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cropping systems
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  耕作制度
     The following measures should be taken in farming systems to adapt the climate change: adjusting sowing period,changing cropping systems,adjusting crop distribution on dryland and irrigated land, and selecting C_3 or C_4 crop.
     在耕作制度上,采用调整作物播期、改变当前多熟制边界、调整水作和旱作作物、C3作物和C4作物的播种面积和区域布局等措施;
短句来源
     3. The double cropping systems of rice and wheat with increasing the productivity of labor and land as a goal.
     3.以提高劳动生产率与土地生产率为目标的稻麦两熟耕作制度
短句来源
     In recent 10 ycears, the research and reform for cropping systems have obtained a greater development in 3 aspects below: 1. The intensive use for arable land resources with increasing land productivity as goal, such as the multiple cropping system reforms in upland with wheat /maize/sweet potato as main pattern;
     近十年南方耕作制度研究和改革在以下三个方面有较大发展:1.以提高土地生产率为目标的耕地资源的深度利用,如旱地以麦王薯为主体的分带轮作多熟制改革;
短句来源
     The measures to prevent this region from degrading and to guarantee sustainable agricultural development should include changing farm household idea which is getting more serious in only considering "breed" rather than "soil", raising cultivated land multiple index of crop, setting up rotation systems of crop and conservation type of water and soil, high-efficient, intensive and eong-lasting cropping systems, strengthening forestry management and agricultural input, doing irrigation and water conservancy construction.
     改变农户只重“品种”而忽视“土壤”的观念、提高耕地复种指数、建立合理的轮作体系和水土保持型高效集约持续的耕作制度、加强林业管理和经营、加大农业投入、搞好农田水利建设是防止本区土地退化和保证本区农业可持续发展的对策。
短句来源
     Effect of Crop Distribution,Cropping Systems and Planting Technique on Adjustment and Control of Cotton Bollworm
     作物布局、耕作制度、栽培技术与棉铃虫调控
短句来源
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  种植制度
     RICE-BASED NEW CROPPING SYSTEMS RESEARCH IN BEIJING DISTRICT
     北京地区水稻新种植制度的研究
短句来源
     AN ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NONIRRIGATED AGROECOSYSTEM WITH DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS
     旱地不同种植制度下农田生态系统的结构与功能分析
短句来源
     An Optimal Climate Decision-making Method Suitable for Local Cropping Systems
     一个适用于地方农业种植制度的最优气候决策方法
短句来源
     ENERGY TRANSFERRING STATUS OF CROPPING SYSTEMS IN TAIHU DISTRICT OF JIANGSU PROVINCE
     江苏太湖地区几种种植制度的能量转换状况
短句来源
     Study on the effects cropping systems of continuous corn, corn-soybean and corn-oat-clover, and fertilization on the properties of the soils was made on Morrow plots which are the earliest agronomic experiment station established in 1876 at Urbana, Illinois in U. S. A.
     美国伊利诺大学农学系玛洛试验地(Morrow Plots)建于1876年,是美国最早用来研究种植制度和施肥效应的试验地。 我们通过养分、土壤结构、土壤水分等测定,结合历年的产量,研究玉米连作、玉米—大豆轮作和玉米—燕麦—三叶草轮作以及土壤施肥处理对土壤性状的影响。
短句来源
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  种植系统
     Evaluation on comprehensive benefits of multiple cropping systems on upland red soil
     红壤旱地多熟种植系统的综合效益评价
短句来源
     STUDIES ON INTERCROPPING ADVANTAGES OF POTATO-MAIZE AND MAIZE-SOYBEAN CROPPING SYSTEMS
     马铃薯套玉米及玉米间大豆种植系统间套优势研究
短句来源
     Review of research on nutrient contribution and recovery in alley cropping systems.
     带状种植系统养分供给与利用研究进展
短句来源
     Partly due to such differences in natural resource endowments and partly due to differences in the level of economic development, various cropping systems and production techniques have been developed in the grain sector across China during her long history.
     部分由于各地资源禀赋的差异、部分由于经济发展水平的不同,在中国长期发展中各地出现了不同的作物种植系统和农业生产技术。
短句来源
     Meanwhile,the contents of available Mn were increased in CC and CLR systems compared with those in FW. The contents of available Fe in the three cropping systems were also increased in 0~40cm soil depth and presented the same distribution trend in 40~100cm that the contents increased with the increase of soil depth. Moreover,the available Fe was lower in WC and higher in CLR than that in FA in 40~100cm.
     各种植系统40cm以上土层土壤有效铁含量均高于休闲土壤,40~100cm土层土壤有效铁分布趋势相同,其含量均随土层深度的增加而增加,并且小麦连作低于休闲土壤,粮豆轮作高于休闲土壤,苜蓿连作与休闲相近,这些结果表明长期种植作物可以显著改善土壤锰素营养和铁素营养状况。
短句来源
  “cropping systems”译为未确定词的双语例句
     After tree pruning in early June 2001, relative PAR index of the peanut crops was increased to 88.7% and 67.5% from 79.2% and 63.4% in May in the 5-year-old and 9-year-old Choerospondias axillaris alley cropping systems, respectively.
     2001年6月初剪枝后,5龄和9龄南酸枣间作系统花生相对光合有效辐射分别从5月份的79.2%和63.4%增加到88.7%和67.5%;
短句来源
     Compared to what was in the peanut-only system, runoff was decreased by 21% and 6%, and soil erosion by 11% and 23%, respectively, in a 5-year-old and 9-year-old Choerospondias axillaris-peanut alley cropping systems.
     与花生单作系统相比,5龄南酸枣花生间作和9龄南酸枣花生间作系统地表径流量分别减少21%和6%,土壤侵蚀量分别减少11%和23%。
短句来源
     This study was conducted as part of the Alternative Cropping Systems(ACS) study at Scott,Saskatchewan.
     该研究是加拿大Saskatchewan Scott农作物轮作系统(ACS)研究的一部分。
短句来源
     Effect of Traits of Brazilian Upland Rice on Its Yield in Different Cropping Systems
     不同稻作下巴西陆稻产量性状的效应分析
短句来源
     Studies on Sampling Method of Insect Community under the Different Cotton Cropping Systems
     不同类型棉田昆虫群落调查的抽样方法研究
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  cropping systems
Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang
      
This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China's Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems.
      
populations and their most common parasites in Sahelian vegetable cropping systems - Nematode surveys were carried out in vegetable producing areas in two Sahelian countries, Burkina Faso and Senegal.
      
Population densities would more readily depend on cropping systems (previous crops, often flooded lowlands vs well drained uplands).
      
Long-term efficacy of Pochonia chlamydosporia, a fungal parasite of root-knot nematodes, was tested in two cropping systems: one consisting of three consecutive lettuce crops and another consisting of one tomato crop followed by two lettuce crops.
      
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The wheat scab which prevails in Heilongjiang Province overwinters by mycelium and perithecium on residues of diseased plants. It is found that the overwintered mycelium serves as the most important source of primary infection. The seed-born organism usually causes seedling infection. The host range so far studied in this province covers wheat, barley, oat, rye, and some species of Agropyrum and Lolium. The perithecia are found cnly to be produced on wheat but not on any other hosts. The incubation of the disease...

The wheat scab which prevails in Heilongjiang Province overwinters by mycelium and perithecium on residues of diseased plants. It is found that the overwintered mycelium serves as the most important source of primary infection. The seed-born organism usually causes seedling infection. The host range so far studied in this province covers wheat, barley, oat, rye, and some species of Agropyrum and Lolium. The perithecia are found cnly to be produced on wheat but not on any other hosts. The incubation of the disease is 2 1/2—7 days and 5—6 days in average. The duration and amount of rainfall are decisive to the development of the disease. Cropping systems as well as the location of fields are among other important factors of epiphytotics. Thus continuous cropping of wheat or with a previous crop of corn are likely to induce an epiphytotics of the disease especially on low and poorly drained land. From 1959 to 1963, a total of 200 varieties have been observed in field and none of them is immune, however, they vary in degree of susceptibility. The varieties with long awns such as Jashun No. 2, Ho-Shao-Mai and Hozo No. 7 are considered to be more resistant. When the period of havesting, threshing and piling are postponed, the later spreading of the disease in wheat straws and heads increases. For instance, a postponement of threshing for 40 days in 1960, results an increase of head blight from 13% to 84%. To improve the style of piling so to offer better ventilation and avoid more moisture is lesirable for controlling the disease after harvesting.

黑龙江省小麦赤霉病主要以菌絲、子囊壳在被害残株、麦壳上越冬,是次年穗枯的主要初次侵染源。种子带病是苗枯的主要原因。本地区发現主要寄主为小麦、大麦、黑麦、燕麦、王米、鵝冠草、意大利黑麦草。除麦类外,至今尚未在其他寄主上找到子囊壳。病原菌的潛育期为2.5—7天,一般发病5—6天,最快4天就会产生大量的分生孢子。孢子借雨水冲濺、风力、麦穗互相接触等方式进行传播。收获后垜內的侵染,以分生孢子为主,借接触及水流蔓延。流行的主导因素是降水量与湿度。小麦重槎地、玉米槎地、地势低洼排水不良地,发病严重。观察了200余个品种,結果无一个免疫品种。但发病程度,有显著的差异;并有长芒比短芒抗病的趋势,如佳选二号、火小麦等比較抗病。后期的侵染和发病率,随收割期、脫谷期、堆垜时間增加而剧增。通过几种垜式对比,認为收割初期湿度大,以放射形垜为佳。种子处理用0.2%赛力散、0.5%赛力散加石灰有一定的效果。

It was found that the degree of potato degeneration was not alluviated by premature harvesting under high temperature. Since the detrimental effect of high temperature could occur at the early stage of tuber formation, potato degeneration could not be due to natural senility, nor to the hastened senility. Lowering the degree of degeneration by early harvesting of Spring crop and Summer planting may be explained mainly on the basis of the unfavorable effect of low temperature during tuber formation on the multiplication...

It was found that the degree of potato degeneration was not alluviated by premature harvesting under high temperature. Since the detrimental effect of high temperature could occur at the early stage of tuber formation, potato degeneration could not be due to natural senility, nor to the hastened senility. Lowering the degree of degeneration by early harvesting of Spring crop and Summer planting may be explained mainly on the basis of the unfavorable effect of low temperature during tuber formation on the multiplication and tranelocation of mosaic virus, besides its favorable effect on increasing host resistance. Production of virus-free seed potatoes at distance from the sources of infection, roguing of diseased plants and tubers, control of insect vectors etc are considered to be the most effective control measures. The use of disease tolerant varieties and annual double cropping system are also recommended. When the annual double cropping system is employed, early harvesting of the first crop, late planting of the second crop and selecting healthy plants and tubers should be adopted simultaneously.

1.通过試驗証明生育期长短不同的馬鈴薯在同时收获的条件下,生育期短,块茎未充分成熟的处理,并未減輕退化程度;在芽眼尚不可能萌动的結薯初期,馬鈴薯植株如处于高温条件下也可能加重退化,从而说明馬鈴薯的退化并非由于过度成熟产生自然衰老,亦非因为高温影响了萌动的芽眼,使其衰老所致。 2.早收及夏播的馬鈴薯,除去可能因为低温有利于馬鈴薯抗病力的增強外,更主要的是由于低温条件不利于花叶型病毒的增殖和运轉,降低了新生块茎內病毒浓度的結果。 3.为了从根本上解决馬鈴薯退化問題,应采取以隔离病源,严格汰除病株病薯,防治媒介昆虫,控制传播等措施为中心,生产无毒种薯,并結合选用耐病品种和二季栽培的留种技术,进行综合防治。 4.在推行二季栽培留种技术时,应适当推迟夏播播期,夏播所用种薯必須春季提早收获,并結合选株、选薯等措施。

In 1963, five neighbouring brigades with different cropping systems in Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan were chosen for the comparative studies on the relations between the cropping system and the population of the paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.), in order to look for the most economical and effective tactics and methods of control for this serious pest. The chief results were summarized as follows: 1. Among neighbouring brigades in the same region, a sharp difference in the amount of initial...

In 1963, five neighbouring brigades with different cropping systems in Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan were chosen for the comparative studies on the relations between the cropping system and the population of the paddy borer, Tryporyza incertulas (Wlk.), in order to look for the most economical and effective tactics and methods of control for this serious pest. The chief results were summarized as follows: 1. Among neighbouring brigades in the same region, a sharp difference in the amount of initial population of the paddy borer is one of the important factors influencing its population and damage in the current year. To destroy almost thoroughly the hibernating larvae of the paddy borer by means of cultural practices on a sufficient scale, not only the damage by the first and second generations could be prevented, but the population and damage of the later generations might also be reduced. On this basis, if it is possible to suppress further the population of the second generation by ploughing and flooding the early rice fields on proper time, the damage made by the later generations might be even more effectively repressed. 2. The degree of borer damage depends upon the combined effect of the degree of coincidence of the vunlerable growth stages of rice and the prevailing period of larval hatching and also the borer population. So far as cultural centrol is concerned, to regulate the growth stages of rice and the repression of borer population should be both utilized as much as possible. 3. The cultivation of double-cropping rice (with two crops on the same fields per year) brings not only advantageous but also disadvantageous effects to the development of the paddy borer. Under the conditions of Yuankiang and Nanhsien, Hunan, certain practices in the cultivation of double-cropping rice might be utilized as a part of the means of paddy borer control. 4. In rice belts with complicated cropping system, early planting of the medium-rice could not only avoid serious borer damage, but might also induce the second generation moths laying more eggs on small areas of late medium-rice or single cropping late rice, thus making it possible to kill more borers with less insecticides and save the burden of chemical control for the following generation. 5. It was suggested that the paddy borer control should be carried on the basis of cultural methods, that is, to supress the borer population and regulate the growth stages of rice by means of cultural practices as much as possible, and then recruited with necessary applications of insecticides.

1963年在湖南沅江及南县选择隣近的种植制不同的五个生产大队,調查对比、分析耕作栽培措施及其他生态因素,与三化螟种羣数量消长及为害程度的关系,探索最經济有效的稻螟防治策略和综合措施。各对比点結果一致証明,在同一地区相距不远的大队間,三化螟发生基数大小的悬殊差別,是决定当年发生数量及为害程度輕重的一个重要因素。在适当的面积(大队)上結合耕作栽培措施相当彻底地消灭三化螟越冬幼虫,不仅可控制第一、二代的为害,且对压低第三、四代的发生量和为害程度也有明显的作用。在此基础上如能进一步结合夏收灭茬連續压低虫源,更可加強对后期螟害的控制。螟害程度决定于水稻最易受害生育期与稻螟盛发期配合的程度和螟虫发生数量的綜合影响。因此,在农业防治方面,結合耕作栽培措施压低虫源及調节水稻生育期并恶化螟虫的生活条件,均应尽可能的利用。扩种双季稻对三化螟的发生为害有有利和不利的两面。在湘北滨湖稻区的情况下,可以結合双季稻的耕作栽培,連續压低虫源作为控制螟害的一項措施。在种植制复杂的稻区,中稻早栽既可避免第三代三化螟的为害,且可促使第二、三代三化螟更多地集中在小面积的迟中稻或单季晚稻上,有利于集中施药歼灭。稻螟的防治策略应以农业防治为基础,結合...

1963年在湖南沅江及南县选择隣近的种植制不同的五个生产大队,調查对比、分析耕作栽培措施及其他生态因素,与三化螟种羣数量消长及为害程度的关系,探索最經济有效的稻螟防治策略和综合措施。各对比点結果一致証明,在同一地区相距不远的大队間,三化螟发生基数大小的悬殊差別,是决定当年发生数量及为害程度輕重的一个重要因素。在适当的面积(大队)上結合耕作栽培措施相当彻底地消灭三化螟越冬幼虫,不仅可控制第一、二代的为害,且对压低第三、四代的发生量和为害程度也有明显的作用。在此基础上如能进一步结合夏收灭茬連續压低虫源,更可加強对后期螟害的控制。螟害程度决定于水稻最易受害生育期与稻螟盛发期配合的程度和螟虫发生数量的綜合影响。因此,在农业防治方面,結合耕作栽培措施压低虫源及調节水稻生育期并恶化螟虫的生活条件,均应尽可能的利用。扩种双季稻对三化螟的发生为害有有利和不利的两面。在湘北滨湖稻区的情况下,可以結合双季稻的耕作栽培,連續压低虫源作为控制螟害的一項措施。在种植制复杂的稻区,中稻早栽既可避免第三代三化螟的为害,且可促使第二、三代三化螟更多地集中在小面积的迟中稻或单季晚稻上,有利于集中施药歼灭。稻螟的防治策略应以农业防治为基础,結合重点药治。在种植制复杂的稻区建議采取結合耕作栽培連續压低虫源、調节水稻生育期及恶化螟虫生活条件的各項措施并药治二代桥梁田,对三、四代进行重点药治。

 
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