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distant    
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  远程
    Analysis of Technology of Longan Storage of Distant Commerce Trans portation
    龙眼远程商业运输保鲜技术分析
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    Clustering analysis showed that it is distant between turnip and Chinese Cabbage;
    结果表明 :芜菁与结球白菜和不结球白菜亲缘关系 ;
短句来源
    it indicated that the genetic relationship between C. mollissima and C. sequinii was close whereas the relationship of these two species were distant to another species, C.
    利用UPGMA法构建遗传关系聚类图,以相似性系数0.62为阈值,板栗与茅栗为一个聚类组,锥栗为另一个聚类组,表明板栗与茅栗的亲缘关系较近,两者与锥栗的亲缘关系相对较
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    11 winged bean cultivars could be classified into 3 categories of which the relative relation between the trailing variety and the short variety was distant.
    11个四棱豆品种可以归纳为3大类,蔓生品种和矮生品种的亲缘关系较.
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  远缘
    The Theoretical and Practical Significance of Plant Distant Grafting in Ancient and Modern China
    中国古今植物远缘嫁接的理论和实践意义
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    Creating New Germplasm by Distant Hybridization in Stone FruitsⅡ. Embryo Rescue and Hybrid Identification Between Plum and Apricot
    利用远缘杂交创造核果类果树新种质的研究 Ⅱ.李、杏远缘杂种胚抢救及杂种鉴定
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    In Situ Germination and Pollen Tube Growth of Distant Pollens in Pear
    梨远缘花粉原位萌发及生长特性
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    Protoplasts culture and fusion, which can expanded the genetic recombination and transfer distant traits, have great potential for breeding.
    原生质体培养及融合技术能扩大遗传重组范围,促进远缘性状的有效转移,在应用于育种实践时显示出巨大的应用潜力。
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    In this paper, we will discribe an interspecies distant sexual hybridization experiment in which 19F1 hybrids were generated from parent plant A. yuanjiangensis Xiong , Zheng et Liu of Aloe L. and A. saponaria, (Ait.)
    文章用芦荟属(Aloe L.)植物元江芦荟(A.yuanjiangensis Xiong,Zheng et Liu)和皂质芦荟[A.saponaria(Ait.) Haw.]为亲本进行了种间远缘有性杂交试验,获得了19株F1代实生苗。
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  distant
The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system (WIOBSS), which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.
      
One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distant particles.
      
2 plant was genetically distant from the rest of the individuals.
      
The collecting sites were geographically distant from each other from south to north: Quwo district, Linfen city; Xiangyuan county, Changzhi; Jinyuan district, Taiyuan city; Yuanping county, Xinzhou city and Fanshi county of Xinzhou.A.
      
Results displayed a more close relationship between leopard and tiger; however, clouded leopard has a comparatively distant relationship form the other two.
      
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Controlled crosses made between apple×pear(P.communis,P.serotina,P. Bretchneideri,P.ussuriensis),apple×plum,apple×cherry,apple×peach(P.pe- rsica,p.Davidii),apple×apricot,and apple×strawberry from 1953 to 1955 have proved that hybrid seeds can be obtained even between sub-families,except the strawberry.The percentage of fruit setting varied with the remoteness of the phylogenetical relation befween female and male parents,ie.apple×pear higher than apple×stone fruits.For different varieties of apple under different...

Controlled crosses made between apple×pear(P.communis,P.serotina,P. Bretchneideri,P.ussuriensis),apple×plum,apple×cherry,apple×peach(P.pe- rsica,p.Davidii),apple×apricot,and apple×strawberry from 1953 to 1955 have proved that hybrid seeds can be obtained even between sub-families,except the strawberry.The percentage of fruit setting varied with the remoteness of the phylogenetical relation befween female and male parents,ie.apple×pear higher than apple×stone fruits.For different varieties of apple under different natural and agricultural conditions gave different results,it is suggested that in order to obtain hybrid seeds several maternal varieties should be used in two or three conti- nuous years. Seeds obtained from mixed pollination method(a limited quantity of pollen grains of an apple variety applied to the stigma 4 hours after the proceeding dis- tant cross)were most probably not true hybrid seeds.It seems necessary to length- en the time interval between the two operations of pollination. Pollination with old stigma(6 days after emasculation)reduced the percentage of fruit setting in apple×pear,and it seemed to have some positive effect in app- le×stone fruits.The percentage of fruit setting was greatly increased in appee× pear by using trees which had been prelimiuarily vegetative-approached as maternal parents,as compared with ordinary cross. The seedlings of distant hydrid,especially those individuals with parental or new characteristics,grew very feebly and soon perished with gradual.browing and drying of the root system.

一、用一般的套袋授粉法进行苹果和梨、和核果类桃、李、樱桃、山杏、山毛桃等组合的有性杂交可以获得杂交果实和种子。二、杂交的结实率因父本的种类而不同,苹果和梨(仁果类)杂交结实率、结种子率一般较苹果和桃、李、樱桃等核果类为大。三、母本苹果不同品种不同的自然及栽培条件下成功的可能性不同。因此在进行远缘杂交时应同时选几个品种作为母本,在不同年份连续进行较易获得成功。四、先授以远缘花粉隔四小时后再授以限量近缘花粉的混合授粉法所得结果不可靠。是否用延长间隔时间或采用丧失发芽力的近缘花粉的混合授粉法以促进杂交结实而不致引起差误有待于进一步研究。五、用去雄后6天进行授粉的衰老柱头授粉法,似不宜用于一般杂交结实尚不很困难的苹果和梨之间的杂交,但用于苹果和某些核果类果树之间的杂交似有促进作用。六、以父本种类作砧木对母本进行教养影响的无性渐近杂交法显著地提高了苹果和梨远缘杂交的结实率。七、远缘杂种生活力弱,幼苗甚易夭折,一般从茎的基部或地下部分开始变褐,渐渐全株枯死。杂种部分植株表现父本梨或全新性状,表现这些性状的植株生活力尤为衰弱。如何克服杂种幼苗的夭折尚待继续研究。

Flowers of the apple varieties, Ralls and Olga Crab, were pollinated with the pollen grains of several varieties of pear at Shunyao, Sheuyang and Harbin during the period of 1961-1962 to study the crossability between these distant parents and the effectiveness of some methods which had been used by some investigators to over come the incompatibility in distant hybridazation. The results are as follows: 1.Crossing OIga Crab with pear's mixed pollen'at three different ages of flower, the author has...

Flowers of the apple varieties, Ralls and Olga Crab, were pollinated with the pollen grains of several varieties of pear at Shunyao, Sheuyang and Harbin during the period of 1961-1962 to study the crossability between these distant parents and the effectiveness of some methods which had been used by some investigators to over come the incompatibility in distant hybridazation. The results are as follows: 1.Crossing OIga Crab with pear's mixed pollen'at three different ages of flower, the author has found that the percentage of fruit-setting is higher when pollination is made at the time of emasoulation of flower buds than at the second day after em- aseulation or the fourth day after. The difference between first and third treattment is statistically significant. 2.The effectiveness of mixed pollination is studied by comparing the percentage of fruit-setting of mixed pollination with that of its components pollinated separately. The result shows that mixed pollination has no particuler effect on raising the percentage of fruit-setting. 3.The result of Olga Crab pollinated with the mixed pollen of pear, Cerasus tomentosa, C. japanica, Amygdalus persica and Prunus salicina shows that heterogen- eous supplementary pollination has some effect on increasing the percentage of fruit- setting. 4.with the combination of Olga Crab×mixed pollen of pears, it is found that the percentage of fruit-setting of the treatment where the stigma of female parent had been treated with borie acid solution is higher than the control, but the difference is not significant. Treating the stigma with the ether extract of pistile of male parent gives no positive effect. 5.The difference of the degree of compatibility expressed either as the percentage of fruit-setting or as the percentage of seed setting, between different combinations with Ralls used as female parent is highly significant. Among the pear varieties used in this experiment, the variety of pear "ping-go-lee" gives the highest percentage of fruit and seed setting with both female parents and all the three locations. It seems, therefore, that "ping-go-lee" may be cosidered as a good parent for intergeneric crossing between apple and pear. 6.Several hybrib seedlings with distinct intergeneric characters have been obtained. 7.The cause and denotation of the results as shown in above were discussed rudi- mentally.

不同属的植物间进行杂交时,亲本间的不易交配性是主要的障碍之一。本文根据二试拭验结果,讨论了几种克服亲本间不易交配性的方法的效果。探讨了不同亲本组合的交配亲和力,并提出某些梨的品种在与苹果杂交肘能获得比较良好的效果。分析、比较了杂种实生苗与亲本实生苗在某些营养器官性状上的关系,研究了杂种的真实性。

Flowers of the apple varieties, Ralls and Olga Crab,were pollinated with the pollen grains of several varieties of pear at Shunyao,Shenyang and Harbin during the period of 1961-1962 to study the crossability between these distant parents and the effectiveness of some methods which had been used by some investigators to over come the incompatibility in distant hybridazation.The results are as follows: 1.Crossing Olga Crab with pear's mixed pollen at three different ages of flower, the author has found...

Flowers of the apple varieties, Ralls and Olga Crab,were pollinated with the pollen grains of several varieties of pear at Shunyao,Shenyang and Harbin during the period of 1961-1962 to study the crossability between these distant parents and the effectiveness of some methods which had been used by some investigators to over come the incompatibility in distant hybridazation.The results are as follows: 1.Crossing Olga Crab with pear's mixed pollen at three different ages of flower, the author has found that the percentage of fruit-setting is higher when pollination is made at the time of emasculation of flower buds than at the second day after em- asculation or the fourth day after.The difference between first and third treattment is statistically significant. 2.The effectiveness of mixed pollination is studied by comparing the percentage of fruit-setting of mixed pollination with that of its components pollinated separately.The resultshows that mixed pollination has no particuler effect on raising the percentage of fruit-setting. 3.The result of Olga Crab pollinated with the mixed pollen of pear,Cerasus tomentosa,C.japauica,Amygdalus persica and Prunus salicina shows that heterogen- eous supplementary pollination has some effect on increasing the percentage of fruit- setting. 4.with the combination of Olga Crab×mixed pollen of pears,it is found that the percentage of fruit-settlng of the treatment where the stigma of female parent had been treated with boric acid solution is higher than the control,but the difference is not significant.Treating the stigma with the ether extract of pistile of male parent gives no positive effect. 5.The difference of the degree of compatibility expressed either as the percentage of fruit-setting or as the percentage Of seed setting,between different combinations with Ralls used as female parent is highly significant.Among the pear varieties used in this experiment,the variety of pear“ping-go-lee”gives the highest percentage of fruit and seed setting with both female parents and all the three locations.It seems, therefore,that“ping-go-lee”may be considered as a good parent for intergeneric crossing between apple and pear. 6.Several hybrib seedlings with distinct intergeneric characters have been obtained. 7.The cause and denotation of the results as shown in above were discussed rudi- mentally.

一、于一九六一年、一九六二年分别在熊岳、沈阳、哈尔滨以国光苹果和大秋果小苹果为母本,与几个品种梨进行了近万朵花的杂交工作,研究了不同亲本的交配亲和力以及其他几种克服远缘亲本间不易交配性的方法。二、在大秋果×梨混粉的蕾期、花期和花后授粉各处理中,以蕾期授粉效果最好。三、在苹果×梨的杂交中,用梨的混合花粉授粉,在不同的授粉方法和不同混粉组成的情况下,都有一定程度的着果率(0.34—24.00%)。混合授粉与组成混粉各成员单独授粉各组合比较时,混合授粉的着果率和平均单果种子数有高于最差亲本,低于最好亲本的趋势。把混合授粉结种子率与组成混粉各成员单独授粉各组合综合结种子率比较时,发现混合授粉亦不是经常能得到更多的杂种种子。四、在大秋果×梨的杂交中,于梨属植物花粉中混入樱属、桃属、李属等远缘属的花粉时,看到有提高着果率的趋势,处理与对照相比,两年综合着果率分别为10.92%与6.26%。五、研究了苹果×梨不同亲本组合间的交配亲和力。(一)就本试验所用亲本组合而言,没有发现白梨、砂梨、秋子梨、洋梨、杜梨等在与苹果杂交时,亲和力上有显著的种间差异。(二)做为父本的不同品种间在与国光苹果杂交时,亲和力有着明显的差异:种间杂种...

一、于一九六一年、一九六二年分别在熊岳、沈阳、哈尔滨以国光苹果和大秋果小苹果为母本,与几个品种梨进行了近万朵花的杂交工作,研究了不同亲本的交配亲和力以及其他几种克服远缘亲本间不易交配性的方法。二、在大秋果×梨混粉的蕾期、花期和花后授粉各处理中,以蕾期授粉效果最好。三、在苹果×梨的杂交中,用梨的混合花粉授粉,在不同的授粉方法和不同混粉组成的情况下,都有一定程度的着果率(0.34—24.00%)。混合授粉与组成混粉各成员单独授粉各组合比较时,混合授粉的着果率和平均单果种子数有高于最差亲本,低于最好亲本的趋势。把混合授粉结种子率与组成混粉各成员单独授粉各组合综合结种子率比较时,发现混合授粉亦不是经常能得到更多的杂种种子。四、在大秋果×梨的杂交中,于梨属植物花粉中混入樱属、桃属、李属等远缘属的花粉时,看到有提高着果率的趋势,处理与对照相比,两年综合着果率分别为10.92%与6.26%。五、研究了苹果×梨不同亲本组合间的交配亲和力。(一)就本试验所用亲本组合而言,没有发现白梨、砂梨、秋子梨、洋梨、杜梨等在与苹果杂交时,亲和力上有显著的种间差异。(二)做为父本的不同品种间在与国光苹果杂交时,亲和力有着明显的差异:种间杂种起源的品种与非种间杂种起源的品种比较,在着果率(分别为39.36%和1.49%)、受精胚珠率(分别为48.57—63.19%和30.00—45.00%)和平均有效种子数(分别为2.92—4.59和1.25—3.00)等三方面都较高。这两类父本与国光苹果杂交时,杂交效果的高低主要取决于雌、雄配子的结合能力。六、得到了表现显著杂种性状的实生苗。七、对产生上述现象的原因及意义做了初步的讨论。

 
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