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Truth and heresy: The ethics of publishing in the 21st century
      
Andean religion was condemned as heresy and curers were condemned as witches.
      
Heresy is the defiant rejection of ideology from a smaller community within the orthodoxy.
      
Perfect reproductions of works of art: Substitutes or heresy
      
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Medieval churchmen know that tolerance ought not to lead people to indifference to truth, but should be based on Christian love into which justice and mercy are to be reconciled. They believe that heresy is a grave crime and the church has a pastoral duty to separate the wicked from the good, not only for the sake of Catholics who could be contaminated but also for the benefit of heretics who may be corrected through a sentence of excommunication. Although excommunication is a legal sanction with severe...

Medieval churchmen know that tolerance ought not to lead people to indifference to truth, but should be based on Christian love into which justice and mercy are to be reconciled. They believe that heresy is a grave crime and the church has a pastoral duty to separate the wicked from the good, not only for the sake of Catholics who could be contaminated but also for the benefit of heretics who may be corrected through a sentence of excommunication. Although excommunication is a legal sanction with severe religious and social consequences, its purpose is medicinal. Not all crimes are punished in this world. Some are judged only by God. As a spirituale supplicium, excommunication is not to be inflicted upon innocent family members of heretics. While in reconciliation as well as in excommunication relevant canonical norms are to be observed, the rigor of law ought to be mitigated according to time, place and person. Exceptions and accommodations under certain circumstances are necessary in the interpretation and application of canons regarding heretics in order that their illness of soul may be better cured. Such is the tolerance in the historical context of medieval church. And deal principles embodied in this tolerance are not always practiced. Abuses of authority and law in the treatment of heretics are common in the Middle Ages, unfortunate but real.

中世纪西欧教会曾严厉镇压异端运动 ,同时又有一系列宽容的思想和举措。这是逻辑混乱或虚伪吗 ?教会法对异端分子的处理展现了基督教宽容在特定历史语境中的存在和运作 ,也说明这一宽容的渊源不是对真理的怀疑和冷漠 ,而是出自对神恩的信心、对他人良知的尊重。真理只能在历史进程中得以认知 ,而对宽容的评价也只能在特定的历史语境中进行。按照 1 2世纪教会法学家格兰西的理解 ,处分异端分子的方式和举措典型地展示了正义和仁慈统合于爱 ,而爱就是关怀人类的拯救。不论是对罪犯处以绝罚还是鼓励他们与上帝和教会和解 ,相应的教会法规范都应该遵循 ,但是解释和应用法律必须考虑时间、地点、案件和当事人的特殊情形 ,据此减免刑罚或停止律法的施行。有时教会宽恕异端分子 ,期望他们能因此更快地纠正谬误。宽恕 ,不应该是神职人员渎职的借口 ;严格执法 ,也不应该蜕变成贪图和炫耀个人权威的机会。教会法对株连的批评尤其值得借鉴。教会法关于宽容的原则在律法的解释和施行中并未得到完全贯彻 ,迫害和滥用权威的现象时有发生 ,可知在寻求真理的同时又怀抱宽仁之心何其难也 !

It in well known that Galileo was tried for his scientific belief. In fact the reasons leading to his trial were complicated and scholars disagreed widely on the issue. But it is sure that his trial was NOT due to his scientific belief alone, the era saw him involved in the severe political struggle between the Catholicism and the Protestantism, has methodology characterized by his anti-authority attitude made him taken as a heresy in theology and the enemy of the Aristotelian scholastic philosophers....

It in well known that Galileo was tried for his scientific belief. In fact the reasons leading to his trial were complicated and scholars disagreed widely on the issue. But it is sure that his trial was NOT due to his scientific belief alone, the era saw him involved in the severe political struggle between the Catholicism and the Protestantism, has methodology characterized by his anti-authority attitude made him taken as a heresy in theology and the enemy of the Aristotelian scholastic philosophers. And he hurt the Pope's feeling on the improper occasion. All the factors caused him to become a victim.

众所周知,伽利略因自己的科学信念而被审判。事实上导致他被审判的原因非常复杂,学者们就此争论不休,不过,可以肯定导致他被审的原因绝不仅仅是他的科学信念。笔者认为,导致伽利略被审的原因既有政治形势的影响,也与他的宗教和科学信念有关,更与他的哲学立场密切相关。这其中既有偶然因素,也有必然因素。具体说来,主要有如下几个方面的原因:一、他所处的时代使他身不由己地卷入了一场天主教与新教的严酷的政治斗争之中;二、他在神学上关于解释《圣经》的观点被视为有异端倾向,他的科学方法论所具有的反权成的特色使他在哲学上得罪了亚里士多德派的经院哲学家;三、他又很不合时宜地得罪了教皇;以上种种因素汇集在一起,促成了他的悲剧性的结局,使他很不幸地成了一个牺牲品。

There were many ideas of inequality and slavery in medieval Western Europe. This article probes into the general ideas of social orders, social discriminations and slavery during that period. It pays special attention to the discriminatory attitudes of unbound people towards bound people, urban people towards rural people, Christians towards heresies, especially Jews, and Europeans towards their colonial people outside Europe.

在中世纪西欧 ,存在着形形色色的不平等与奴役的观念。本文集中探讨了一般的社会等级观念、社会歧视观念、容忍奴役制度的观念和对异族和异教的歧视观念。

 
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