Traditional mountainous gardens has maintained aboriginality biogeocenose, which should be used for references to mountainous landscape constructions nowadays.

Aiming at the relationship between construction of development zones and urban spatial evolution, the paper analyzes some factors from development zones to urban spatial evolution. Then, it supplies some references for the government's managing and planning control, in order to resolve those problems .

Based on field tests in certain clay foundation engineering,improving effects,construction controlling criterion,and existing problems in such foundations are analyzed and provided application references for future similar engineering.

In connection with some problems in air conditioner project,it discusses design of air conditioning water system and its common diseases in construction from aspects of winnowing length of pump & anti-pressure strength of pump,which provides references for future design & construction.

Based upon comparative analysis of the calculation formula of the bearing capacity of single pile in technical code for building pile foundation and code for design of building foundation key points are elaborated for the application of calculation formula in pile foundation design in order to provide references for practice.

Based on the problems forenamed, lots of domestic and international references, combining modern management methods, such as Integrated Management, Third Party Logistics, Virtual Organization, etc. , with Information and Communication Technology (ICT), this thesis proposes an EPCIMS (Engineering Projects Contemporary Integrated Management Systems)-based Project Risk Management.

针对上述问题，本文将集成化管理（Integrated Management）、虚拟组织（Virtual Organization）等现代管理思想同信息与通讯技术（Information and Communication Technology）相结合，提出了基于工程建设项目集成化管理系统（Engineering Projects Contemporary Integrated Management Systems，即EPCIMS）的项目风险管理。

The reliability of centrally and eccentrically loaded columns in standard GBJl7-88 is analysed, and results obtained are compared with those given in References[1]and[2].

The conclusions of this paper would offer theoretical references for designers and analyzers of clock-controlled generators.

The excellent recognition performance is much better than those of the other cited references, which indicates that our approach is well-suited for appearance-based object recognition.

This research can provide references for city planning and urban green space establishment and facilitate the popularization of quantitative assessment of ecological benefits of green spaces in Chinese cities.

The results may bring up theoretical references for fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.

The corresponding references were retrieved by means of electric retrieval and manual retrieval from different databases or materials.

Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44...

Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44 as national standard to specify the fine aggregate for concrete in USSR. It was introduced to China in 1952 and soon becomes popular in all technical literatures concerning concrete aggregates and materials of construction.After careful and thorough investigation from ordinary and special gradings of sand, the equation of d_(cp) appears to be not so sound in principle and the value of d_(cp) computed from this equation is not applicable to engineering practice. The assumption that the initial average diameter (ν) of sand grains between consecutive seives is the arithmetical mean of the openings is not in best logic. The value of an average diameter computed from the total number of grains irrespective of their sizes will depend solely on the fines, because the fines are much more in number than the coarses. Grains in the two coarser grades (larger than 1.2 mm or retained on No. 16 seive) comprising about 2/5 of the whole lot are not duly represented and become null and void in d_(cp) equation. This is why the initiator neglected the last two terms of the equation in his own computation. Furthermore, the value of d_(cp) varies irregularly and even inversely while the sands are progressing from fine to coarse (see Fig. 4).As F. M. is still the only practical and yet the simplest index in controlling fineness of sand, this paper attempts to interpret it with a sound physical concept. By analyzing the F. M. equation (2a) in the form of Table 9, it is discovered that the coefficients (1, 2…6) of the separate fractions (the percentages retained between consecutive seives, a1, a2…a6) are not "size factors" as called by Prof. H. T. Gilkey (see p. 93, reference 4), but are "coarseness coefficients" which indicate the number of seives that each separate fraction can retain on them. The more seives the fraction can retain, the coarser is the fraction. So, it is logical to call it a "coarseness coefficient". The product of separate fraction by its corresponding coarseness coefficient will be the "separate coarseness modulus". The sum of all the separate coarseness moduli is the total "coarseness modulus" (M_c).Similarly, if we compute the total modulus from the coefficients based on number of seives that any fraction can pass instead of retain, we shall arrive at the true "fineness modulus" (M_f).By assuming the initial mean diameter (ν') of sand grains between consecutive seives to be the geometrical mean of the openings instead of the arithmetical mean, a "modular diameter" (d_m), measured in mm (or in micron) is derived as a function of M_c (or F. M.) and can be expressed by a rational formula in a very generalized form (see equation 12). This equation is very instructive and can be stated as a definition of mqdular diameter as following:"The modular diameter (d_m) is the product of the geometrical mean ((d_0×d_(-1))~(1/2) next below the finest seive of the series and the seive ratio (R_s) in power of modulus (M_c)." If we convert the exponential equation into a logarithmic equation with inch as unit, we get equation (11) which coincides with the equation for F. M. suggested by Prof. Abrams in 1918.Modular diameter can be solved graphically in the following way: (1) Draw an "equivalent modular curve" of two grades based on M_c (or F. M.) (see Fig. 6). (2) Along the ordinate between the two grades, find its intersecting point with the modular curve. (3) Read the log scale on the ordinate, thus get the value of the required d_m corresponding to M_c (see Fig. 5).As the modular diameter has a linear dimension with a defin

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under...

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under the combined action of foundation loads and of percolating water.In order to prevent foundations against settlement the "Provisional Code for the Design of Natural Foundations" gives a set of rules of precautions for designers to observe, which include the prevention of water from getting into the foundations, artificial strengthening of the soil and the designing of superstructures in such a way that they will adjust themselves to settlement. Before the adoption of any of such precautions could be decided, the accuracy in evaluating the amount of possible settlement of the soil is a problem of prime importance, which unfortunately cannot be satisfactorily obtained.This paper attempts to give some predominent characteristics of loess, the points of contradiction between the assumptions made in the old designing code and the results derived from actual work, a comparison of the salient features of the old code with the new code of ordinance of the U. S. S. R., 1955, and some suggestions regarding further developments of this branch of soil engineering. Several cases of actual construction work in loess in recent years are also cited which, owing to our incomplete knowledge of the soils, nature, have inevitably either caused unnecessary expenses to the works, or brought about results detrimental to the stability of structures.In this branch of soil engineering have, therefore, many difficulties yet to be contended with. It is hoped that this paper could be of some reference value to research engineers in this line and the knowledge of loess be further developed in view of the increasing pressure of necessity in our present construction work.

In the reference [5], the author has suggested a method of vectorial graphicalcomputation of the undamped forced vibration of the system with one degreeof freedom. In this paper, the method has been extended to the case of thedamped forced vibration. It is known that analytic method is very complicated,troublesome and even not applicable, when the dynamical load P(t), as a func-tion of time t, is of irregular, or sometimes of discontinuous character. But thevectorial graphical method may be used with advantages....

In the reference [5], the author has suggested a method of vectorial graphicalcomputation of the undamped forced vibration of the system with one degreeof freedom. In this paper, the method has been extended to the case of thedamped forced vibration. It is known that analytic method is very complicated,troublesome and even not applicable, when the dynamical load P(t), as a func-tion of time t, is of irregular, or sometimes of discontinuous character. But thevectorial graphical method may be used with advantages. It is also possible to perform an approximate numerical computation follow-ing the same procedure of the vectorial graphical method. Based upon the principle of the vectorial graphical method, author has de-rived an expression of the general solution for calculating the damped forcedvibration of the system with one degree of freedom. To find the dynamical dis-placement function Y(t), it is believed simpler and more convenient to use thegeneral formulas given in this paper than to use the current analytical methods. Illustrations are shown not only for the concrete procedure of the vectorialgraphical computation, but also for the application of the general solution givenhere.