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  产量
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    Sediment Yield and Decision-making Support System for Soil and Water Conservation in Watershed with GIS
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  增产
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  产量的
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  yield
We also prove that some unimodular wavelets yield unconditional bases in Lp(?).
      
The same technique of proof is also applied to yield an existence result for A-dilation MRA subspace wavelets.
      
In most applications, it is this overcompleteness that is exploited to yield a decomposition that is more stable, more robust, or more compact than is possible using nonredundant systems.
      
This article shows that those abstract results yield an array of new implications for irregular Gabor frames.
      
The base-catalyzed condensation of thioureas (1-3a-i) with acetone was carried out in the presence of bromine to afford the corresponding 1-(isomeric methyl) benzoyl-3-aryl-4-methyl-imidazole-2-thiones (4-6a-i) in good yield.
      
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Field experiment and Laboratory study were made for the comparisionof transformation of nitrogen and the yield of rice in the paddy soil ploughedunder dry and water-logged conditions.The drying of the soil after ploughing did not effect the ammonia-nitrogen content of the soil or the yield of rice under field conditions.After water-logging,the amount of nitrate-nitrogen decreased rapidly,and it disappeared within a few days as the soil intensely reduced.The effect of drying of different typies of...

Field experiment and Laboratory study were made for the comparisionof transformation of nitrogen and the yield of rice in the paddy soil ploughedunder dry and water-logged conditions.The drying of the soil after ploughing did not effect the ammonia-nitrogen content of the soil or the yield of rice under field conditions.After water-logging,the amount of nitrate-nitrogen decreased rapidly,and it disappeared within a few days as the soil intensely reduced.The effect of drying of different typies of paddy soil on the ammonia-nitrogen content were studied in the Laboratory.These results showedthat there was a Large increase of ammonia-nitrogen content in the soilunder water-logged conditions after drying as compared with the non-airdried samples.The magnitude of the increase in ammonia-nitrogen contentwas influenced by the characteristics of the paddy soil,such as the redoxpotential and the content of organic matter,especially the degree of drying.It is considered that the drying of paddy soils under cultivation is apowerful means in increasing the soil fertility and the yield of rice,especially for the subhydrogenic paddy soils,but in case of soils with highredox potential and low content of easily decomposable organic nitrogeneouscompounds,such as those soils derived from loess-like material,on whichthis field experiment was conducted,the drying of the soil did not increasethe amount of ammonia-nitrogen of the soil or the yield of rice.

1.在南京低丘地区,发育于黄土性母质上的轻度潴育性水稻土,在水旱连作的栽培制度下,本田耕地,通过干耕晒垡过程,并无效果。2.本文对不同类型水稻土干燥后的铵态氮动态,进行了测定和讨论,认为对于还原性强烈而腐殖质较多的水稻田,干耕晒垡是发挥水田潜在地力的有效措施,且只有在土壤充分干燥情况下,才能加速土壤有机质的矿化过程,但是,对于一般腐殖质含量较低,而无显著沼泽化迹象的轻度潴育性水稻土,由于土壤氧化势较高,土壤本身对促进有机物的分解具有良好条件,在田间情况下,对于耕作上某一短期的土壤干燥过程,不易产生较为明显的效果是可能的。3.对于水稻生长期间,土壤中NH_4~+及NO_3~-的动能进行了初步分析和讨论,初步指出,在长江下游地区,水田肥力的发挥,可能在很大程度上有赖于对土壤矿化过程的促进。

This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give different...

This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give different levels of base exchange capacity. Treatments were made to all three cultural media for varying degrees of base saturation with constant ratio between exchangeable bases. Oats and rye were grown in succession in montmorillonitic and kaolinitic media, while peach, soybean, proso, tomato and oats were grown in the illitic soil. Dry weights and contents of certain mineral constituents of oats, rye and tomato were determined. Yield data from the montmorillonitic media showed nearly linear relationship between the degree of base saturation and the growth of the plants. In the kaolinitic media the increase of yield was only noticeable from the first increment of bases, effects above 40% total base saturation being insignificant. The results from illitic soil were intermediate between those mentioned above, i.e., the highest yield of tomato was obtained at the 75% saturation level. The yield data further indicate that the growth of plants was more closely related to the degree of base saturation than to the total supply of exchangeable bases. With the same amounts of bases and at the levels below 60% base saturation, the yields of rye in the kaolinitic colloid were higher than in the montmorillonitic colloid. In the montmorillonitic media, the increase of Ca uptake by the plants from the first increment of Ca was pronounced with only little effects above 30% Ca saturation (or 40% level of total base saturation). The K content of the plants was increased appreciably at only the higher levels of base saturation, while significant increases of the Mg content of the plants occured at lower levels (i.e. below 60% base saturation level). In the kaolinitic media, no appreciable change of Ca and Mg contents of the plants was noticed. This is an interesting contrast to the results obtained with the montmorillonitic media. However, there were definite increases in K content of plants with increasing increments of K at the lower levels of saturation. The higher contents of Ca and Mg in the plants were found in kaolinitic media rather than in the montmorillonitic media provided that the total base saturation level was under 60% of the exchange capacity. On the other hand, the K content of the plants from montmorillonitic media was invariably higher than from kaolinitic media. In the illitic soil, the most marked increase of Ca content in plants occured when the degree of base saturation increased from the 50% to the 75% level. Beyond that point, no appreciable increase was noticed. As the degree of base saturation of illitic soil increased, the K and Mg percentages in plants increased also. Among the conclusions obtained from the experiments, the following are of outstanding significance: 1. Exchangeable cations are not equally available. With the equal supply of total exchangeable cations, their availability varies with the degree of base saturation. Within a certain range, the higher the degree of base saturation, the greater the availability of the exchangeable cation. This affords a theoretical explanation of the advantage of localized application of fertilizers. 2. The availability of exchangeable cations varies with the nature of clay minerals. With the given amount of exchangeable cations and the same degree of base saturation, the individual exchangeable cation held by the clay mineral differs in availability according to the following order: For Ca" and K', kaolinite>montmorillonite>kaolinite. This gives the reason why a montmorillonitic soil should be fertilized with respect to the Ca and K to higher levels than a kaolinitic soil. 3. In order to afford sufficient amount of active cations for the growth of plants, higher degree of ionic saturation is required for Ca" than is for Mg", which in turn should be higher than for K'. The study also discusses, from the theoretical point of view, some of the factors involved in determining the availability of exchangeable bases.

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽...

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽基飽和度的重要性一般超过鹽基代換率。試驗的結果表明:鹽基代換率不等,而鹽基飽和度相等的同一發生学来源的土埌,其植物生長狀况一般相等或相差不远。这說明代換性鹽基的絕对数量不足以指示作物生長的优劣。不仅如此,試驗的結果也啟示出含代換性陽离子絕对数量相等的兩种同源土埌,就对植物的矿質营养言,并不意味着具有相等的供应該有效性陽离子的能力。由于它們間質地上的可能差異,——質地輕者鹽基代换率小,質地粘重者,鹽基代換率大,——因之其鹽基飽和度就不相等。飽和度大者,鹽基的有效度就高。 3.栽培試驗及室內化学分析的結果都表明在总鹽基飽和度为60%以下的土埌中(Ca:Mg:K=15:3:2),高陵土类粘粒矿物上的代换性Ca~(++)及Mg~(++)的有效度均高于微晶高陵土,而K~+則相反。 4.植物矿質成分的化学分析結果表明:各营养离子的鹽基飽和度在一定范圍内的变化,可以显著地影响它进入植物体內的量。例如,当微晶高陵土系培养基的鈣离子飽和度在30%以下的范圍內作增减的变动时,都能明显地反映在其所生長的植物体內的含鈣量上。植物体內的鉀离子,則能反映飽和度自4%至6%的范圍內的变化。鎂的情况大体近似于鉀,只是其变化范圍更小一些。这說明同一种植物为了滿足其自身的营养需要,对于同一种粘粒矿物上所吸附的不同离子,有不同的飽和度的要求。鈣最大,(对黑麦,燕麦而言約30%以上),鎂次之(約9%),鉀最小(約6%)。这些标准也是施肥的最低要求。 5.栽培試驗及化学分析都証明同一种离子吸附在不同的粘粒矿物上,縱然离子飽和度相等,其对植物生長和矿質养分的影响也不相等。研究結果显示出在同一离子飽和度下,不同粘粒矿物上的离子有效度大体依下列次序变化:高陵土>微晶高陵土>水化云母。在农業实踐中,不同类型的土埌所要求的施肥标准不等,在这里也得到了一些理論根据。試驗結果对于实际施肥,应有一定的指导价值。除以上主要結果外,本文还对有关代換性离子有效度的理論問題进行了討論和分析,并提出了作者自己的初步意見。

To three cultural media composed of montmorillonitic,kaolinitic and illitic type of clay minerals,treatments were made for varying degrees of saturation of exchange- able calcium,magnesium and potassium with constant base exchange capacity.The effect of complementary ions on the availability of exchangeable Cations was judged from the yields as well as their chemical composition of the plants growing on them. The results are summarized as follows. 1.No difference was noticeable among different types of...

To three cultural media composed of montmorillonitic,kaolinitic and illitic type of clay minerals,treatments were made for varying degrees of saturation of exchange- able calcium,magnesium and potassium with constant base exchange capacity.The effect of complementary ions on the availability of exchangeable Cations was judged from the yields as well as their chemical composition of the plants growing on them. The results are summarized as follows. 1.No difference was noticeable among different types of clay minerals with respect to the effect of the nature of complementary ions on the availability of the exchangeable cations. 2.As a complementary ion,the higher the degree of saturation of calcium,the lower the availability of the exchangeable magnesium.Similarly,magnesium as a complementary ion has also the same effect on the availability of exchangeable mag- nesium as calcium does on magnesium. 3.The availability of exchangeable potassium increases with the increase of the degree of saturation of calcium functioning as a complementary ion to the exchangeable potassium.But,to the contrary,potassium as a complementary ion affects the availa- bility of exchangeable calcium in the reverse direction.Situation is just about the same between the mutual effect of the exchangeable magnesium and potassium. 4.Results from illitic series of the cultural media showed that with respect to the availability of exchangeable potassium,calcium as a complementary ion is preferable to magnesium,and with respect to the availability of exchangeable calcium,potassium as a complementary ion is superior to magnesium. 5.From the results,it seems that under the conditions of the same base exchange capacity and the same amount of exchangeable potassium content,calcium clay will afford more available potassium as compared with hydrogen clay.This gives a new explanation of the disadvantages of the acid soil and adds to the support for liming an acid soil.According to the author's opinion,the reported deficiency of available calcium supply in some of the alkali soils,in which the total calcium content was known to be sufficient,may be explained from the standpoint of the unfavorable effect of the complementary ion (Na) on calcium. 6.Suggestions are made that rational application of mineral fertilizers should be made according to the status of the exchangeable cations of the soil.It is rather the degree of saturation of the exchangeable cations and the nature and proportion of the complementary ions than the absolute amount of the nutrients as such or the total percentage content of them on the soil weight basis,that will count in order to afford sufficient quantities of available cations for the nutrition of the plants.The unit of fertilization rate (dosage) is,indeed,a relative concept (relative to the base exchange capacity) and not an absolute weight or an ordinary percentage concept. 7.Attempts were made to explain the effect of different complementary ions on the availability of exchangeable cations by the concept of exchange bonding energy of the various cations.The explanation is serviceable in limited cases.More work is yet to be done before a satisfactory theory can be found to fully explain the com- plementary ion effect. 8.It is reasonable to doubt whether some of the antagonistic phenomena between cations observed on the plants growing in soil reported by physiologists are actually physiological problems at all.Might not these be just matters of complementary ion effects in the soil?

在蒙脱石系、高陵石系及水化云母系的培养基里,人为地调节 Ca、Mg、K 三种代换性阳离子的饱和度,把其中任意两个阳离子的饱和度维持不变,而把其余一个阳离子作为陪补离子,调节其饱和度,使其在适当的范围内变化,以观察其对植物生长及其组织的化学组成的影响。试验的主要结果,简要地总结如下:1.陪补离子对代换性阳离子的有效度的影响,无论在高陵石系中或蒙脱石系中,结果都是一致的。这说明它们之间有共同规律可循,和粘粒矿物的种类无关。2.陪补离子钙对代换性镁离子的有效度有不利的影响。反之,陪补离子镁对代换性钙离子的影响也相同。3.作为陪补离子的钙,当其饱和度增大时,代换性钾离子的有效度亦随之而增加。但反之作为陪补离子的钾,当其饱和度增大时,却反降低了代换性钙离子的有效度。4.至于镁离子和钾离子间的相互影响,则情况和钙、钾之间的相互影响同。(见3)5.水化云母系的试验结果表明:对代换性钾离子的有效度而言,作为陪补离子的钙比镁更为理想,而对代换性钙离子的确效度言,则陪补离子钾又比镁更为理想。6.从试验结果看来,在含同量代换性钾及同一盐基代换量的条件下,钙质粘土的钾素供应状况应优于氢质粘土。这对酸性土壤提供了一种新的看法,并对酸土...

在蒙脱石系、高陵石系及水化云母系的培养基里,人为地调节 Ca、Mg、K 三种代换性阳离子的饱和度,把其中任意两个阳离子的饱和度维持不变,而把其余一个阳离子作为陪补离子,调节其饱和度,使其在适当的范围内变化,以观察其对植物生长及其组织的化学组成的影响。试验的主要结果,简要地总结如下:1.陪补离子对代换性阳离子的有效度的影响,无论在高陵石系中或蒙脱石系中,结果都是一致的。这说明它们之间有共同规律可循,和粘粒矿物的种类无关。2.陪补离子钙对代换性镁离子的有效度有不利的影响。反之,陪补离子镁对代换性钙离子的影响也相同。3.作为陪补离子的钙,当其饱和度增大时,代换性钾离子的有效度亦随之而增加。但反之作为陪补离子的钾,当其饱和度增大时,却反降低了代换性钙离子的有效度。4.至于镁离子和钾离子间的相互影响,则情况和钙、钾之间的相互影响同。(见3)5.水化云母系的试验结果表明:对代换性钾离子的有效度而言,作为陪补离子的钙比镁更为理想,而对代换性钙离子的确效度言,则陪补离子钾又比镁更为理想。6.从试验结果看来,在含同量代换性钾及同一盐基代换量的条件下,钙质粘土的钾素供应状况应优于氢质粘土。这对酸性土壤提供了一种新的看法,并对酸土中施用石灰的意义,也多了一种新的认识。 7.在讨论里,作者对某些富含钙质的碱土而反有钙素营养不足的事实,从陪补离子影响的角度试作了解释。并同时提出矿质施肥上的新的施肥原则,要求在施肥时,应对土壤中有关吸收性养料的有效度问题方面作更多的全面考虑——例如,代换性阳离子的饱和度,陪补离子的影响者。8.作者尝试着用代换吸附键能的概念,对陪补离子影响于代换性阳离子的有效度的某些事实,进行了解释,但这些解释目前还不能圆满,它们只是在一定的条件下才成立的假说而已。9.报告中还联系了拮抗作用和陪补离子的影响,指出它们之间有若干相似的意义。

 
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