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precipitation     
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  降水
    A Study of Organic Acid in Precipitation for Lanzhou City
    兰州市区降水中有机酸研究
短句来源
    The Change of Precipitation During the Recent 40 Years and Its Influences on Climatic Productivity in China
    我国近40年降水的变化及对气候生产力的影响
短句来源
    The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship s between the behaviors of stable isotope contents (δD) and the patte rns of water transportation in precipitation, spring water and soil water.
    根据2003年夏季测得的四川卧龙自然保护区亚高山暗针叶林地区3个不同群落的降水、土壤水、浅层地下水(泉水)氢稳定同位素含量(δD),分析土壤剖面各层次土壤水氢稳定同位素的变化规律及其与水分迁移的关系。
短句来源
    2) The distri bution pattern of δD for the soil profiles of the 3 communities reflected the change of δD for the precipitation.
    2)A、B、C群落土壤垂直剖面的土壤水δD空间分布形式反映了降水δD的时间变化特征。
短句来源
    The constant val ue of δD may suggest that shallow underground water represent the average conditions of precipitation over the years.
    4)浅层地下水δD受降水δD的直接影响不明显,变化幅度很小,浅层地下水δD的稳定性说明地下水代表了多年降水的平均状态。
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  降水量
    Based on observed climatic data of precipitation and temperature from 6 meteorological stations in Shanxi province during 1951-2000, the prediction model of the lowest average monthly temperature in Taiyuan city was established with neural network technology and principal component analysis (PCA) method.
    根据山西省6个有代表性的气象观测站1951-2000年的气象资料,以降水量、气温为预报因子,以太原市最冷月平均气温为预报量,采用人工神经网络与主分量分析相结合的方法,建立了太原最冷月平均气温预报模型。
短句来源
    Composite precipitation model and its application in the flooding period in the northern Fujian
    闽北洪涝期降水量叠加模式及其应用研究
短句来源
    ARIMA MODEL OF FORECASTING WINTER PRECIPITATION IN HANOI
    越南河内市冬作物生长季降水量ARIMA预测模型
短句来源
    Application of BP artificial neural network model in forecast of quantity of precipitation
    降水量的BP人工神经网络预测模型及其应用
短句来源
    Daily Precipitation Simulation and Its Application on Crop Production Climate Risk Analysis
    逐日降水量的模拟及其在作物气候风险分析中的应用
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  降雨
    The results showed that the maximum rainfall intensity and the precipitation were 5.05 mm/min and 118.2~300.3 mm/h respectively.
    模拟天然降雨最大雨强5.05 mm/min,雨量118.2-300.3 mm/h;
短句来源
    2—3 days after raining, precipitation had the most prominent effect on soil water in 0—100 cm soil layer.
    在深层有效时间长短不一,但雨后2~3d,降雨对土壤水分(0~100cm)的影响最显著.
短句来源
    Analysis of Soil Erosion Under Different Precipitation Condition
    不同降雨带上的土壤侵蚀状况分析
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    Soil Water and Groundwater Dynamics Responses to Precipitation in the Flooding Area of Yellow River
    黄泛区潮土土壤水和地下水的动态变化及其对降雨的响应
短句来源
    Study on Influence of PAM to Precipitation Runoff and Sediment Production of Slopes with Different Soils
    聚丙烯酰胺对不同土壤坡地降雨产流产沙的影响研究
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  降雨量
    Self-memory grey model for predicting precipitation of crop growth period
    作物生育期降雨量预测的灰色自记忆模型
短句来源
    The distributive characteristics of water balance suggested that the soil conserved water occupied about 58. 5% of total precipitation on tea plantation (LAI=2.2), and surface runoff occupied about 20%.
    水量平衡的分配特征说明了坡地茶园(LAI=2.2)由降水而被土壤持蓄的水量仅占降雨量的58.5%,占降雨量rm%的径流水被流失掉。
短句来源
    (4) The change of the canopy interception, the precipitation in forest and the surface runoff wasn’t obvious when the stand density changed.
    (4)各林地的林冠截留量、林内降雨量以及地表径流量随着林分密度变化不明显。
短句来源
    When precipitation was more than 16.3 mm, the stem flow increased with the stand density increase.
    降雨量大于16.3mm时,随着林分密度的增大树干径流呈增大趋势。
短句来源
    There were remarkable significant (P<0.01) between rain erosivity (R30) and erosive precipitation and maximal rain intensity of 30 min. (I30), whose correlation coefficient were 0.844 and 0.609 respectively.
    降雨侵蚀力(R_(30))与侵蚀性降雨量(P)和最大30分钟雨强(I_(30))之间的相关系数分别为0.844和0.609,达到极显著水平(P<0.01)。
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  precipitation
The water-soluble glucan was obtained from Pleurotus florida fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE cellulose dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration.
      
Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO by direct precipitation method
      
Nanocrystalline ZnO was prepared with ZnCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2CO3 as raw materials by direct precipitation method.
      
The ion-exchanger LiAlTiO4 of spinel type was prepared by the common precipitation/hydrothermal crystallization method, and was acid-modified.
      
The precursors of Fe2O3-SiO2 mixed oxides prepared through co-precipitation method were modified by microwave hydrothermal treatment for the first time.
      
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Three problems concerning the methods of determination of total phosphorus in soil were discussed in this paper. 1. Volumetric method: The comparison of several techniques of volumetric determination of total phosphorus in soil had been made. The method of precipitation in strong H_2SO_4—HNO_3 solution gave the better results. Owing to the fact that the errors vary with the phosphorus content in sample solution, it is recommended to calculate the results according to the "titrition value" obtained from...

Three problems concerning the methods of determination of total phosphorus in soil were discussed in this paper. 1. Volumetric method: The comparison of several techniques of volumetric determination of total phosphorus in soil had been made. The method of precipitation in strong H_2SO_4—HNO_3 solution gave the better results. Owing to the fact that the errors vary with the phosphorus content in sample solution, it is recommended to calculate the results according to the "titrition value" obtained from NaOH standardized with standard KH_2PO_4 solution rather than to calculate the results stoichiometrically. 2. Colorimetric method: The results obtained from comparison of five colorimetric methods showed that the Mo-blue method with ascorbic acid as a reductant was most satisfactory in the determination of total phosphorus in soil. The advantages of this method are its considerable sensitivity, stability and practical convenience. Moreover, it is not necessary to remove ferric ion from the analytical solution when this method is used. 3. Method of decomposition of soil: Through the comparison of the six methods of decomposition of soils for the determination of total phosphorus, the H_2SO_4-HClO_4 method is considered to be most suitable for routine analysis; the Na_2CO_3 method and the HC1O_4 method are more preferable for red soils. On the basis of this systematically compatative study, some recommendations about the selection of decomposition and analysis methods of total phosphorus were made and the procedures of volumetric and colorimetric methods were proposed in this paper.

本文对土壤全磷分析工作中最为主要的三个问题进行了比较研究,结果如下: 1.磷的容量分析法:认为容量分析法如掌握得当仍然适合于土壤全磷分析。在三种容量分析方法中以在H_2SO_4—HNO_3强酸性溶液中沉淀并于滴定前加甲醛的方法较易得到满意的结果。土壤分解液中P_2O_5的含量应控制在1毫克左右,每毫升N_2OH溶液所相当的P_2O_5毫克数需用含P_2O_51毫克的KH_2PO_4标准溶液来标定。 2.磷的比色分析法:对五种磷的比色刀八析方法进行了全面比较。在这些方法中以抗坏血酸还原的钼蓝比色法最适用于土壤全磷分析。这种方法有足够的灵敏度,其颜色的时间稳定性及酸度稳定性均相当高,易于掌握。更重要的是不必除去酸性分解液中的三价铁离子,很方便。 3.土壤分解方法:对六种常用的土壤分解方法进行了比较试验。Na_2CO_3法虽然分解最完全,但需用铂坩埚,在各种强酸分解法中纯HClO_4分解法的效率最高,但价格最贵;Mg(NO_3)_2王水法及H_2SO_4法的分解率均偏低;H_2SO_4—HNO_3法及H_2SO_4—HClO_4的分解率平均可达97%以上,尤以H_2SO_4—HClO_4法手续简便,分解液色度甚浅,...

本文对土壤全磷分析工作中最为主要的三个问题进行了比较研究,结果如下: 1.磷的容量分析法:认为容量分析法如掌握得当仍然适合于土壤全磷分析。在三种容量分析方法中以在H_2SO_4—HNO_3强酸性溶液中沉淀并于滴定前加甲醛的方法较易得到满意的结果。土壤分解液中P_2O_5的含量应控制在1毫克左右,每毫升N_2OH溶液所相当的P_2O_5毫克数需用含P_2O_51毫克的KH_2PO_4标准溶液来标定。 2.磷的比色分析法:对五种磷的比色刀八析方法进行了全面比较。在这些方法中以抗坏血酸还原的钼蓝比色法最适用于土壤全磷分析。这种方法有足够的灵敏度,其颜色的时间稳定性及酸度稳定性均相当高,易于掌握。更重要的是不必除去酸性分解液中的三价铁离子,很方便。 3.土壤分解方法:对六种常用的土壤分解方法进行了比较试验。Na_2CO_3法虽然分解最完全,但需用铂坩埚,在各种强酸分解法中纯HClO_4分解法的效率最高,但价格最贵;Mg(NO_3)_2王水法及H_2SO_4法的分解率均偏低;H_2SO_4—HNO_3法及H_2SO_4—HClO_4的分解率平均可达97%以上,尤以H_2SO_4—HClO_4法手续简便,分解液色度甚浅,对容量分析及比色分析均相宜。不同类型土壤中的磷具有不同的可分解性,钙质土最易分解,白浆土、水稻土依次较难,红壤最难分解。在比较试验的基础上本文提出了因土壤类型及实验精度要求的不同而选用分解方法及分析方法的具体意见。

Water plays a very important role in agricultural production in Hainan Island. In this paper, the Island's water budget, involving the precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration, water deficit and surplus, moisture index (Im)and dryness index (Ia) from November to April, was worked out on the basis of the climatic classification method developed by Thornthwaite. The results obtained indicate that: (1) The distribution of water assumes an east-west and high-low pattern in Hainan Island. The...

Water plays a very important role in agricultural production in Hainan Island. In this paper, the Island's water budget, involving the precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration, water deficit and surplus, moisture index (Im)and dryness index (Ia) from November to April, was worked out on the basis of the climatic classification method developed by Thornthwaite. The results obtained indicate that: (1) The distribution of water assumes an east-west and high-low pattern in Hainan Island. The moisture conditions in the central mountainous area and the eastern part are the best, those in the northern tableland come second and those in the west are the worst. (2) Wet and dry seasons are very distinct throughout the Island, and the water budget is subject to a great change from year to year. It is therefore suggested: xerophilous fruit trees, vegetables and other crops be cultlyated over some area in the west; rubber trees be further planted in areas where they usually grow well; afforestation be widely promoted and irrigation facilities perfected.

水分在海南岛的农业生产中占有重要的地位。本文用桑斯维特的气候区方法计算了海南岛水分收支,包括降水量、可能蒸散量、实际蒸散量、水分亏缺量、水分盈佘量、湿润指数和11—4月干燥指数。分析得出:海南岛的水分条件有东西、高低的分布规律,水分条件以中部山区和东部最为丰富、北部台地次之、西部最差;全岛雨旱两季分明,水分收支年际间变化大。建议在西部地区应发展一定面积的耐旱果菜和耐旱作物;在宜胶地区可继续发展一定面积的橡胶园;广泛营造森林及进一步完善灌溉设施。

The main regions of sediment yield lie on the both sides of Huang He from Hekouzen to Lunmen, and in the upper and middle reaches of Jinhe, Lohe and Wehe river on the Loess Plateau. The sediment yield is concentrated in the period from July to September, or in one or two rainstorms .The delivery ratio approches to in the watersheds on the Plateau. Sediment yield in a small catchment is the result of both physical factors and human activities.Soil erosion is proportional to the addition of precipitation...

The main regions of sediment yield lie on the both sides of Huang He from Hekouzen to Lunmen, and in the upper and middle reaches of Jinhe, Lohe and Wehe river on the Loess Plateau. The sediment yield is concentrated in the period from July to September, or in one or two rainstorms .The delivery ratio approches to in the watersheds on the Plateau. Sediment yield in a small catchment is the result of both physical factors and human activities.Soil erosion is proportional to the addition of precipitation and the depth of runoff and increases with the gradient of the ground surface, while the runoff flow erosion decreases on the slope of over 25°-28°. Clayly loess is present in the south part of the Plateau and coarse loess in the north. Scrub is better for soil conservation than other vegetations. The sediment yield has been increasing in the last 30 years in the lower reaches of the Huanghe. The artificial increase is about 23-35% of the mean transporting sediment.The pattern and intensity of soil erosion vertically change from the top to bottom in the small catchment. Rill erosion dominates in the intergully, and gully bank is an area of multi-functions of water erosion, gravitational and cavern erosions. The sediment output in gully bank is abnut 59% higher that in the Loess region of gullied-hilly, and most sediment yield from the gully bank is in the Loess gullied-table areas.

黄土高原的主要产沙地区是河口镇至龙门黄河干流两侧和泾、洛、渭河中上游,产沙时间集中 7—9月或一、二次暴雨期。流域产沙量与河道断面输沙量基本一致。产沙最与降雨量加径流深组合因子成正比相关,并随坡度增大而增加,坡度超过25—28度水流面蚀强度减弱。砂黄土的可蚀性最大,黄土其次,粘黄土最小。灌木林的防蚀效果最好。近三十年来黄土高原的产沙量进一步增加,其中由人类活动而增加的沙量约占黄河平均输沙量的23~35%。 沟道流域的产沙过程具有垂直分带规律。沟间地以细沟侵蚀产沙为主,沟谷地是水力、重力和洞穴侵蚀综合作用的场所。黄土丘陵区沟谷地的产沙量此沟间地大59.0%左右;黄土塬区产生的泥沙绝大部来自沟谷地。

 
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