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    All these provide references for the users to realize permanent storage function with S7-200.
    对需使用S7-200进行永久存储功能的用户有一定的借鉴作用。
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    Traditional mountainous gardens has maintained aboriginality biogeocenose, which should be used for references to mountainous landscape constructions nowadays.
    传统山地园林在创造景观秩序的同时,尽量维护了生态系统的原生性,这一点尤其应该为今天的山地景观建设所借鉴
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    Aiming at the relationship between construction of development zones and urban spatial evolution, the paper analyzes some factors from development zones to urban spatial evolution. Then, it supplies some references for the government's managing and planning control, in order to resolve those problems .
    基于这种情况,本篇论文以开发区的布局建设和城市空间结构演化的关系为研究对象,深入分析了开发区建设给城市空间结构所带来的积极影响和消极影响因素,针对出现的问题,提出解决的措施和建议,为政府管理及规划调控提供借鉴,以合理规范开发区的规划建设,建设可持续发展的开发区和城市空间。
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    Based on field tests in certain clay foundation engineering,improving effects,construction controlling criterion,and existing problems in such foundations are analyzed and provided application references for future similar engineering.
    结合某粘土地基土工程中采用振冲碎石桩的应用情况 ,对振冲碎石桩在粘土地基中的处理效果、施工控制标准、以及存在的问题进行了分析 ,以供今后类似工程应用借鉴
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    In connection with some problems in air conditioner project,it discusses design of air conditioning water system and its common diseases in construction from aspects of winnowing length of pump & anti-pressure strength of pump,which provides references for future design & construction.
    结合空调工程中存在的一些问题 ,从水泵扬程、水泵耐压强度等方面 ,对空调水系统设计及施工中存在的通病进行探讨 ,以便为今后的设计及施工提供借鉴
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    Based upon comparative analysis of the calculation formula of the bearing capacity of single pile in technical code for building pile foundation and code for design of building foundation key points are elaborated for the application of calculation formula in pile foundation design in order to provide references for practice.
    对《建筑桩基技术规范》和《建筑地基基础设计规范》中的两个单桩承载力的计算公式进行了对比分析,阐述了桩基设计中公式的应用要点,以便更好地为工程服务。
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    Statistics and Analysis of References in Journal of Building Materials 1998~2002
    1998~2002年《建筑材料学报》刊文引文的统计与分析
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    The research provides theoretical references for application of 4WS in construction machineries and development of digital controller.
    论文的研究为工程机械4WS工程化应用以及数字控制器的开发提供了理论依据,尤其对中置式中低速大扭矩轮式工程机械的4WS开发、制造具有实际意义。
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    Based on the problems forenamed, lots of domestic and international references, combining modern management methods, such as Integrated Management, Third Party Logistics, Virtual Organization, etc. , with Information and Communication Technology (ICT), this thesis proposes an EPCIMS (Engineering Projects Contemporary Integrated Management Systems)-based Project Risk Management.
    针对上述问题,本文将集成化管理(Integrated Management)、虚拟组织(Virtual Organization)等现代管理思想同信息与通讯技术(Information and Communication Technology)相结合,提出了基于工程建设项目集成化管理系统(Engineering Projects Contemporary Integrated Management Systems,即EPCIMS)的项目风险管理。
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    The reliability of centrally and eccentrically loaded columns in standard GBJl7-88 is analysed, and results obtained are compared with those given in References[1]and[2].
    本文还对GBJl7—88规范的中心压杆和偏心压杆进行了可靠度分析,并与文[1],[2]的方法进行了比较。
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  references
The conclusions of this paper would offer theoretical references for designers and analyzers of clock-controlled generators.
      
The excellent recognition performance is much better than those of the other cited references, which indicates that our approach is well-suited for appearance-based object recognition.
      
This research can provide references for city planning and urban green space establishment and facilitate the popularization of quantitative assessment of ecological benefits of green spaces in Chinese cities.
      
The results may bring up theoretical references for fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.
      
The corresponding references were retrieved by means of electric retrieval and manual retrieval from different databases or materials.
      
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Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44...

Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44 as national standard to specify the fine aggregate for concrete in USSR. It was introduced to China in 1952 and soon becomes popular in all technical literatures concerning concrete aggregates and materials of construction.After careful and thorough investigation from ordinary and special gradings of sand, the equation of d_(cp) appears to be not so sound in principle and the value of d_(cp) computed from this equation is not applicable to engineering practice. The assumption that the initial average diameter (ν) of sand grains between consecutive seives is the arithmetical mean of the openings is not in best logic. The value of an average diameter computed from the total number of grains irrespective of their sizes will depend solely on the fines, because the fines are much more in number than the coarses. Grains in the two coarser grades (larger than 1.2 mm or retained on No. 16 seive) comprising about 2/5 of the whole lot are not duly represented and become null and void in d_(cp) equation. This is why the initiator neglected the last two terms of the equation in his own computation. Furthermore, the value of d_(cp) varies irregularly and even inversely while the sands are progressing from fine to coarse (see Fig. 4).As F. M. is still the only practical and yet the simplest index in controlling fineness of sand, this paper attempts to interpret it with a sound physical concept. By analyzing the F. M. equation (2a) in the form of Table 9, it is discovered that the coefficients (1, 2…6) of the separate fractions (the percentages retained between consecutive seives, a1, a2…a6) are not "size factors" as called by Prof. H. T. Gilkey (see p. 93, reference 4), but are "coarseness coefficients" which indicate the number of seives that each separate fraction can retain on them. The more seives the fraction can retain, the coarser is the fraction. So, it is logical to call it a "coarseness coefficient". The product of separate fraction by its corresponding coarseness coefficient will be the "separate coarseness modulus". The sum of all the separate coarseness moduli is the total "coarseness modulus" (M_c).Similarly, if we compute the total modulus from the coefficients based on number of seives that any fraction can pass instead of retain, we shall arrive at the true "fineness modulus" (M_f).By assuming the initial mean diameter (ν') of sand grains between consecutive seives to be the geometrical mean of the openings instead of the arithmetical mean, a "modular diameter" (d_m), measured in mm (or in micron) is derived as a function of M_c (or F. M.) and can be expressed by a rational formula in a very generalized form (see equation 12). This equation is very instructive and can be stated as a definition of mqdular diameter as following:"The modular diameter (d_m) is the product of the geometrical mean ((d_0×d_(-1))~(1/2) next below the finest seive of the series and the seive ratio (R_s) in power of modulus (M_c)." If we convert the exponential equation into a logarithmic equation with inch as unit, we get equation (11) which coincides with the equation for F. M. suggested by Prof. Abrams in 1918.Modular diameter can be solved graphically in the following way: (1) Draw an "equivalent modular curve" of two grades based on M_c (or F. M.) (see Fig. 6). (2) Along the ordinate between the two grades, find its intersecting point with the modular curve. (3) Read the log scale on the ordinate, thus get the value of the required d_m corresponding to M_c (see Fig. 5).As the modular diameter has a linear dimension with a defin

細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是...

細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是兩篩篩孔的幾何平均值,以代替數學平均值(即斯氏平均?

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under...

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under the combined action of foundation loads and of percolating water.In order to prevent foundations against settlement the "Provisional Code for the Design of Natural Foundations" gives a set of rules of precautions for designers to observe, which include the prevention of water from getting into the foundations, artificial strengthening of the soil and the designing of superstructures in such a way that they will adjust themselves to settlement. Before the adoption of any of such precautions could be decided, the accuracy in evaluating the amount of possible settlement of the soil is a problem of prime importance, which unfortunately cannot be satisfactorily obtained.This paper attempts to give some predominent characteristics of loess, the points of contradiction between the assumptions made in the old designing code and the results derived from actual work, a comparison of the salient features of the old code with the new code of ordinance of the U. S. S. R., 1955, and some suggestions regarding further developments of this branch of soil engineering. Several cases of actual construction work in loess in recent years are also cited which, owing to our incomplete knowledge of the soils, nature, have inevitably either caused unnecessary expenses to the works, or brought about results detrimental to the stability of structures.In this branch of soil engineering have, therefore, many difficulties yet to be contended with. It is hoped that this paper could be of some reference value to research engineers in this line and the knowledge of loess be further developed in view of the increasing pressure of necessity in our present construction work.

黄土工程特性的研究,是目前土壤力学一个重要部門。有关黄土区的地基与土工工作、我們經常根据“天然地基設計暫行規范”上条文来設計,但对於基土沉陷量的估計,往往不易准确,而造成工程上的困难与事故。这是現时没有得到解决的問題。本文闡述黄土的若干特性,旧規范条文上的缺点,苏联1955年批准的“建筑法規”内改善黄土部分条文的意义,以及目前国内研究与發展的方向。其中主要說明黄土由於荷載及含水量兩項的綜合影响对其沉陷性能上所發生的变化,以及估計这項变化较合理的方法,以期在研究工作上作进一步的認識。

In the reference [5], the author has suggested a method of vectorial graphicalcomputation of the undamped forced vibration of the system with one degreeof freedom. In this paper, the method has been extended to the case of thedamped forced vibration. It is known that analytic method is very complicated,troublesome and even not applicable, when the dynamical load P(t), as a func-tion of time t, is of irregular, or sometimes of discontinuous character. But thevectorial graphical method may be used with advantages....

In the reference [5], the author has suggested a method of vectorial graphicalcomputation of the undamped forced vibration of the system with one degreeof freedom. In this paper, the method has been extended to the case of thedamped forced vibration. It is known that analytic method is very complicated,troublesome and even not applicable, when the dynamical load P(t), as a func-tion of time t, is of irregular, or sometimes of discontinuous character. But thevectorial graphical method may be used with advantages. It is also possible to perform an approximate numerical computation follow-ing the same procedure of the vectorial graphical method. Based upon the principle of the vectorial graphical method, author has de-rived an expression of the general solution for calculating the damped forcedvibration of the system with one degree of freedom. To find the dynamical dis-placement function Y(t), it is believed simpler and more convenient to use thegeneral formulas given in this paper than to use the current analytical methods. Illustrations are shown not only for the concrete procedure of the vectorialgraphical computation, but also for the application of the general solution givenhere.

在参考文献[5]中,作者曾提出单自由度系统无阻尼强迫振动的矢量图解计算方法,本文将这方法进一步推广,应用到单自由度系统阻尼强迫振动。如所周知,当作用扰力随时间变化的图形为任意不规则甚且是断续的情况时,解析方法十分繁琐、累赘、甚至不再适用;这时,矢量图解计算方法并不受到限制并显示出它的优越性。 按照矢量图解计算的程序,进行近似的数值解算,也是可行的。 参照矢量图解计算方法的原理,本文导演出单自由度系统阻尼强迫振动一般性解答的一种表示式。当作用扰力函数以多项式形式给定时,用本文给出的表示式求解动力偏移函数,比较用现有一般解析方法要简捷一些。 本文对于矢量图解计算的具体程序列举了算例;对于本文给出的一般性解答的应用,也列举了算例。

 
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