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forest     
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  森林
    A Study on Forest Soil CO_2, N_2O and CH_4 Emission Flux and Dynamics in Xishan Area, Beijing
    北京西山地区森林土壤中CO_2、N_2O和CH_4气体的排放通量及动态研究
短句来源
    Study on Physico-chemical Property and Health Index of Forest Soil on Badaling Mountain in Beijing
    北京八达岭地区森林土壤理化特征及健康指数的研究
短句来源
    Research on Structure and Function of Soil Animals in Forest Ecosystem in Da Xinganling Mountains
    大兴安岭森林生态系统土壤动物结构及其功能研究
短句来源
    BROWN DESERT FOREST SOIL IN TARIM BASIN
    塔里木盆地的棕色荒漠森林
短句来源
    STUDY ON THE ORGANIC MATTER OF THE FOREST SOILS IN WOLONG NATURAL RESERVE
    卧龙自然保护区森林土壤有机质的研究
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    Planning for conservation forest in Xinglong small-watershed
    兴隆小流域水土保持规划
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    Study on the construction of ecological and economical engineering for fruit and forest in lower hills
    低山地区果生态经济工程建设的研究
短句来源
    CONSTRUCTION OF FOREST SYSTEM FOR SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION AND ITS BENEFITS IN LOESS HILLY REGION
    黄土丘陵沟壑区水土保持体系建设及效益分析
短句来源
    FOREST NET FIELD——A MODEL FOR BASIC CONSTRUCTION OF FARMLAND ALONG THE GREAT WALL LINE
    网田——长城沿线地区的基本农田建设模式
短句来源
    Study on the Benefits of the Water-reserving Forest in the Upper Reaches of Miyun Reservoir
    密云水库上游水源涵养效益的研究
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  林木
    CHARACTERISTICS OF ROOT, STEM, AND SOIL RESPIRATION Q_(10) TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
    林木非同化器官与土壤呼吸的温度系数_(10)值的特征分析
短句来源
    Study on the shear strength of forest root-loess composite.
    林木根系与黄土复合体的抗剪强度试验研究
短句来源
    In recent 10 years, 2400 km2 of soil loss area have been harnessed, with a newly built area of terraces and irrigated field of 300000 hm2, economic forest increases from 28400 hm2 to 76000 hm2, forest cover from 13% to
    近十年治理水土流失面积2400km~2,新建梯田和发展水地30.14万hm~2,经济林由2.84万hm~2发展到7.6万hm~2,林木覆盖率由13%提高到21%,商品经济和乡镇企业都得到迅速发展,初步改变了贫困落后面貌。
短句来源
    the southwest of China, including 15species fruit trees, 9 ornamental plants. 7 forest trees. 4 leguminous plants and 1 food crop.
    四川有36种植物表现缺铁症,其中包括15种果树,9种观赏植物,7种林木,4种豆科植物和1种粮食作物。
短句来源
    After 10 years of experiment and technological spreading it is shown that in an area of 410mm precipitation per year,when anti-seepage technical treatments are taken on the slopes, and each tree has a water-collecting area of 8 m2, the forest belt of 2m2 can collect 570 to 1270 mm of rainfall, thus increase survival rate to 98% and increase tree growth by 40% to 80%.
    10年试验研究和大面积示范结果表明,在年降水量410mm左右地区造林,林地坡面经过不同的防渗处理,当每株树具有8m~2的集水面时,可使2m~2的植树带内收集到570~1270mm降水,造林成活率最高达到98%,林木生长量可提高40%~80%.
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  林地
    Study on the surface flow of forest
    林地地表径流的研究
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    Research on the Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy Metals in Forest Soil Amended with Municipal Sewage Sluge after 15 Years
    污泥用于林地15年后养分和重金属在土壤中分布的研究
短句来源
    An Application of the Light Evaporograph in the Study of Soil Evaporation of Forest Land
    小型蒸发计在林地土壤蒸发研究中的应用
短句来源
    Study on Soil Erosion Properties in the Forest Lands and Reclaimed lands
    子午岭林区林地和开垦地土壤侵蚀特征研究
短句来源
    Study of Sediment Yield from Slope and Gully Erosion After Reclamation of Forest Land
    林地开垦后坡沟侵蚀产沙关系的研究
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  forest
Moreover, a backward reasoning forest of a reachable marking was generated for explicitly representing reachable paths in RBS.
      
Growth Model System for National Continuous Forest Inventory
      
A Growth Model System is developed for data updating and forecasting of the national continuous forest inventory.
      
Its design is based on the inherent forest growth laws, and its parameters are estimated by modern regression methods.
      
It is suitable for forest resource information updating and forecasting for a large region, e.g., a province.
      
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The West Tianmu Mountains, located in north-western Zhejiang Province, are among the National Nature Protection Areas in China.According to the data obtained from a number of field observations,soil chemical and physical analyses, clay differential thermal analyses, and X-ray diffraction pattern and microscope electron examinations, it has been found that the soils in this mountain area are of a distinct allitic character,the silica-alumina ratio approximating to 2. Among the clay minerals,kaolinite is dominant,...

The West Tianmu Mountains, located in north-western Zhejiang Province, are among the National Nature Protection Areas in China.According to the data obtained from a number of field observations,soil chemical and physical analyses, clay differential thermal analyses, and X-ray diffraction pattern and microscope electron examinations, it has been found that the soils in this mountain area are of a distinct allitic character,the silica-alumina ratio approximating to 2. Among the clay minerals,kaolinite is dominant, gibbsite being the second in importance. The soils show strong acid reaction, with a high content of active aluminuin. The soil morphological features conform to those of the Yellowish character.According to the soil features and the national conditions, they are considered to belong to the great soil group of the Mountain Yellow Earth.The soils from mountain top to the foot (the altitude of 1507 to 400M.above sea level), can again be divided into three main subgroups: Mountain Bleached-podzolied Yellow Earth, Mountain Surface Glei Yellow Earth and Yellow Earth.We got chances to make observation there twice respectively in the year of 1959 and of 1980. A comparison of the results shows that the forest ecological system there is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. The increase of forest biomass has led to the increase of residues, soilhumus and soil water capacity. The soil base contents are decreased by leaching water. As a result, the soil acidity is increased. The changes of soil property, in turn, have had some effect on the components and structures of the forest colonies.

根据野外调查和土壤理化分析、差热分析。X射线分析等资料,说明西天目山南坡土壤具明显富铝化特征,硅铝率2左右,粘土矿物以高岭石为主,并含较多三水铝矿,酸性强、活性铝含量较高,土壤剖面呈明显的黄化特征,故统属黄壤类土壤。从山顶到山麓又可续分为山地漂灰黄壤、山地表潜黄壤和山地黄壤等亚类。 从1959和1980年两次相距21年的观察和测定,说明西天目山森林生态系统处于缓慢的动平衡中。森林生物群落主组分生物量的增长,导致森林郁闭度、残落物和土壤蓄水量的增长,自然水不断对土壤进行盐基淋洗和酸化作用,而土壤的变化又反过来影响森林群落的组成和结构。

Selenium is an essential trace elenint to animal and man, but abnormal content (deficiency or excess) of selenium in environment is harmful. Selenium in environment has an influence on animal and man by means of biogeochemical food chain, rock-soil and water-plant-animal and man. Grain is the key link of them.This paper studies geographical distribution of selenium content of grains (wheat, corn and rice) in China and its relation to geographical epidemic of white muscle disease of animal and kashin disease...

Selenium is an essential trace elenint to animal and man, but abnormal content (deficiency or excess) of selenium in environment is harmful. Selenium in environment has an influence on animal and man by means of biogeochemical food chain, rock-soil and water-plant-animal and man. Grain is the key link of them.This paper studies geographical distribution of selenium content of grains (wheat, corn and rice) in China and its relation to geographical epidemic of white muscle disease of animal and kashin disease and Kaschin-Beck's disease of man, which are endemics with relation to selenium deficiency in environment, by the method of statistical plotting.Statistics shows that frenquency distribution of selenium content of grains belongs to the approximate longnormal distribution. Therefore, according to' classifica-iton of equal ratio,different selenium content of grains is sorted out into three classes; high, medium and low, and a distribution map of selemium content degree of grains in China has been plotted. As shown in the map, grains containing high selenium mainly grow in the Northwestern part of China, next in Enshi county in Hu-bei province and Ziiyang county in Shaanxi province (There are areas in these two counties where selenium toxicosis occurs in livestock and man). Grains containing medium selenium are distributed in Southeast China, Northwest China and Northeast China plain, North China plain, Fenhe basin, Weibe plain and Sichuan basin. Grains containing low seleniumare distributed in the Lesser Hinggan Mountains, the Changbai Mountains, the Luzhong Mountains, the Loess plateau, the Qinling Mountains, the Daba Mountains, the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and the Qaidam Basin. It is outlined that low selenium zone is mostly distributed in mountainous and hilly regions in the so-called transition zone situated between the dry desert and steppe zone of the Northwest China and humid-hot evergreen forest zone of the Southeast China.Geographical distribution of the above-mentioned three endemics is fundamentally in accordance with that of grains containing low selenium. A difference of selenium mean content of grains between endemic areas and nonedemic areas is statistically very significant.

本文应用多重正态分布理论,将粮食硒含量分成三级,编制中国粮食硒含量等级分布图,并且分析了我国粮食硒含量地域分异的主要原因。

In this paepr,the effect of flood retaining of forests have been analyzed in the way of hydrology.The main points are as follows. ①The factors influencing flood retaining of forests are very miscellane- ous.Besides the features of forest itself,what is the most important is the thickness of the soil layer of aeration zone(abbreviated“soil layer”in the following).This is the main reason why the capacities of flood retaining of forests are in great change in different areas. ②The type of...

In this paepr,the effect of flood retaining of forests have been analyzed in the way of hydrology.The main points are as follows. ①The factors influencing flood retaining of forests are very miscellane- ous.Besides the features of forest itself,what is the most important is the thickness of the soil layer of aeration zone(abbreviated“soil layer”in the following).This is the main reason why the capacities of flood retaining of forests are in great change in different areas. ②The type of runoff generation is related to siol layer;When soil layer is comparatively thin,the runoff generations can be evaluated according to he model of runoff formation at the natural storage.And the type of runoff generation of very thick soil layer on forest land belongs neither in the model of runoff formation at the natural storage nor in the model of runoff formation in excess of infiltration because under this conditions the soil layers can not be filled up with water.Hence it is a special type of runoff formation. ③The capacity of flood retaining of watersheds(regardless of water- sheds forested or not)can be shown by the maximum water storage of water- shed(Im).Where a storm rainfall amount(or a continuous one)is given by the signal x,the index of antecedent soil moisture by the signal Pa,then the effect reducing flood of watersheds will reduce with the increaing of ratio (X+Pa)/(Im). In accordance with above analysis for the mechanism of flood retaining of forests,it can be considered that in Qin-ba mountainous regions,water- sheds(forested)are possessed of a certain effect of flood retaining in early period of the flood,Which occurred in August,1981(abbreviated“81.8” flood in the following)and they,however,are not possessed of their effect of flood retaining in the late period of the“81.8”flood,because the value Im is low due to thin soil layer in spite of being forested. As for problems of flood control in Hanzhong District,undoubtedly comprehensive means and overall planning must be used in the flood control. And now the first thing is that we must do well the planning,construction and the management of river dykes.

本文用水文学的方法对森林拦洪作用作了分析,主要论点如下:①森林拦洪能力的影响因素十分错综复杂,除森林本身的特点外,最重要的是包气带土层(以下简称土层)的厚度。此即不同地区森林拦洪能力变化很大的主要原因。②林地的产流方式与土层的厚度有关;土层较薄时,可按“蓄满产流”模式计算产流。土层深厚的林地的产流方式既不是“蓄满产流”,也不是“超渗产流”。因为这种情况是蓄不满的,因而是一种特殊产流方式。③流域(不论有林或无林)的拦洪能力均可由流域最大蓄水量(Im)表示,当一次(或一次连续)暴雨量为 x,前期土壤水分指标为 P_ ,则流域的削洪作用随(x+P_ )/(Im)比值的增大而降低。根据上述对森林拦洪的机理分析,可以认为:秦巴山区(有林)的流域在“81.8”洪水前期有一定的拦洪作用。但是由于山区土层薄,虽然有林,但 I_ 小,故在“81.8”洪水后期,流域已失去拦蓄作用。对于汉中地区的防洪问题.无疑,应采用综合治理的措施,进行全面规划。但当前首要措施应将堤防工程的规划、施工与管理作好。

 
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