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major
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    ON THE MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS
    生物的界级分类
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    RESEARCH ON THE SEASONAL DYNAMIC OF THE Imperata cylindrica VAR. major COMMUNITY OF SALINE MEADOW IN THE YELLOW RIVER DELTA
    黄河三角洲盐生草甸白茅(Imperata cylindrica var. major)群落季节性动态的研究
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    Primary Observation about the Food Habit of the Major Natural Enemies of Rattus rattoides exiguus in the Zhujiang River Delta
    珠江三角洲黄毛鼠(Rattus rattoides exiguus)天敌食性的初步观察
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    CLINICAL ANATOMY OF PSOAS MAJOR MUSCULAR BRANCHES AND NERVES PASSING THROUGH IT
    腰大肌支及穿经腰大肌神经的临床解剖学
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    STUDIES ON THE KARYOTYPES AND Ag-NOR BANDING OF PAGROSOMUS MAJOR AND SPARUS MACROCEPHALUS
    真鲷Pagrosomus major和黑鲷Sparus macrocephalus的核型及Ag—NOR带研究
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Our major contribution in this paper is to show the following.
      
A major role in this study is also played by arbitrary ultraflat polynomials, that is, including those that are
      
Delivery of vaccine is a major impediment to ensuring vaccine efficacy and compliance.
      
The results indicate that thermodynamic and electronic parameters are major contributors to the activity.
      
The results indicate that electronic and thermodynamic parameters are major contributors to the activity.
      
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The pine caterpiller is one of the most important pests of pine tree in China.There are many natural enemies of pine caterpillers, such as parasites, predators etc.Determining the influence of natural enemies upon the outbreak of pine caterpiller isa very important task. A systematic study especially on the activities of parasites uponpine caterpiller was carried out in 1954 in Tung-an, Hunan Province. The present paperis a preliminary report, which narrates the results obtained from the examinations andpoints...

The pine caterpiller is one of the most important pests of pine tree in China.There are many natural enemies of pine caterpillers, such as parasites, predators etc.Determining the influence of natural enemies upon the outbreak of pine caterpiller isa very important task. A systematic study especially on the activities of parasites uponpine caterpiller was carried out in 1954 in Tung-an, Hunan Province. The present paperis a preliminary report, which narrates the results obtained from the examinations andpoints out that the parasites exert great influence on the outbreak of the pine cater-piller. The results are as follows: 1. According to the observation in 1954, there are many natural enemies, whichprey upon the pine caterpiller on Pinus massoniana in Tung-An district. Among these,the parasites are the most decisive factor in limiting or suppressing the outbreak ofpine caterpiller. 2. The egg parasites are:Telcnomus dendrolimusi Chu, Trichogramma evanescensWestwood, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead, Enterus tabatae Ishii, Pachyneuron nawaiAshmead and Eupteromalus sp. Among these, the first three are more important. 3. The percentage of egg parasitization of the first brood is 12.76%, of which,5.83% is due to T. dendrolimusi. As to the second brood, it increases to 40.61%, ofwhich 33.45% is due to T. dendrolimusi. 4. From the observations made during the peroids of emergence of the egg para-sites, we have obtained some knowledge about the biological characteristics of them.These ideas offered some important suggestions for the practical application of egg para-sites. 5. The larval parasites are: Campoplex bicolor Ashmead, Rhythmonotus takagii(Mats.), Rhogas spectabilis (Mats.), Phanerotoma flavida Enderlein, Apanteles liparidisBouche, Sarcophaga peregrina R.-D., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)ere. Among these, B.bassiana and the parasitic flies are the major ones. 6. The results of three sets of observations on larval parasites show that the deathrate (including parasitization) of the overwintered larvae is 56.62%, of the first brood82.83%, and of the second brood 40.83%. Thus the death rate (mainly parasitization) isconsiderably high. 7. The pupal parasites are: Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger, Brachymeria obscurata(Walker), Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Pimpla disparis Viereek, Iseropus sa-tanas (Morley), Sarcophaga peregrina R.-D., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) etc. Amongthese, X. japonica, the parasitic flies and B. bassiana are the major ones. But it mustbe noted that probably due to the parasitization of the fungus, a high percentage ofpupae failed to transform into adults. For example, for the overwintered brood, it is86.68%, the first brood 40.11%. It is worthy for further study. 8. The results of two sets of observations on pupal parasites show that the deathrate (including parasitization) of the overwintered brood pupae is 54.72%, that of thefirst brood pupae is 66.70%. Thus the death rate (mainly parasitization) is also consi-derably high.

1.据1954年考查,东安马尾松毛虫的天敌很多,尤其是寄生天敌,它是限制或抑制松毛虫大发生的决定性因素。 2.卵期的寄生天敌有:松毛虫黑卵蜂,赤眼蜂,平腹小蜂,白角小蜂,名和小蜂及金小蜂等六种,其中以前三种较为重要。 3.第一代松毛虫的卵寄生率为12.76%,其中黑卵峰的寄生率达5.83%,第二代松毛虫的卵寄生率为40.61%,其中黑卵蜂的寄生率达33.45%。 4.松毛虫各种卵蜂羽化时期及数量的观察,使我们初步了解卵蜂的一些生物学特性,对于今后饲放卵寄生蜂防治松毛虫的措施提供了重要依据。 5.幼虫期的寄生天敌有:两色瘦姬蜂,黑胸姬蜂,红头小茧蜂,黄甲腹小茧蜂,毒蛾绒茧蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以白僵病菌及寄生蝇类较为重要。 6.三次幼虫期寄生天敌的考查可以看出:越冬代老熟幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达56.62%,第一代幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达82.83%,第二代幼龄幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达40.83%,幼虫期的死亡率(主要是寄生率)相当高。 7.蛹期的寄生天敌有:日本黑点姬蜂,大腿蜂,花胸姬蜂,黑瘤姬蜂,松毛虫瘤姬蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以日本黑点姬蜂、寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等较为重要,但需指...

1.据1954年考查,东安马尾松毛虫的天敌很多,尤其是寄生天敌,它是限制或抑制松毛虫大发生的决定性因素。 2.卵期的寄生天敌有:松毛虫黑卵蜂,赤眼蜂,平腹小蜂,白角小蜂,名和小蜂及金小蜂等六种,其中以前三种较为重要。 3.第一代松毛虫的卵寄生率为12.76%,其中黑卵峰的寄生率达5.83%,第二代松毛虫的卵寄生率为40.61%,其中黑卵蜂的寄生率达33.45%。 4.松毛虫各种卵蜂羽化时期及数量的观察,使我们初步了解卵蜂的一些生物学特性,对于今后饲放卵寄生蜂防治松毛虫的措施提供了重要依据。 5.幼虫期的寄生天敌有:两色瘦姬蜂,黑胸姬蜂,红头小茧蜂,黄甲腹小茧蜂,毒蛾绒茧蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以白僵病菌及寄生蝇类较为重要。 6.三次幼虫期寄生天敌的考查可以看出:越冬代老熟幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达56.62%,第一代幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达82.83%,第二代幼龄幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达40.83%,幼虫期的死亡率(主要是寄生率)相当高。 7.蛹期的寄生天敌有:日本黑点姬蜂,大腿蜂,花胸姬蜂,黑瘤姬蜂,松毛虫瘤姬蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以日本黑点姬蜂、寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等较为重要,但需指出,可能是因为病菌寄生的原因,未羽化蛹的比例很大,如在越冬代占36.68%,第一代占40.11%,这是值得今后深?

E. coli strain No. 15 is characterized by the hereditary property that it becomes resistant to the killing and mutagenic effect after irradiated with certain dose of ultraviolet light. The change is abrupt, and is up to 91 fold before and after the critical dosage. This property is exceedingly stable. Repeated search failed to give mutants with permanently altered sensitivity. Bacteria with altered sensitivity reverse to normal through two phases. The first one is relatively sudden and short in duration, independent...

E. coli strain No. 15 is characterized by the hereditary property that it becomes resistant to the killing and mutagenic effect after irradiated with certain dose of ultraviolet light. The change is abrupt, and is up to 91 fold before and after the critical dosage. This property is exceedingly stable. Repeated search failed to give mutants with permanently altered sensitivity. Bacteria with altered sensitivity reverse to normal through two phases. The first one is relatively sudden and short in duration, independent of metabolic state, and is of minor importance. The second phase is gradual, intimately related to metabolic state of bacteria, and plays a major role. Through the later phase resistant bacteria reverse to normal sensitivity.

大腸杆菌品系#15的一个遺傳特性是細菌群体經一定剂量的紫外光照射以后即轉变为对于紫外光的杀菌和誘变作用为不敢成的状态,这轉变是驟然的,在轉折点的前后敏感性相差达91倍,但是經过培养以后敏戚性便行恢复。这一特性异常稳定,經过三四十次的努力,应用十分有效的选擇方法都不可能得到一个改变了上述特性的品系。处于射綫不敏感状态的細菌經过两个阶段便恢复了对于射綫的杀菌及誘变作用的敏感性。第一个阶段的完成为时很短,和細菌的代謝作用无关,恢复的程度不等,但都决于第二阶段;第二阶段的进行是逐漸的,和細菌的代謝作用密切有关,在程度上是主要的,通过这一阶段后細菌便完全恢复了它們对于紫外光的敏感性。

Six known species, two new species and one new subspecies are described, which arecollected in China, and all belonging to the genus Dendrolimus Germar. The charactersused for the identification of species are: the patterns of the forewing, the structure of thescales and genital organs; the size and structures surrounding the micropyle of the eggs;tufts of the subdorsalis anterior of the mature larvae and the shapes of the pupal cre- masters. Besides, keys to adults, eggs and larvae are prepared separately,...

Six known species, two new species and one new subspecies are described, which arecollected in China, and all belonging to the genus Dendrolimus Germar. The charactersused for the identification of species are: the patterns of the forewing, the structure of thescales and genital organs; the size and structures surrounding the micropyle of the eggs;tufts of the subdorsalis anterior of the mature larvae and the shapes of the pupal cre- masters. Besides, keys to adults, eggs and larvae are prepared separately, each basedupon the more common and conspicuous characteristics. Types are preserved in theMuseum of the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Peking. Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu, n. sp. Colour variable, being pale greyish brown to deep brown. closely allied to D.punctatus Wk., but with distinguished transverse stripes and not strongly curved costalmargin on the primaries. Submarginal line broken into black spot-series, to line through2 spots in the 1st and 2nd interspaces crossed with the termen. white discocellularspot on primaries much clear than ; transverse stripes distinct; submarginal black spot-series is defined internally by reddish brown colour which is quite different from thatof D. punctatus. Minor harpe. of male genitalia approached to 1/2 the length of the major;mid-antevaginalis of female genitalia large, latero-antevaginalis nearly round. Micropyleend of the eggs without distinct protuberance; surrounding micropyle with 2--3 layers ofinner-layer cells; outer-layer cells with irregular stripe like central invaginations. Abovethe mid- and metathoracic segment of larvae with black belt-like hairy scales; tufts ofsubdorsalis anterior strongly developed; the base of tufts not covered with spindle-shapedscales, only with black hairs; spatulate hairs small, scarcely with dental ends.: length,20—28 mm.; exp., 45—61 mm. : length, 23—30 mm.; exp., 57—75 mm. Holotype: , Hopeh: Lanping (1961, Ⅷ, 2), allotype: , Peking (1955, Ⅶ,21), paratype: 15 specimens (,) from various localities of Hopeh and Liao-ning provinces. Dendrolimus xichangensis Tsai et Liu, n. sp. Primaries light brown; median and postmedian lines deep brown, the interspacebrown; costal margin 1/3 near the apex strongly curved; outer margin wavy. Submarginalline broken into black spot-series, to line through 2 spots in the 1st and 2nd interspacescrossed with the apex. Minor harpe of male genitalia strongly chitinized, with a 90°turning, closely connected with major, mid-antevaginalis and latero-antevaginalis of fe-male genitalia fused together. Micropyle end of the eggs without distinct protuberane;surrounding micropyle without middle layer cells; outer layer cells without central in-vaginations; corner-setae sometimes not distinct, but with distinct basal papilla. Abovethe mid- and metathoracic segment of larvae without black belt-like hairy scales; lateralside of each abdominal segment with black tufts. : length, 37 mm.; exp., 60 mm.: length, 37 mm.; exp., 78 mm. Holotype: , allotype: , Szechuan: Xichang (1959). Dendrolimus kikuchii ochraceus Tsai et Liu, n. ssp. The characters used for the identification of this subspecies are closely allied to D.kikuchii Mats., but with distinguish dark brown color in , distributed in Hunan andKiangsi provinces, with Pinus massoniana Lambert as its hostplant. : length, 38 mm.;exp., 62 mm. : length, 38 mm.; exp., 83 mm. Holotype: , allotype: , Kiangsi: Yifeng (1959, Ⅶ, 3).

松毛虫属变异较复杂,过去文献上的记载比较紊乱,本篇着重以各虫期的形态特征为主,修订记载了我国严重为害松柏科的6种松毛虫,计:西伯利亚松毛虫(Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv.),赤松毛虫(D.spectabilis Butler),马尾松毛虫(D.punctatus Walker),铁杉毛虫(D.superansButler),云南松毛虫(D.latipennis Walker),和思茅松毛虫(D.kikuchii Mats.),同时记述了2个新种,计:油松毛虫 (D.tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu)和西昌松毛虫(D. xichangensis Tsai et Liu)及1个新亚种:赭色松毛虫(D.kikuchii ochraceus Tsai et Liu)。模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所。 新种油松毛虫和赤松毛虫、马尾松毛虫很近似,但其成虫前翅较狭长,中横线与外横线为白色,亚外缘斑列内侧有白色斑;外生殖器小抱针长度约为大抱针的1/2;外生殖器侧前阴片接近圆形。卵壳上内层室和中层室壁很薄,外层室中央凹下部分呈不规则条状。幼虫毛片束发达,片状毛小,先端极少有齿...

松毛虫属变异较复杂,过去文献上的记载比较紊乱,本篇着重以各虫期的形态特征为主,修订记载了我国严重为害松柏科的6种松毛虫,计:西伯利亚松毛虫(Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschetv.),赤松毛虫(D.spectabilis Butler),马尾松毛虫(D.punctatus Walker),铁杉毛虫(D.superansButler),云南松毛虫(D.latipennis Walker),和思茅松毛虫(D.kikuchii Mats.),同时记述了2个新种,计:油松毛虫 (D.tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu)和西昌松毛虫(D. xichangensis Tsai et Liu)及1个新亚种:赭色松毛虫(D.kikuchii ochraceus Tsai et Liu)。模式标本保存在中国科学院动物研究所。 新种油松毛虫和赤松毛虫、马尾松毛虫很近似,但其成虫前翅较狭长,中横线与外横线为白色,亚外缘斑列内侧有白色斑;外生殖器小抱针长度约为大抱针的1/2;外生殖器侧前阴片接近圆形。卵壳上内层室和中层室壁很薄,外层室中央凹下部分呈不规则条状。幼虫毛片束发达,片状毛小,先端极少有齿状突起,无贴体倒伏鳞毛。 新种西昌松毛虫和云南松毛虫、思茅松毛虫比较近似,但成虫前翅中横线与外横线之间明显形成褐色宽带;外生殖器前阴片愈合成一块。卵壳表面无花斑。幼虫胸部背面无明显毒毛带,但体侧有黑丛毛。根据以上几点,显然和其他两种松毛虫有区别。 新亚种赭色?

 
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