that this mosquito serves as n vector of Japanese B encephalitis inside as well as outside of the country. Virus of Japanese B encephalitis has been isolated repeatedly from this mosquito. It has been demonstrated, furthermore, that this mosquito might be infected by being fed an emulsion of infected mouse brain. Young mice bitten by this mosquito infected with the virus developed symptoms typical of encephalitis.Ecological studies...

In China, Cufex uitattriorhynchus has a wide distribution. It has been found that this mosquito serves as n vector of Japanese B encephalitis inside as well as outside of the country. Virus of Japanese B encephalitis has been isolated repeatedly from this mosquito. It has been demonstrated, furthermore, that this mosquito might be infected by being fed an emulsion of infected mouse brain. Young mice bitten by this mosquito infected with the virus developed symptoms typical of encephalitis.Ecological studies were carried out on this mosquito in Changsha, Hunan from May to October, 1957, with observations upon: (1) the duration from the moment of feeding to emergence of adults of next generation under laboratory conditions, (2) the (.cology of the larva in its natural habitats, and (3) the seasonal distribution of the mosquito.I. The laboratory temperature was maintained from 23?to 28癈 throughout the whole course of observation. Both day and night men were assigned to watch at the working spot to take notes. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In order to ascertain the exact time of feeding, fifty-nine mosquitoes were carefully observed to determine the time necessary for blood sucking on a cow. The shortest time from the outset of inserting the proboscis irito the skin of the cow to the moment of pulling off the pro-boscis was 2 minutes and 26 stconds, while the longest time was 7 minutes and 15 seconds with an average of 3 minutes and 19.2±19.8 seconds.2. Forty-three well-fed mosquitoes were chosen for oviposition, They were kept separately in glass chimneys (5.7 × 9.0 cm.), each of which was slightly immersed in a glass plate. Only 21 mosquitoes (48.84%) laid eggs. They performed their laying quietly on the surface of water. The average time for egg to mature within the ovary was 73.76± 2.06 hours. The lowest number of eggs laid was 15, while the highest number was 238, with an average of 124.43± 13.04 eggs per mosquito.3. The egg raft containing 238 eggs was used for rearing in the laboratory. All the eggs hatched simultaneously after 35 hours of incubation.4. Larvae of the same instar were bred in an enamelled green pan containing hay infusion which was changed daily. On the surface of hay infusion a film of bread powder mixed with yeast was sprinkled. Right arter each moulting, larvae were removed to another enamelled pan. Dead larvae were discarded as soon as discovered. The time needed from the first instar to the end of fourth instar averaged 144.09 hours, i.e., 6 day's and 0.09 hours (Table 1).5. It took. 38.83 hours in average to complete the pupal stage (Table 1).6. It took 291.92 hours or 12 days and 3.92 hours on an average from the time of feeding to the end of metamorphosis, and about 9 days from the time of egg deposition.7. The ratio 'between emergent males and females was 75 to 70, or 51.7% to 48.3% respectively.8. In rearing, the highest mortality occurred in the second stadium,, in which 70 larvae died, 29,4% of total number of larvae.9. Points in connection with biting, behavior and discrepancy in the time of oviposition, ecdysis among different instars, pupation and emergence were discussed.Ⅱ. For field observation on the ecology of larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, eleven types of natural breeding places with a total of fifty localities situated in the suburbs of Changsha were selected. They included rice-fields, tare-fields, lettuce-fields, ipomoea-fields, lotus-roots-fields, trapa ponds, wells for drinking and pits for washing purposes, ponds, ditches and mountain caves with water. The first six types of habitats were definitely devoted to agricultural cultivation, while the latter five were not. Collecting in each of fifty localities was made once a week. In each habitat the collector made five dips by a conical dipper (9.7 cm) at random, took notes on the water temperature, height of the water column where larvae were found, brought back the plants.which grew in association with the larvae and a sufficient amount of water for the determination of hydrogen-ion concentration and dissol

1.本文报告了1957年春,实验室中三带喙库蚊血液消化、产卵、孵化、幼虫的各龄、蛹化、羽化等的初步观察结果。 2.同年5—10月,又初步观察了三带喙库蚊幼虫11型孳生地的十项自然环境因素。 3.自然界的十项环境因素,对此蚊幼虫孳生的影响,亦略加分析讨论。 4.通过11型幼虫孳生地的调查,得知此蚊幼虫多孳生在茭瓜田、蕹菜田、芋头田、稻田及藕田等5型中。 5.1957年三带喙库蚊幼虫全期最高峰的出现日期,与流行性乙型脑炎流行的最高峰恰相吻合。

The planting of fruit trees on contour rjdges, which is an effective measure in combating soil erosion on sloping lands, has for a long time been practised by the fruit growers in the provinces of Liaoning and Hopei. Since 1951, this valuable experience has been closely in-vestigated, carefully improved and widely extended to every part of the country. As a result, a considerable proportion of the new orchards is set in comformity to this type of terracing.

本文叙述国光、金冠、赤阳三个苹果品种的幼年树在等高撩壕条件下根系水平和垂直分布的情况,并分析等高壠沟、壠的大小、放树盘、施肥以及地上都的生长情况等因子对根系分布的影响。为制订坡地果园的土壤管理制度提供依据。

 
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