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     The development process and research status of steel reinforced concrete composite structure are briefly summarized. Design and analysis methods of this kind of structure at home and abroad are introduced. The differences in calculation between JGJ 138-2001 and YB 9082-97 are comparatively analyzed, which provide good references for design and construction.
     简要总结了型钢混凝土组合结构的发展过程、研究现状,介绍了国内外不同的设计分析方法,重点分析比较了JGJ138-2001和YB9082-97中计算型钢混凝土结构时存在的异同点,以便为此类结构的设计施工提供参考
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     This paper describes the methods and procedures of the virtual prototyping using Pro/E and ADAMS,and offers some experiences & references for the combination of them,introduces some VP application in product design and analysis.
     阐述了利用Pro/E和ADAMS进行虚拟样机仿真的方法和步骤,为两者的有机结合提供经验参考,介绍了虚拟样机技术在设计分析中的应用。
短句来源
     Conclusion:Overexpression of survivin and negative expression of P16INK4a in NSCLC indicated survivin and P16INK4a may play cooperative role in the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC through inhibiting cancer cell apoptosis and promoting proliferation. So the expressions of Survivin and P16INK4a can be used as references for the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC.
     结论:在NSCLC中survivin的过表达和P16INK4a的失表达提示二者可能通过抑制细胞凋亡和促进细胞增殖在非小细胞肺癌的发生发展中起协同作用,同时检测survivin、P16INK4a的表达状态对非小细胞肺癌的诊断和预后有一定的参考价值。
短句来源
     The article is based on raw materials of concrete segment, to detail the quality control of segment from each step of the segment production technology, so as to guide the concrete segment production, control quality of the segment and provide basises and references for producing the high quality concrete segment.
     以混凝土管片原材料选择为基础,从管片生产工艺的每一个步骤来详细介绍管片质量控制,以指导混凝土管片生产,控制管片质量,为生产优质混凝土管片提供依据和参考
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     This 3D contact finite element analytical method can also be applied to the contact strength analysis of other mechanical products and can be regarded as references for stepping up the strength analyses of mechanical products from single part to entire assemblage.
     该三维接触有限元分析方法也可用于其它机械产品的接触强度分析,为机械产品由单个零件的强度分析提升到装配体的强度分析提供参考
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  参考文献
     Research of References and Catalog in L~AT_EX2ε Publishing Software
     在L~AT_EX2ε中参考文献和目录输入方法的研究
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     4 drawings,2 tables,3 references
     图4,表2,参考文献3
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     6 drawings,3 tables,18 references
     图6,表3,参考文献18
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     2 drawings,9 references
     图2,参考文献9
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     2 references
     参考文献2
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  文献
     Dynamic Analysis on the References of the Papers in Journal of Anhui Agricultural University
     《安徽农业大学学报》论文引用文献动态分析
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     Study on the Development of Wavelet Theory by Analysing References of Wavelet
     从文献分析看小波理论的发展
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     The avian fauna at the National Macaque Nature Reserve of Taihang Mountain in Henan Province was surveyed from July 2002 to December 2004 and 123 birds species were reported during the survey. According to this study and references, there are 157 species belonging to 47 families and 16 orders.
     2002年7月~2004年12月,对河南省太行山国家级猕猴自然保护区的鸟类进行了调查,共记录鸟类123种,结合文献资料该区共有鸟类157种,隶属16目47科。
短句来源
     The temperature and solvent of the reaction were also optimized so that the conditions were more specific and effective. The yield of two compounds were better than those reported in former references,37 % and 41 %,respectively.
     初步探讨了反应的合成机理,并优化了反应温度和溶剂,使其更加具体和高效,最后得到的产率高于以往的文献报告,分别为37%和41%.
短句来源
     According to measured solubility data of Thermo-Calc and concerned references, the equilibrium solid solubility formulae of Fe4N in austenite and in ferrite have been derived respectively as log[N]γ = 0.940-479.4/T and log[N]α = 1.074-1838/T.
     根据Thermo-Calc和相关文献的测试数据,推导出Fe4N在奥氏体和铁素体中的平衡固溶度公式分别为:log[N]γ=0·940-479·4/T,log[N]α=1·074-1838/T。
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     Through quantitative analysis on 104 doctoral theses and 5 master graduation theses of the year from 1931 to 2002 on Tibetology research in American colleges and universities, this paper discusses the developing characteristics and the trend of Tibetology research in north America, particularly in the US, hoping to provide some references and enlightenment for our country's Tibetology research by the case analysis of doctoral thesis, which stands for maximum education level of universities.
     本文通过对1931年至2002年美国各高校有关藏学研究的104篇博士毕业论文和5篇硕士毕业论文的定量分析,探讨了藏学研究在北美,尤其是在美国的发展特点及其趋势,希望通过对代表高等院校最高教育水平的博(硕)士论文的个案分析,能对目前我国的藏学研究提供一些借鉴和启发。
短句来源
     All these provide references for the users to realize permanent storage function with S7-200.
     对需使用S7-200进行永久存储功能的用户有一定的借鉴作用。
短句来源
     References from the distributed architecture based on J2EE framework,proposes the architecture of web application. Design and implementation of online shopping system based on J2EE framework is described in details.
     借鉴基于J2EE架构的分布式体系结构的思想模式,提出了一套以这种模式为基础的Web应用体系。
短句来源
     Executive Stock Option:References,Problems and Countermeasures
     经理股票期权制 借鉴·问题·对策
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     A Comment and References of the Reform of Japan's Financial System
     日本金融体制改革评价与借鉴
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    The conclusions of this paper would offer theoretical references for designers and analyzers of clock-controlled generators.
          
    The excellent recognition performance is much better than those of the other cited references, which indicates that our approach is well-suited for appearance-based object recognition.
          
    This research can provide references for city planning and urban green space establishment and facilitate the popularization of quantitative assessment of ecological benefits of green spaces in Chinese cities.
          
    The results may bring up theoretical references for fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.
          
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    The absorption wavemeter investigated consists of a single loop with a variable gap which is formed by a pair of parallel plates. A calibration formula for the meter was derived on the assumption that the stray capacity could be considered constant and the stray inductance negligible. This simple and useful formula was ex perimentally checked on four different meters, covering the range from about one-and-quarter meter to one-half meter. These melors were carefully constructed and accurately calibrated with...

    The absorption wavemeter investigated consists of a single loop with a variable gap which is formed by a pair of parallel plates. A calibration formula for the meter was derived on the assumption that the stray capacity could be considered constant and the stray inductance negligible. This simple and useful formula was ex perimentally checked on four different meters, covering the range from about one-and-quarter meter to one-half meter. These melors were carefully constructed and accurately calibrated with reference to a quartz oscillator by the double-heating method through the use of an auxiliary oscillator of a continuous range of wave-lengths from six to ten meters.

    在吸收式波长计之理论上,以其杂储电量为常数而略其杂磁感量,得一简便之公式虽在波长一公尺左右亦可用。所研究之吸收式波长计之构造,系一黄铜制成之单圈,用二黄铜片制成之一缝隙。其缝隙之宽度,可由一螺旋调节。此种波长计,曾 在国立中央研究院物理研究所制造室制造四具,可量波长一有四分之一公尺至半公尺亦曾在此研究所之实验室内,与水晶振荡器校准先制一振荡器,可在六至十公尺之间,发生无论任何波长之振荡。并将此振荡器与一水晶振荡器用拍谐法校准。再制一有四分之一公尺至半公尺之振荡器,与已与水晶校准之振荡器,再用拍谐法校准,而同时以所制之吸收式波长计量之其实验与理论所得之各结果极为符合。

    A tank experiment to study the rainfall characteristics,degree of slope and kinds of crops in relation to erosion of the Szechuan purple brown soil was carried out on the experimental farm of the University of Nanking in Chengtu during the period from 1941 to 1945 inclusive.The text consists of the results,of four years only,that of the first year being used for reference.

    本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初...

    本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初至八月底之间,廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨日可自七日至十七日不等。(iii)芝蔴年度年降水量虽较大豆年度为低,但逕流占年雨量百分数,依坡度顺序,则前者各为16.95%,19.23%,25.71%及27.66%而后者各为3.96%,9.06%,9.63%及10.62%。(iv)四年中逕流量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为129.11公厘,143.79公厘,193.54公厘及216.64公厘,而后者各为53.37公厘,120.59公厘,121.60公厘及135.07公厘。逕流逐月分布隨雨量分佈而变异,惟大豆作物有使逕流分佈百分数,向各月分散之趋势。又芝蔴年度七月份或八月份之逕流量可占年逕流量70%以上。(v)逕流之大部由于廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨量所发生,各坡度上大于24公厘之烈度等级中,在芝蔴年度,其分佈百分数之和幾全人於80%,而在大豆年度,其分佈百分数之和,自约38%至90%以上不等。芝蔴年度逕流量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,但逕流量隨坡度增加之比率则芝蔴年度较大豆年度为小。(vi)土壤冲失量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为每市亩773.91市斤,832.5市斤,2004.93市斤及2822.62市斤,而大豆年度各为每市亩270.02市斤,370.50市斤,666.53市斤及762.95市斤,大豆年度中雨量特別丰沛之年,大豆护土力在大坡度上(坡度30%)更为显盖。(vii)芝蔴年度月雨量对于土壤冲矢量之影响大于对于逕流量之影响,月雨量增多,使同月土壤冲失量增加之百分数较使同月逕流量增加之百分数为大,大豆年度则反是。芝蔴年度土壤冲失量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,目土壤冲失量隨坡度增加之比率,芝蔴年度亦较大豆年度为大。(viii)据本试验情形,某一日之前五日内如降落巨雨,则该日急雨可发生甚大量之逕流及土壤冲失,芝蔴年度此种情形甚显,但大豆年度则不显。(ix)大豆作物之护土力,由于宽阔平向之叶面及密茂之莖叶可遮蔽地面以防雨滴之打击,而落叶护土亦可使地面流水澄清而维持土壤之渗漏速率,又麦稈覆盖地面之护土效力甚宏,如于大豆莖叶向未郁閉之前用之,可防初夏急雨之冲蚀。(X)自成都向南至仁寿县一带之紫棕土斤陵地,可行玉米与大豆等高行栽之间作制,惟大豆宜密植以收护土之效,若能于生长前期,地面覆盖麦稈,则土壤冲蚀之害可大减。

    Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44...

    Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44 as national standard to specify the fine aggregate for concrete in USSR. It was introduced to China in 1952 and soon becomes popular in all technical literatures concerning concrete aggregates and materials of construction.After careful and thorough investigation from ordinary and special gradings of sand, the equation of d_(cp) appears to be not so sound in principle and the value of d_(cp) computed from this equation is not applicable to engineering practice. The assumption that the initial average diameter (ν) of sand grains between consecutive seives is the arithmetical mean of the openings is not in best logic. The value of an average diameter computed from the total number of grains irrespective of their sizes will depend solely on the fines, because the fines are much more in number than the coarses. Grains in the two coarser grades (larger than 1.2 mm or retained on No. 16 seive) comprising about 2/5 of the whole lot are not duly represented and become null and void in d_(cp) equation. This is why the initiator neglected the last two terms of the equation in his own computation. Furthermore, the value of d_(cp) varies irregularly and even inversely while the sands are progressing from fine to coarse (see Fig. 4).As F. M. is still the only practical and yet the simplest index in controlling fineness of sand, this paper attempts to interpret it with a sound physical concept. By analyzing the F. M. equation (2a) in the form of Table 9, it is discovered that the coefficients (1, 2…6) of the separate fractions (the percentages retained between consecutive seives, a1, a2…a6) are not "size factors" as called by Prof. H. T. Gilkey (see p. 93, reference 4), but are "coarseness coefficients" which indicate the number of seives that each separate fraction can retain on them. The more seives the fraction can retain, the coarser is the fraction. So, it is logical to call it a "coarseness coefficient". The product of separate fraction by its corresponding coarseness coefficient will be the "separate coarseness modulus". The sum of all the separate coarseness moduli is the total "coarseness modulus" (M_c).Similarly, if we compute the total modulus from the coefficients based on number of seives that any fraction can pass instead of retain, we shall arrive at the true "fineness modulus" (M_f).By assuming the initial mean diameter (ν') of sand grains between consecutive seives to be the geometrical mean of the openings instead of the arithmetical mean, a "modular diameter" (d_m), measured in mm (or in micron) is derived as a function of M_c (or F. M.) and can be expressed by a rational formula in a very generalized form (see equation 12). This equation is very instructive and can be stated as a definition of mqdular diameter as following:"The modular diameter (d_m) is the product of the geometrical mean ((d_0×d_(-1))~(1/2) next below the finest seive of the series and the seive ratio (R_s) in power of modulus (M_c)." If we convert the exponential equation into a logarithmic equation with inch as unit, we get equation (11) which coincides with the equation for F. M. suggested by Prof. Abrams in 1918.Modular diameter can be solved graphically in the following way: (1) Draw an "equivalent modular curve" of two grades based on M_c (or F. M.) (see Fig. 6). (2) Along the ordinate between the two grades, find its intersecting point with the modular curve. (3) Read the log scale on the ordinate, thus get the value of the required d_m corresponding to M_c (see Fig. 5).As the modular diameter has a linear dimension with a defin

    細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是...

    細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是兩篩篩孔的幾何平均值,以代替數學平均值(即斯氏平均?

     
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