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the state
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  国家
     Research on the Evaluation System of the State Key Laboratory
     国家重点实验室评估体系研究
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     Some Theoretical Observations on the-New Mechanism of "Market Regulated by the State and Enterprises Guided by Market"
     对“国家调节市场,市场引导企业”新机制的若干理论考察
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     The Design and Application of The State Energy Balance Analysis and Forecasting Network Information System
     国家能源平衡分析与预测网络信息系统的设计与应用
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     On the Strategic Function of Building the State Tourism Holiday Resort at the Golden Stone Beach
     略谈建设金石滩国家旅游度假区的战略作用及构想
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     Unexpected Effect in Implementing the State“211 Project”
     实施国家“211工程”的非预期效应
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  状态
     Statistics Modeling of the State Space and Monitoring of Chemical Process Systems
     过程系统状态空间统计模型和化工过程监测
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     On Method for Formulating the State Equations of Linear Networks
     关于线性网络状态方程组的形成方法
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     THE STATE AND THE ROLE OF Sn IN Pt-Sn/Al_2O_3 CATALYST
     Sn在Pt-Sn/Al_2O_3催化剂中的状态和作用
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     The State Equations of Synchronous Motor
     同步电动机状态方程
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     Application of the Theory of Branching of Solutions of Nonlinear Equations to the Analysis of the Perturbation in the State Observer of Linear Systems
     非线性方程分枝解理论在线性系统状态观测器摄动分析中的应用
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  现状
     The State of Art and Future of CAD and CAM
     CAD和CAM的现状及其发展
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     THE STATE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY IN RADIATION CHEMISTRY Ⅰ.PRIMARY RADIATION PRODUCTS
     辐射化学基础理论研究现状 Ⅰ.初级辐解产物
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     THE STATE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY IN RADIATION CHEMISTRY Ⅱ.KINETICS IN RADIATION CHEMISTRY
     辐射化学基础理论研究现状 Ⅱ.辐射化学动力学
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     The State of Suspended Particulate Pollution and Its Problems in Japan
     日本悬浮颗粒物污染现状及存在的问题
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     Analysis of the State of Air Pollution in Underground Supermrket in a Certain City
     某市地下商场空气污染现状的分析
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  “the state”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Division of the State of Stresses on the MisesCircular Cylinder and Discoussions on the Location of Typical Metal Forming Processes in Stress Space
     关于Mises圆柱上的应力分区及压力加工典型工序在应力空间中所处部位的探讨
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     THE SU_2SU_2 BASIS AND THE PHYSICAL BASES FOR THE STATE VECTORS OF d-BOSON SYSTEMS AND THE TRACELESS BOSON OPERATORS(Ⅱ)
     d-玻色子体系波函数的SU_2SU_2基、物理基与无迹玻色子算符(Ⅰ)
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     THE SU_2 ■ SU~_2 BASIS AND THE PHYSICAL BASES FOR THE STATE VECTORS OF d-BOSON SYSTEMS AND THE TRACELESS BOSON OPERATORS (Ⅱ)
     d-玻色子体系波函数的SU_2■SU_2基、物理基与无迹玻色子算符(Ⅱ)
短句来源
     THE SU_2SU_2 BASIS AND THE PHYSICAL BASES FOR THE STATE VECTORS OF d-BOSON SYSTEM AND THE TRACELESS BOSON OPERATORS(Ⅲ)
     d-玻色子体系波函数的SU_2SU_2基、物理基与无迹玻色子算符(Ⅲ)
短句来源
     PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE STATE OF ISOSTATiC EQUILIBRIUM IN THE NORTHEAST CHINA
     东北地区重力均衡异常特征的初步研究
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  the state
The state and amount of Ag species within the film and the enhancement mechanism of photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2 were discussed.
      
It has been demonstrated that it can be identically defined by either the state duration or the state transition probability.
      
The speaker-independent continuous speech recognition experiments show that by only modeling the state duration in DDBHMM, a significant improvement (17.8% error rate reduction) can be achieved compared with the classical HMM.
      
The ideal properties of DDBHMM give promise to many aspects of speech modeling, such as the modeling of the state duration, speed variation, speech discontinuity, and interframe correlation.
      
By using DR estimation of the state, the effect of communication delays is overcome.
      
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The purpose of the present article is to calculate the internal friction of binary substitution-al alloys in different states of order by the application of the general thermodynamical theory of internal friction of linear type. To begin with, free energies are deduced for specimens under the action of a uniform stress, which, so far as the degree of order is concerned, is not in equilibrium. In this paper two mechanisms, the preferential distribution of atom-pairs and the change of degrees of short range order...

The purpose of the present article is to calculate the internal friction of binary substitution-al alloys in different states of order by the application of the general thermodynamical theory of internal friction of linear type. To begin with, free energies are deduced for specimens under the action of a uniform stress, which, so far as the degree of order is concerned, is not in equilibrium. In this paper two mechanisms, the preferential distribution of atom-pairs and the change of degrees of short range order that give rise to the internal friction are suggested. In either case the internal friction is found to be proportional to the first and second power of (1-S), where is the degree of long range order. Thus, in the state of complete order, the internal friction would vanish, whereas it would be a maximum in the state of complete disorder. Theoretical results are in perfect accord with Nowick's data for the complete order in the Ag-Zn alloys and with the work of the Artman for the ordered states of β-brass. However, according to the theory, these experimental findings seem to indicate that it is the ordering pairs rather than the change of short range order that appear to be the cause of these two internal friction peaks.

本文是利用热力学线型内耗的理论来计算二元代位合金在各种有序状态时的内耗。首先,求出了在一个均匀应力作用下,样品中所产生的非平衡的有序无序的自由能,文中又介绍了原子对从优取向和短程有序的变化等两种内耗的机构。在这两种情况中,内耗都是正比于(1-S)的一次幂或二次幂的,这里S是长程有序程度。所以一定温度下在完全有序的状态时内耗不出现,而在完全无序状态时内耗最大。理论的结果是和诺维克的AgZn合金无序内耗的数据,以及亚特曼的β-黄铜有序内耗的数据完全符合的。并且还可以明了这些实验所测得的内耗峰是由于原子对从优取向所产生的,不是由于短程有序变化的原因。

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of...

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of occurrence corresponding to the flood, nevertheless, the data based upon are direct, and so the errors are low in comparison with those of indirect methods, such as the hydro-meteorological and the analogical, which might even yield radically unreliable results. Besides, in the statistical method of estimating flood flows, this method has been used to supplement those extraordinary flood data not recorded in history and yet valuable for statistics.The current method of estimating flood discharges from its trace assumes the state of steady flow and its velocity formula, from which it is impossible to obtain the maximum discharge that actually happens in the state of unsteady flow, and is only possible to calculate the discharge at maximum water level smaller than the peak discharge. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current method and suggests another means of estimating by taking average of the upper and lower limits of the maximum discharge. The error of estimation in the new method will not be over 17% by analysis, which, as compared with the standard of allowable error in hydrometrical survey, is not considerable.

工程設計中,欲在未經水文測驗的河流上定出設計用的洪水流率,依据洪水痕跡估算是唯一此較可靠而近似的方法。这方法只須調查洪水痕跡,測量其坡度及过水断面,估計河槽糙度,就可代入水力学中的公式而算出流速和流率,虽然这样所得的結果未必准确,且無从得知这次洪水相应的概率,但所憑借的资料是直接的,因而誤差的程度此較还小;不象水文气象法从雨量間接推算,或各种此照法依据其他流域的資料間接估計,可能得出很不可靠的結果。在流率資料統計法中,这方法也曆来增补那些历史上未曾测得的特大的可貴的洪水流率資料。 現行从洪水痕跡估算流率的方法假設了水力学中穩定流的流速公式,不能得出实际發生的不定流中的最大流率,而只約略算出那較小的最高水位吋的流率,憑以設計工程是不安全的。本文分析了現行方法的缺点所在,建議另一估算的方法,从最大流率的上下兩極限值取其平均数以估計之。新的方法的沽算誤差,循理推論,不会超过17%;衡以流速仪測量流率的許可誤差标准,並不算大。

Although most higher plants are hermophroditic, monoecious or dioeoious plants are not infrequently met with in nature. In some cases, plants or organs of one sex possess greater economic value than those of the other sex. Therefore, to change the sex of plants or vary the numbar of either male or female flowers (usually toward the direction of femaleness) is of both theoretical and practical significance.It has long been observed that the sexuality of plants changes with a change of environmental factors. But...

Although most higher plants are hermophroditic, monoecious or dioeoious plants are not infrequently met with in nature. In some cases, plants or organs of one sex possess greater economic value than those of the other sex. Therefore, to change the sex of plants or vary the numbar of either male or female flowers (usually toward the direction of femaleness) is of both theoretical and practical significance.It has long been observed that the sexuality of plants changes with a change of environmental factors. But those -observed facts received little attention in the past, since they could not be reconciled with the then-prevalent chromosome theory of sex determination. Biologists of the Michurin school believe .that sexuality of plants is but one of the characteristics that the plant exhibits under certain environmental conditions. Thus, like any other characteristic, it is determined by the metabolic conditions of the plants themselves. We are convinced that by changing one or more of the environmental factors, thereby altering the metabolic pattern of the plants, we can successfully control the sexuality of plants for the banefit of mankind.Minina in her monograph has comprehensively reviewed the literature pertinent to the change of sexuality in the plant world under changed enviromental conditions. It has been shown that either treatment with CO, or an alteration of the nutritional status of plants can affect the sex expression of plants.The present investigation purposes to study in greater detail the principles governing the formation of male and female flowers in the cucumber plants.Treatment of the 24-day-old cucumber seedlings with CO gas (at 1%, 0.5% and 0.3%) for 161 hours has remarkably altered the order in which the mala and .female flowers appear. The numbar of female flowers greatly increases, whereas the male flowers do not appear until much later. Marked morphological changes have also been noticed. Physiologically, treated young plants decrease their respiratory activity by 50-70%, as measured at the close of the experimental period. The activity of catalasa has had corresponding changes.When plants are given ample phcspliorus fertilizer successively at the 3-leaf stage, the. stage of bud appearance, and the stage of opening of the female flowers, they bear much more female flowers, whereas the number of male flowers remains unchanged. Plants thus treated also show lower calalase activity hi their leaves.Higher water content of the soil has favored the formation of female flowers. Plants grown under such condition absorb more nitrogen than control plants. This is in line with what is reported in the literature to the effect that high nitrogen is favorable for the development of femaleness.The increase of the number of female flowers is not necessarily connected with the state of the growth of plants. This has led us to believe that it is not the general nutritional status of plants, i.e., the abundance or deficiency of fertilizer, that determines sexuality,The present investigation has clearly demonstrated the possibility that different environmental factors which showed their effect on sex expression may have performed their functions through the same or similar mechanism.The effects of some respiratory inhibitors, including NaN3, malonate, fluoride, etc. are being examined. Investgations are also being undertaken to elucidate the possibility of treatment of seeds with various substances to change the sex ratio of the flowers in the cucumber plants.

在自然界中不少植物是雌雄异株或雌雄同株而异花的。不同性别的植株或花的经济价值不同,因此,定向改变植物性别的问题就不仅仅具有理论上的意义,而且也有着实践上的意义。很早就有人观察到植物性别可随环境而发生改变的事实;但是这些事实没有受到足够的重视,因为它们与性别决定的染色体学说是不相容的。米丘林生物学者认为植物性别的形成和发展也是植物有机体在一定环境条件下所表现的发育特性之一,是决定于植物体内的新陈代谢的。因此,我们深信,通过环境条件的改变,改变植物体内的新陈代谢过程,从而定向地控制植物的性别是完全可能的。 曾详尽而全面地介绍了定向改变植物性别方面的文献。本文目的在于进一步探讨环境条件对于黄瓜雌雄花出现的规律性的影响以及这些影响的生理实质。 在黄瓜幼苗期间用CO(浓度为1%,0.5%,0.3%)处理植株161小时显著地改变了雌、雄花出现的顺序,增加了雌花的数目,降低了雄花的数目。提高了果实的产量。在外部形态方面亦发生了显著的改变。在生理方面,遭受气体处理的植物在处理结束后呼吸强度降低50—70%,过氧化氢酶的活性也有相应的改变。 在植株三叶期、现蕾期、雌花开放期均施以充足的磷肥,这种处理选择性地增加了雌花的数目,而...

在自然界中不少植物是雌雄异株或雌雄同株而异花的。不同性别的植株或花的经济价值不同,因此,定向改变植物性别的问题就不仅仅具有理论上的意义,而且也有着实践上的意义。很早就有人观察到植物性别可随环境而发生改变的事实;但是这些事实没有受到足够的重视,因为它们与性别决定的染色体学说是不相容的。米丘林生物学者认为植物性别的形成和发展也是植物有机体在一定环境条件下所表现的发育特性之一,是决定于植物体内的新陈代谢的。因此,我们深信,通过环境条件的改变,改变植物体内的新陈代谢过程,从而定向地控制植物的性别是完全可能的。 曾详尽而全面地介绍了定向改变植物性别方面的文献。本文目的在于进一步探讨环境条件对于黄瓜雌雄花出现的规律性的影响以及这些影响的生理实质。 在黄瓜幼苗期间用CO(浓度为1%,0.5%,0.3%)处理植株161小时显著地改变了雌、雄花出现的顺序,增加了雌花的数目,降低了雄花的数目。提高了果实的产量。在外部形态方面亦发生了显著的改变。在生理方面,遭受气体处理的植物在处理结束后呼吸强度降低50—70%,过氧化氢酶的活性也有相应的改变。 在植株三叶期、现蕾期、雌花开放期均施以充足的磷肥,这种处理选择性地增加了雌花的数目,而对雄花的数目无影响。受到这种处理的植物

 
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