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bacteria     
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  细菌
     The Studies on the Identification and Biological Characteristics of a Novel Rice Endophytic Bacteria Strain Delftia Tsuruhatensis HR4 with N_2-fixing Activity
     一株新的水稻植物内生固氮细菌Delftia tsuruhatensis HR4的鉴定及其生物学特性
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     Study of Proboitic Properties of Photosynthetic Bacteria
     光合细菌益生特性的实验研究
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     Studies on Toxicity and Bacteria Degradation of Oxytropis Glacialis Toxin
     冰川棘豆毒素的毒性及细菌降解研究
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     A Preliminary Study On Soymilk and Soycheese Water for Cultivation of Bacteria
     试用豆浆及豆腐水培养细菌之初步研究
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     Studies on the production of Bacteria α-Amylase by submerged Culture (Ⅰ) Assay Method of Bacteria α-Amylase Activity
     细菌α-淀粉酶深层培养的研究(Ⅰ)——细菌α-淀粉酶活性的测定方法
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     Study on the Character and Mechanism of Degradation of Lignin in Paper Industry Black Liquor with Efficient Bacteria
     高效降解造纸黑液木质素的特性与机理研究
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     Studies on the Ecology of Pathogens and Its Antagonistic Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Cucumber and Mechanisms of Induced Resistance by Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobactria
     黄瓜根围病原与拮抗的生态学及PGPR诱导抗性机制的研究
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     Isolation and Identification of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria, Relevant Gene Expression in E.coli and Research of Its Metabolic Mechanism
     聚羟基脂肪酸酯产生筛选及其在E.coli工程中表达与代谢机理研究
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     Studies on Biological Characteristics of Infection-resistant Reaction Against Alginic Acid Decomposing Bacteria in Laminaria Japonica
     海带抗褐藻酸降解感染反应的生物学特征研究
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     Studies on the bacteriophage of glutamic acid-producing bacteria,A.S.1.542(Corynebacterium sp.)
     谷氨酸产生A.S.1.542(Corynebacterium sp.)噬体的研究
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  细菌的
     Phenotypic Characteristics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Crude Oil-degrading Bacteria
     石油降解细菌的表型特性和系统发育分析
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     Energy Metabolism in Methanogenic Bacteria
     产甲烷细菌的能量代谢
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     HOST SERUM AGGLUTINATING BACTERIA TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PATHOGENIC AND CONTAMINATED BACTERIA IN HOSPITAL LABORATORY
     宿主血清对细菌的凝集试验鉴别病原菌与污染菌
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     Study on Bacteria in the Bile Duct of Gallstone Patients Ⅱ. Study on Bacteria in the Bile Duct and Bacterial β-Glucuronidase in Gallstone Patients
     胆石症患者胆道细菌的研究(Ⅱ、胆石症胆道细菌及其β-葡萄糖醛酸酶的研究)
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     A study on ecology of petroleum-degrading bacteria in the waters near Qinshan NuclearPower Station
     秦山核电站邻近水域石油降解细菌的生态学研究
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  病原菌
     Autoinducer Inactivity Protein Aii in Bacillus Thuringiensis and Its Effect on Pathogenicity of Plant-pathogen Bacteria
     苏云金芽胞杆菌蛋白Aii及其对植物病原菌致病性的影响
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     Studies on the Ecology of Pathogens and Its Antagonistic Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Cucumber and Mechanisms of Induced Resistance by Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobactria
     黄瓜根围病原菌与拮抗菌的生态学及PGPR诱导抗性机制的研究
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     Study on the Genic Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria Responsible for Bacteremia and Enteric Infection
     菌血症及肠道感染常见病原菌高通量基因诊断研究
短句来源
     HOST SERUM AGGLUTINATING BACTERIA TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN PATHOGENIC AND CONTAMINATED BACTERIA IN HOSPITAL LABORATORY
     宿主血清对细菌的凝集试验鉴别病原菌与污染菌
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     Study on pathogens and resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in nosocomial infections
     医院内感染病原菌及其耐药性的研究
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  bacteria
The pharmaceutical sciences are advancing rapidly in the post-genomic era of the 21st century with the completion of the human genome, as well as those of many other organisms including bacteria and parasites, and the rapid advances in proteomics.
      
The aqueous and solvent extracts when tested against 11 gram-negative and 2 gram-positive bacteria and 3 fungi expressed activity to most of the organisms.
      
Methanol extract showed more activity amongst all the solvent extracts, particularly remarkable activity recorded against gram-positive bacteria.
      
Aqueous and organic solvent extracts tested by agar-well diffusion method against 12 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains showed activity to most of the organisms.
      
These new synthesized compounds evaluated for their antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the tube dilution method.
      
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Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

The action of aureomycin on the respiration of Escherichia coli under different conditions was studied. Our results show that the respiration of Escherichia coli in ordinary broth or in media containing glucose together with some nitrogenous substance such as casein hydrolysate, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine or ammonium sulfate, could be inhibited by aureomycin of minimal growth inhibiting concentration, namely 2.5 μg/ml. In the last case, the uptake of ammonium-nitrogen by the bacteria was also...

The action of aureomycin on the respiration of Escherichia coli under different conditions was studied. Our results show that the respiration of Escherichia coli in ordinary broth or in media containing glucose together with some nitrogenous substance such as casein hydrolysate, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine or ammonium sulfate, could be inhibited by aureomycin of minimal growth inhibiting concentration, namely 2.5 μg/ml. In the last case, the uptake of ammonium-nitrogen by the bacteria was also diminished. Aureomycin of concentrations lower than 100 μg/ml gave no significant effect on the oxygen consumption of the bacteria in a medium containing glucose and phosphate buffer only. Similar results were obtained with pyruvate substituted for glucose and with glutamate as nitrogen source, while with pyruvate alone the oxidation was only slightly depressed by aureomycin (2.5 μg/ml). Malate and acetate oxidations were not inhibited by such low concentration of the antibiotic. In control experiments addition of any of the above mentioned nitrogenous substances to the medium markedly increased the rate of the respiration over that observed for glucose or pyruvate alone, and this increase with the exception of glutamate could not be accounted for by the additional oxidation of the nitrogen containing substrates. In presence of 2.5 μg/ml of aureomycin, this enhancing action of the nitrogenous compounds was strongly depressed. The observed inhibition in case of the substrate mixture cannot be due to the action of the drug on the oxidation of the individual substrates, but is due to processes involving the combined metabolism of glucose (pyruvate) and any one of the nitrogenous compounds. From the fact that the inhibition is clearly noticeable within 15 minutes after the addition of aureomycin and can be observed under conditions in which growth does not take place, as judged from the respiration, it is suggested that aureomycin can inhibit some processes concerned with the oxidative nitrogen metabolism, preceding cell division, of Escherichia coil.

實驗結果表明最低制菌濃度的金黴素可以顯著抑制大腸桿菌在含有葡萄糖和某些合氮物如酪朊水解物、丙氨酸、門冬氨酸、谷氨酸、甘氨酸或硫酸銨的培養基中的呼吸,也抑制了氨氮的同化。在以丙酮酸和谷氨酸作底質時有同樣的現象。以上述含氮物中的任何一種加於大腸桿菌的葡萄糖磷酸鹽緩衝劑的懸浮液中,可以有力地提高其呼吸率,比在單獨葡萄糖中的要高得多。2.5微克/毫升的金黴素可以強烈地抑制這種提高作用。這種觀察到的抑制並不是由於個別底質分别受到抑制的結果。本文討論了金黴素抑制大腸桿菌呼吸的作用機構和可能的幾種解釋,並指出這種作用可能是由於金黴素抑制了包括碳水化物和含氮物在内的某個或某些聯合代謝過程。

The anatomical and histological studies of the alimentary canal of Erthesina fullo Thunberg was studied in detail. The alimentary canal consists of three parts:the stomodaeum(pharynx and oesophagus),the mesenteren and the proctodaeum(rectum).The mesenteron in its turn differentiates morphologically into four parts,while the fourth part bears four reddish mycentoms——modified epithelial cells containing symbiotic bacteria. The paired salivary glands consists each of the main gland,the reservior, the tubular...

The anatomical and histological studies of the alimentary canal of Erthesina fullo Thunberg was studied in detail. The alimentary canal consists of three parts:the stomodaeum(pharynx and oesophagus),the mesenteren and the proctodaeum(rectum).The mesenteron in its turn differentiates morphologically into four parts,while the fourth part bears four reddish mycentoms——modified epithelial cells containing symbiotic bacteria. The paired salivary glands consists each of the main gland,the reservior, the tubular accessory gland and the salivary duct. The four malpighian tubules of this insect open into the pylorus,just above the pyloric valve.The epithelium of the malpighian tubule is continuous with that of the mesenteron,and not with the proctodaeum.This confirms the obser- vations of other authors in Orthoptera and Dermaptera.

1.本文记载了黄斑椿象(Erthesina fullo Thunberg)消化系统及马氏管的解剖与组织构造。2.黄斑椿象的消化管分为前肠(咽、食道)、中肠及后肠(直肠)三部,其中中肠又分化为形态不同的四部份,第四部份上着生有四条贮菌器,系由中肠上皮细胞增殖交形而成。3.黄斑椿象的唾腺分为主腺、副腺、贮囊及唾管四部。4.黄斑椿象的马氏管开口于中肠末端的幽门部,幽门瓣的前方,幽门部及马氏管凸的上皮,其形状与中肠相同,而与后肠不同。

 
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