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combustion     
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  燃烧
     STUDY ON THE HIGH EFFICIENCY AND LOW POLLUTION COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTIC OF BLENDING COALS
     混煤高效低污染燃烧特性研究
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     Combustion and Optimizing Control in a Hydrogen-Fueled Engine
     氢燃料发动机燃烧与优化控制
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     Combustion and Gasification of Pulverized-Coal in High Concentration Carbon Dioxide
     煤粉在高浓度CO_2下的燃烧与气化
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     Combustion Flow Investigation in Ejecting Mode of RBCC
     火箭基组合动力循环(RBCC)引射模态燃烧流动研究
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     The Numerical Simulation of Coal Powder Combustion Process and Slagging in Utility Boiler
     电站锅炉煤粉燃烧过程及结渣的数值模拟
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  燃烧的
     Experimental and Numerical Study of Premixed Superadiabatic Combustion in Porous Media with Reciprocating Flow
     多孔介质内往复流动下超绝热燃烧的实验和数值模拟研究
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     Investigation and Numerical Simulation of Effect of Boundary Condition on Diesel Engine Combustion Process under Transient Operating Conditions
     边界条件对柴油机瞬态工况下燃烧的影响及数值模拟
短句来源
     The Lean-Mixture Combustion in a CA1102Q Five-Valve S.I.Engine with Electronic-Controlled Port-Fuel-Injection
     CA1102Q五气门汽油机电控燃油喷射稀混合气燃烧的研究
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     Research and Industrial Application of Coal-Water Slurry Clean Combustion on Oil One
     水煤浆代油清洁燃烧的研究及工业应用
短句来源
     Numerical Simulation of Catalytic Combustion and Its Application to HCCI Engines
     催化燃烧的数值模拟及其在均质压燃(HCCI)发动机中应用的基础研究
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     Researches on Combustion and Processes of High Boron Content Boron-Based Fuel-Rich Solid Propellants
     高含硼富固体推进剂工艺和烧性能研究
短句来源
     Study on Fuel-Air Mixture Formation and Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engine of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition
     预混合压发动机混合气形成与烧过程研究
短句来源
     Study on Primary Combustion of Boron-based Fuel-rich Propellant
     含硼富推进剂一次烧研究
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     Theoretical and Numerical Study on the Ignition and Combustion Process of HCCI Engines
     均质压(HCCI)发动机着火与烧过程的理论与数值研究
短句来源
     Numerical Simulation of Catalytic Combustion and Its Application to HCCI Engines
     催化烧的数值模拟及其在均质压(HCCI)发动机中应用的基础研究
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  燃烧过程
     The Numerical Simulation of Coal Powder Combustion Process and Slagging in Utility Boiler
     电站锅炉煤粉燃烧过程及结渣的数值模拟
短句来源
     Ab Initio Study on the Microscopic Mechanism of Ozone Depletion in Atmosphere and the Reaction in Combustion
     大气中臭氧损耗和燃烧过程中污染物间反应机理研究
短句来源
     Experimental and Theoretical Study of Toxic Elements and Submicrometer Particle Formation and Capture Mechanisms during Coal Combustion
     煤燃烧过程中有害元素和亚微米颗粒物排放与控制的理论与实验研究
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     The Study on Corrosion and Anti-Corrosion Technique in Combustion Process of Heavy Oil
     重质燃料油燃烧过程中的腐蚀及其防护技术研究
短句来源
     Experimental and Mechanism Study on the Mercury, Arsenic and Selenium Transformation and Emission Control during Coal Combustion
     煤燃烧过程中汞、砷、硒的排放与控制研究
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  combustion
According to combustion phenomenon, polymer 4 was supposed to be processed with a good flame-retardant property because of its excellent crosslinked structure during pyrolysis or combustion.
      
Preparation of nanometer MgO by sol-gel auto-combustion
      
Nanometer MgO was prepared via a sol-gel auto-combustion technique using magnesium nitrate as raw material and citric acid as chelating agent.
      
By studying the different TG curves of magnesium citrate gel prepared by different methods, we found that a combustion process occurred and the nitrate ions acted as an oxidant in the combustion process.
      
TEM photographs of synthesized powders from the sol-gel auto-combustion showed that the crystallites were uniform in size.
      
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Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

Using photoelectric tube and D. C. Amplifier to record the light of a spectral line, it is possible to watch directly how an element vaporizes during the combustion of a sample in an electric arc.

应用光电法记录光谱线的强度,可以直接观察在电弧中某一元素燃烧的过程。 用Zn-Cu合金含锌量在50%至0.01%广大范围内,取锌线λ=4810.5A作为分析线,我们看到当某一定量的试样完全燃烧掉时,光电流对时间的积分,也就是光电荷,是和样品中的含锌量成正比例的。 这样的积分法作为定量分析法的优点可以避免光源的飘动与不稳定。

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8combustion products F_(c.2.)~(мцн) andwet combustion products V_2~(мцн) in m~3/kg can be expressed as straight line for-mulas in terms of Q_H~P for the Chinese coals: V_o~(мцн)=(1.075Q_H~P)/1000 V_(c.2.)~(мцн)=((1.075Q_H~P)/1000)-0.2 V_2~(мцн)=((0.955Q_H~P)/1000)+1.10 For Soviet coals, straight line formulas are also derived as shown on thegraph. (6) This paper will find practical use in the fuel industry and power indus-try in operation and design work of power plants. The monographs for the coalcombustion calculations will be shown in another paper for the practical use forpower plant operation, because of too many graphs in one paper. Owing to the fact that the only data available for the ultimate analysis ofChinese coal is from the Northeast region and North China region, the degreeof accuracy of these graphs for Chinese coal is limited by the available data,although the comparison with the graphs for Soviet coals show a perfect simi-larity so that it can be concluded these graphs can be used for the Chinesecoals in other regions. Critical opinions are welcomed by the author to improve this paper.

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

 
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