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chromium steels
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  铬钢
     For improving thermal efficiency, the mechanical properties of newly high chromium steels were tested and studied.
     为提高火电厂的效率对新的高铬钢性能进行了研究。
短句来源
     In the spectrochemical analysis of high chromium steels, the calibration curve of chromium was
     在进行高铬钢光谱分析时,观察到不同含碳量对铬钢的工作曲线有影响。 同时看到在高碳样品中,样品组织结构也影响了光谱分析的结果。
短句来源
     On the basis of corrosion data of 16 kinds of steels exposed in Qingdao, Xiamen and Yulin seawaters for 8 years, an expected reliable interval with the reliability of 95% for the corrosion depth may be deduced by statistical analysis of the data. In terms of the reliable intervals, corrosion regulatis of non-chromium and chromium steels related with the full immersion zone and the tidal zone are discussed.
     依据16个牌号19种钢在青岛、厦门和榆林3个海域8年全浸区和潮差区中的腐蚀数据,采用统计分析的方法,计算了置信度为95%(a=0.05)的腐蚀深度数学期望置信区间,分析讨论了无铬钢与合铬钢在全浸、潮差区中的腐蚀规律
短句来源
     Corrosion resistance of chromium steels in seawater changes not only with chromium content, but also with other alloying elements combined with Cr.
     铬钢的耐海水腐蚀性不仅与Cr的含量有关 ,还与其他复合合金元素有关 .
短句来源
     New views on “corrosion resistance reverse” of chromium steels and the effect of chromium on seawater corrosion resistance were postulated.
     对铬钢的耐蚀性逆转和铬元素对钢海水腐蚀的影响提出了新的看法 .
短句来源
  “chromium steels”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The immersion and electrochemical tests have been performed on the chromium steels in the mixed salt solution (0.1%NaCl+0.5%Na_2O_4+H_2SO_4, pH=6). The corrosion behaviors of the steels have been investigated using the potentiostat, SEM and XPS.
     对不同成分的含铬铸钢进行了浸泡与电化学试验,利用恒电位仪、扫描电镜和XPS手段,研究了试验材料在混合盐(0.1%NaCl+0.5%Na_2SO_4+H_2SO_4,pH=6)中的抗蚀行为。
短句来源
     CORROSION BEHAVIORS OF THE CHROMIUM STEELS IN THE MIXED SALT SOLUTION
     含铬铸钢在混合盐中腐蚀行为的研究
短句来源
     After immesion in seawater for long time a reverse of the corrosion resistance of chromium steels do occur.
     含铬低合金钢在海水中短期浸泡的耐蚀性比碳钢好 ,长期浸泡的耐蚀性比碳钢差 .
短句来源
     Over 2%Cr combined with Mo(\|Al) increases corrosion resistance of steels for a short term immersion by a big margin, and the time that corrosion resistance of chromium steels becomes worse than carbon steel is obviously postponed.
     大于 2 %Cr与Mo( Al)复合大幅度提高钢在海水中短期浸泡的耐蚀性 ,并使耐蚀性逆转时间明显推迟 .
短句来源
     Corrosion data of five chromium steels immersed in seawater for 1,2,4,8 years were obtained. Effect of chromium on corrosion resistance of the steels in seawater were evaluated.
     获得了 5种含铬低合金钢在海水中暴露 1、2、4、8(7)年的腐蚀数据 ,讨论了Cr对钢耐海水腐蚀性的影响 .
短句来源
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  相似匹配句对
     CORROSION OF CHROMIUM STEELS IN SEAWATER
     含铬低合金钢在海水中的腐蚀研究
短句来源
     ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF CHROMIUM IN STEELS
     原子吸收光谱法测定钢铁中铬
短句来源
     Chromium and Health
     铬与健康
短句来源
     BOILER STEELS
     锅炉用钢
短句来源
     to martenitic steels.
     而对于马氏体钢E表更为主要。
短句来源
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  chromium steels
The chromium carbides are of considerable technical importance because of their precipitation behavior in certain high-chromium steels and superalloys.
      
Tensile properties of tempered chromium steels in the temperature range 0°to 700°C
      
A simulation method that combines one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion models has been proposed for predicting the behaviors of carbide particles dispersed in the carburizing layer of high-carbon chromium steels.
      
The two lower-chromium steels contained blocky M7C3 and small needle-shaped carbonitrides in addition to M23C6.
      
Mechanism of damping capacity of high-chromium steels and α-Fe and its dependence on some external factors
      
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In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened...

In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples of the same steel are different and the difference increases with the increase of carbon content. We are inclined to think that in a low energy light source, the evaporation and the excitation of the alloying elements vary according to the existing form of carbon and this directly affects the results of spectrochemical analysis. The magnitude of this effect is different for different alloying elements, it is considerable in the case of Cr but is inappreciable in the case of Mn and Si.

我们用爱氏光源(低电流交流电弧)作高速钢的光谱分析时,发现样品的组织结构对于分析结果有影响。为了对这个现象得到进一步的了解,我们选择了10种含碳量不同的铬钢进行热处理试验和光谱分析。一系列实验的结果指出,用小电流(5安)电弧光源时,铬的光谱分析结果由于试样是退火组织或淬火组织而有差别,这个差别又随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加。我们认为,这种影响是由于碳在试样中存在状态的不同所引起的。在低功率光源中,这种不同使合金元素被蒸发和被激发的情况有所差别,因而就影响了光谱分析的结果。这种影响由于合金元素之不同而有程度上的不同,对铬的影响很显著,对锰和矽的影响则很小。此外,所选择的分析线对是弧线还是火花线,对于这种组织结构的效应也有显著的影响。 曾经进行了一些消除组织结构影响的实验。发现在应用低功率光源时,增加预燃时间并不能消除这个效应。用火花光源或大电流(8安)电弧光源时,这种影响大为减小。

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects...

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects observed under different excitation conditions show that under the same excitation condition, the arc temperature which is indicated by the log intensity ratio of two iron lines of different excitation potential is higher when the sample electrode is of annealed structure; and in light sources of the same arc temperature the relative concentration of alloying elements to iron is higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. Since these two factors have opposite effect on spectral line intensities, the result of analysis will be different for different line pairs chosen. If the analysis line pair is homologous, the effect observed is due to a difference of relative concentration of different elements in the arc column alone, and the result of analysis is always higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. This may he explained by the fact that the presence of carbon in solid solutions decreases the interatomic forces or shows a lowering of energy of volatilization. This lowering is different for different elements but all increases with the increase of carbon content.

在过去工作的基础上,进一步观察了合金钢的组织结构对于钨、镍、硅、锰的光谱分析的影响和碳钢的组织结构对于硅、锰的影响。这些影响都是随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加,对与不同元素有程度上的不同。改变激发条件的试验结果指出:1)在同一激发条件下,淬火组织试样的弧温比退火组织的低;2)在同一弧温时,弧柱中合金元素与铁元素的浓度比值是淬火组织的比退火组织的高。由于这两个因素对于谱线强度所发生的影响的方向相反,所以在实际的光谱分析中,组织结构的影响便有不同的表现。 根据分析线对中的分析线与内标线的激发能差值的大小,可以说明为什么采用离子线或原子线作分析线对时所观察到的组织结构影响不同或者方向相反。当所用的分析线对比较均称时,淬火组织试样的分析结果总是比退火的高。引起组织结构影响的主要原因是由于在不同组织结构时蒸发情况的不同。试样中所含溶解碳量的增加使原子间力相应地减小,这可以解释为什么含碳量不同以及不同的合金元素引起不同的组织结构影响。

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently...

The study of the distribution of hydrogen in steel ingots, despite its practical importance, has not received due attention from previous workers. Available experimental results are mainly fragmentary and non-systematic, and therefore many disputable opinions exist. Desirous of investigating this problem in greater details, the authors employed several annealed ingots of high chromium steels which were considered to be particularly suitable because they evolved little gas at room temperature and consequently the inherent difficulty to avoid the loss of hydrogen during sampling was, to a very large extent, overcome. For this purpose also, suitable apparatus capable of determining relatively small amount of hydrogen was constructed. The results obtained show that the hydrogen distribution in the annealed ingots follows a significant and regular pattern, thus dismissing certain misgiving conclusions based on contradictory results given by previous workers. Although the average hydrogen content of the anealed ingots amounted to not more than half that of the liquid stael, yet in certain parts of their interior the local hydrogen content was found to be higher than that of the liquid steal. This affirms the existence of hydrogen segregation in steel ingots. Moreover, from maps of hydrogen contour lines drawn for the ingots it can be seen that the regions of the highest hydrogen content roughly coincide with the last solification. Indeed, the effect due to certain external irregularities encountered in the course of solification is detectable rather from the hydrogen maps than by the usual method of macro-etching.In the longitudinal or the transverse direction of the annealed ingots, the general trend of hydrogen variation based on average hydrogen content is shown to be governed by the law of hydrogen diffusion. Further examinations reveal that the ingot structure and its internal porosity exert considerable influence upon the distribution. It is likely that hydrogen diffusion may be faster in columnar crystals than in equi-axed crystal regions. The presence of porosities in ingots seems to retard the removal of hydrogen. Such implications have not been sufficiently realized in the past.Based on the discussion of the experimental results, certain immunizing treatment suitable for preventing hairline cracks in certain types of steel is explained.

氢在鋼锭中的分佈是一个具有重要实际意义的问题,但在过去未得到研究工作者足够的重视.本文利用高铬型合金鋼在常温下不损失氢的特点,并建立了適宜的半微量定氢装置,对退火后的鋼锭中各个部位进行了定氢试验。结果证明,氢在鋼锭中的分佈是具有规律性的,指出了前人根据不全面的实验结果所提出的错误结论. 经过退火处理后的鋼锭,其平均含氢量虽然只及原来钢液含氢量的一半,伹在某些局部其含氢量反而高於钢液.这说明钢锭中确有氢的偏析现象存在.根据等氢曲线的分布情况来看,钢锭中氢偏析严重之处大致与最后凝固的部分相符.凝固过程中钢锭一面受到中注管散热的影响,也能从等氢曲线的分佈情况反映出来,而这种影响从低倍检验结果来看是没有能够觉察到的. 从氢含量变化的平均趋势来看,退火钢锭中的氢分佈不管是沿横方向抑是沿縱方向都服从於扩散规律,伹必须考虑到结晶构造和内部缺陷的影响.譬如,沿柱状晶轴方向的氢扩散似乎比等轴晶区域内的氢扩散速度大,而钢锭中心疏松对於去氢则起阻碍作用,过去对於这些方面的了解是不够的. 根据上述结果的分析讨论,本文还为某种防止钢中白点的热处理方法提供了理论上的解释.

 
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