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application     
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    Theoretical Studies and Engineering Application of Shape Preset Control for HC Cold Mill Based on Strip Element Method
    基于条元法的HC冷轧机板形预设定控制理论研究及工业应用
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    Application Research on Selective Laser Sintering
    选择性激光烧结技术应用研究
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    STUDIES ON KEY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC GEARBOX
    电子齿轮箱关键控制技术及其应用研究
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    Research on Uncertainty of Measurement Result of Form Error and Its Application
    形状误差测量结果不确定度的研究及应用
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    Study on Numerical Simulation of Welding Distortions in Huge Fabrications and Its Application
    大型结构焊接变形数值模拟的研究与应用
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  使用
    Test and Application of WCI-1 Water-Solved Rust Preventer
    WCI-1水溶性防锈剂试验和使用
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    Key Points of Correct Application for Vacuum Heat Treatment Furnace
    真空热处理炉正确使用要点
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    The Property and Application of PAG Quenchants
    聚乙二醇(PAG)类淬火液的性能与使用
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    Design Concept of GB3323—87 Rapid Defect Assessment Rule and Its Application
    GB3323—87缺陷快速评判尺设计思想及使用
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    Application and Repairing of BX_1 AC Welding Machine
    BX_1系列交流弧焊机的使用与维修
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  实际应用
    Application of Mathematic Calculation Method to Microanalysis
    数学计算法在微量分析中的实际应用
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    PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF CTOD CRITERION TO OFFSHORE STRUCTURES
    CTOD判据在海洋结构上的实际应用
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    The Application of RECl_3 Modifier in ZL107A Alloy Producing
    氯化稀土变质剂在ZL107A合金中的实际应用
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    Practical Application of 1,10-Phenanthroline in Analytical Chemistry
    1,10-二氮菲在分析化学中的实际应用
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    Practical application verifies that the service life of dies could be increased from 2000 to 7000.
    实际应用表明,模具使用寿命从2000件提高到7000件左右。
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  应用情况
    In this paper,the recent development and application of deep-level nitriding technique was presented concisely. The work of BIAM on deep-level nitriding techniques for VIM-VAR 32Cr3MoVE steel,and the results of rolling contact fatigue test for deep-level nitrided 32Cr3MoVE and carburized 18CrNi4A parts were stated.
    简述了当前深层渗氮工艺的发展应用情况,介绍了本单位针对32Cr3MoVE钢开展的深层渗氮研究工作,以及该钢深层渗氮件与18CrN i4A渗碳件在4508MPa接触应力下的对比试验结果。
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    The combination operating mode really to design the chemical composition, and the test optimizes composition, technology and the application circumstance of KMZG28CrMnMoRE's steel of strong pliable but strong chemical industry skill are introduced.
    本文介绍了结合工况实际设计化学成分,试验优化强韧化工艺的KMZG28CrMnMoRE钢的成分、工艺和应用情况
    The analysis, experiment and application of new filler material of RFPE (Reference Free Part Encapsulation) technique is introduced.
    介绍了无基准零件封装(Reference Free Part Encapsulation—RFPE)夹具中的填充材料研究、试验和应用情况
    This paper Introduces the application's background of SA-335P91 steel, and the welding procedure tests and measures were made based on the structure and welding difficulty for header of SA-335P91, and the applications for welding procedure of SA-335P91 were introduced.
    本文介绍了SA-335P91材料的应用背景,SA-335P91集箱的结构及焊接难点,焊接工艺试验及焊接工艺措施,SA-335P91集箱焊接工艺在实际生产中的应用情况
    This article introduces application about super and ultra super critical of thermal power station of new type heat-resistant steel T91、P91、T92、P92、T122、P122、T23、P23、T24 and analyse simply welding difficulty and settling way of new steel. We advocate welding technologe point and noticeable problem in new ferrite heat-resistant steel. This point out assignmengt for welding these steels present.
    本文介绍了近年超临界、超超临界火力发电机组中出现的新型铁素体耐热钢T91、P91、T92、P92、 T122、P122、T23、P23、T24的应用情况,并对这些新钢种的焊接难点及解决的途径进行了简要分析, 提出了新型铁素体耐热钢的焊接工艺要领及需要注意的问题,对于今后焊接这类钢材具有一定的实际指导作用。
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      application
    As an application we produce complete hyperbolic 5-manifolds that are nontrivial plane bundles over closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds and conformally flat 4-manifolds that are nontrivial circle bundles over closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds.
          
    As an application of the results we prove a generalization of Chevalley's restriction theorem for the classical Lie algebras.
          
    The proof is an application of a recent result by W.
          
    The application arises because of a very strong homological property enjoyed by certain cell filtrations forq-permutation modules.
          
    We give as an application a family of singular Schubert varieties.
          
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    The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

    The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

    作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

    Over 200 Cr-Mn-C-N experimental steels have been systematically studied bya combination of microscopic examination,X-ray diffraction,electrolytic extraction,chemical analysis,hardness and magnetic measurements,density and dilatometricmethods,oxidation test,tensile tests at both room-and elevated-temperatures,creep-rupture test,etc.,and the main findings are presented as follow:(1)Stable austenitic region.(2)Solid state reactions:martensitic transformation,precipitation reactions,and formation of sigma phase.(3)Room-and...

    Over 200 Cr-Mn-C-N experimental steels have been systematically studied bya combination of microscopic examination,X-ray diffraction,electrolytic extraction,chemical analysis,hardness and magnetic measurements,density and dilatometricmethods,oxidation test,tensile tests at both room-and elevated-temperatures,creep-rupture test,etc.,and the main findings are presented as follow:(1)Stable austenitic region.(2)Solid state reactions:martensitic transformation,precipitation reactions,and formation of sigma phase.(3)Room-and elevated-temperatures properties,and their relation to the che-mical composition of the steels.(4)Strengthening effect of interstitial solid solution.(5)Effect of precipitation reaction on elevated-temperature strength.(6)Effect of V,W,Mo,Nb,B and Si.(7)Tentative recommendation for indus rial applications.

    本文综合报导了作者对二百余种Cr-Mn-C-N实验钢所进行的有系统研究的主要结果:(1)稳定奥氏体区域.(2)重要相变——马氏体转变、σ相形成及沉淀作用.(3)室温及高温性能及其与钢中化学成分的关系.(4)间隙固溶体强化原理.(5)沉淀作用与高温强度的关系.(6)加入V,W,Mo,Nb,Si及B诸元素的影响.(7)工业上可试用的领域.

    Furfuryl alcohol resin produced by our nation-wide people's communes is recognized as one of the cheapest heat-resisting and non-corrosive polymers available at present. The use of the resin for sand-bonding and glueing foundry shells together was first developed in China. Both liquid and powdered resins were tested in this experiment. Their bonding efficiency is evaluated by means of strength tests on 8-shaped standard specimens. The resin as an adhesive is applied to the shell joint in paste form and made...

    Furfuryl alcohol resin produced by our nation-wide people's communes is recognized as one of the cheapest heat-resisting and non-corrosive polymers available at present. The use of the resin for sand-bonding and glueing foundry shells together was first developed in China. Both liquid and powdered resins were tested in this experiment. Their bonding efficiency is evaluated by means of strength tests on 8-shaped standard specimens. The resin as an adhesive is applied to the shell joint in paste form and made to set by the application of residual heat of shells. Tests have shown that furfuryl alcohol seems more inportant than its resin in the sand-mixture for mould-blow- iny, as the former has the better flowability tested on the apparatus specially designed.

    糠醇树脂是我国广大人民公社能生产的耐热、抗蚀、价廉的聚合物,利用它於铸造生产中首 创於我国。本试验中研究了液态与固态的两种树脂,用8字试样测其强度;而树脂作为粘壳用途 是作成膏状且利用型壳余热来固化的。试验证明:由於糠醇与砂的混合物流动性较糠醇树脂的型 砂混合物流动性高,因此吹出性能也较优良。

     
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