The backscatter strength is also related with chlorophyll, turbidity and thermal gradient, and the contributions of chlorophyll, turbidity and thermal gradient to backscatter strength are 1.41 dB, 7.73 dB and 3.54 dB, respectively.
Al-59.sing. g-1 Ni binary alloy has been directionally solidified vertically at various rates with a thermal gradient in front of solid/liquid intedece of 45K. cm-1 to investigate microstructure and eutectic spacing selection.
Based on this, the structural temperature filed can be simplified as the thermal gradient for box track girder, which has practical value in the design for reasonable controlling the thermal displacement.
The thermal gradient was 54.0～50.0℃/km during the period of the Kongdian group deposition,50.0～40.0℃/km during the period of Shahejie group,40.0～38.5℃/km of Dongying group and 38.5～35.5℃/km during the Neogene. It changed little since then and decreased down to 35℃/km at the present-day.
The thermal gradient could be up to 43\^3～50 ℃/km at the Carboniferous time, decreasing to 36 3 ℃/km at the end of Permian, 33 8 ℃/km at the end of Triassic, 28 4 ℃/km at the end of Jurassic and 24 8 ℃/km at the end of Cretaceous, respectively.
古生代时地温梯度较高 ,石炭纪时地温梯度达 43 3～ 5 0℃ km ,二叠纪末减小为 36 3℃ km ; 中生代地温梯度减小 ,到三叠纪末为 33 8℃ km ,侏罗纪末为 2 8 4℃ km ,白垩纪末为 2 4 8℃ km ;
The Early-Middle Permian gradient reached 4.4-5.2℃/hm, induced by local magmatic activities; Triassic-Jurassic gradient is normal (3. 12 -3.93℃/hm). The thermal gradient distributed nearly the the same with the present day's since Cretaceous, which is range of 2. 2 - 2. 8℃/hm.
Geo thermal gradient of eastern basins is high, which is generally higher than 3.6℃/100m, and the highest can reach 5.56℃/100m. Eastern basins mainly are faulted basins in type, where the thickness of crust obviously decreases and magmatic activity is intense. These indicate that there is an intensive regional structural thermal event.
However, the western basins are of depression basins, the geo thermal gradient of them is generally lower than 3℃/100m, i.e. lower than the eastern basins. In western basins thickness of crust increases and magmatic activity is weak.
Most of studied species managed to survive and propagate in a wide thermal range corresponding to the thermal gradient in the peripheral zones of algal belts.
Experiments on sessile drops evaporating in a normal atmosphere without an applied thermal gradient are reported and compared with an available theoretical model.
The effect of traditional inhibitors of acid corrosion (urotropine, benzotriazole, and thiocarbamide) on the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of an iron plate with a tangential thermal gradient in a sulfate-containing acid solution is examined.
The heat transfer processes occurring in the solid and liquid phases during growth of Bi12GeO20 and Bi4Ge3O12 crystals by the low-thermal gradient Czochralski method are analyzed and compared.
The change of the Josephson supercurrent density js of a weakly connected granular superconductor in response to externally applied arbitrary thermal gradient ?T (nonlinear Seebeck effect) is considered within a model of 3D Josephson junction arrays.