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economics
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  economics
The supercritical water-cooled reactor has favorable features in economics, sustainability and technology availability.
      
The Krasovskii self-organizing regulators for optimal control of dynamic processes is shown to be applicable in economics.
      
Numerous applications of the continuous logic to mathematics, engineering, economics, social sciences, and so on were described, and its perspectives were estimated.
      
An important problem in economics is the construction of an effective minimal-cost management hierarchy for an economic system.
      
Nonnegative large-scale linear programming problems with group constraints are extremely important for different applications in economics, technology, and other spheres.
      
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The author is an associate research fellow and director of the depart-ment of industrial economics of the Research Institute of Industrial Eco-nomics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and member of China'sAssociation of Industrial Economics. The article is a research paper based on an overall study of China'stobacco industrT, It briefly analyses the economic conditions and the main problems of China's tobacco industry. There are out-of-control phenomena,the article stresses, in the planting...

The author is an associate research fellow and director of the depart-ment of industrial economics of the Research Institute of Industrial Eco-nomics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and member of China'sAssociation of Industrial Economics. The article is a research paper based on an overall study of China'stobacco industrT, It briefly analyses the economic conditions and the main problems of China's tobacco industry. There are out-of-control phenomena,the article stresses, in the planting and purchasing of tobacco, thedistribution of cured tobacco and the production and distribution ofcigarettes, resulting in the blind increase of production capacity, thedecline of economic efficiency and the loss of state financial resources. Allthis should be promptly dealt with. The author puts forward some majormeasures to carry on the reform and raise the economic efficiency: First,to institute a monopoly tax and carry out the policy of "achievingprohibition through taxation," to enact the monopoly law and strengthenthe supervision of the monopoly of sales of tobacco. Third, to adopt thecontracted system of economic responsibility so as to promote reforms anddevelopment of the General Tobacco Company and its subordinate enter-prises. Fourth, to work out plans for the strategy of development.Fifthly, to effect technological transformation in a planned way. In thelight of the characteristics of the tobacco industry, the author discussesin detail these measures.

本文是作者在全面调查我国烟草行业的基础上提出的研究报告,文章简略分析了我国烟草行业的经济现状和存在的主要问题,着重指出,烟草行业在烟草种植和收购方面、烤烟调配方面、卷烟生产和调配方面,都存在着失控现象,造成生产能力盲目增长,经济效益下降和国家财源流失的趋向,亟待扭转。作者提出了进一步改革和提高经济效益的主要措施:(1)建立专卖税,真正实现“寓禁于征”的作用;(2)建立专卖法,加强烟草专卖的监督;(3)实行经济承包责任制,增强烟草总公司及其所属企业的改造和发展能力;(4)制订发展战略和规划;(5)有计划地进行技术改造。作者根据烟草行业的特点,对这些措施作了较具体切实的研究和分析。

The author is an assistant research fellow and deputy director of theIndustrial Economic Research Department of the Industrial EconomicResearch Institute under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, anda member of China's Association of Industrial Economics. The article puts forward a view on wage readjustment during the peri-od of transition from old economic structure to the new in China. Analys-ing the demand for wage readjustment and the difficulty of accomplish-ing this task during the Seventh Five-Year...

The author is an assistant research fellow and deputy director of theIndustrial Economic Research Department of the Industrial EconomicResearch Institute under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, anda member of China's Association of Industrial Economics. The article puts forward a view on wage readjustment during the peri-od of transition from old economic structure to the new in China. Analys-ing the demand for wage readjustment and the difficulty of accomplish-ing this task during the Seventh Five-Year Plan period, the author holdsthat to fulfil the work, it is necessary to proceed from actual conditionsand adopt flexible measures. The author suggests three improvbments in wage readjustment in ourcountry: 1. Dynamic readjustment. Because the past readjustment method(static readjustment) has some shortcomings and the economic reformhas caused the wage system to "multipolarize", it is necessary to exerciseelastic control in total wages, the wage form in enterprises, and thelabour reward for the individual. 2. All-round implementation of the economic responsibility system.The wage reform in China should start with the all-round implementa-tion of the system of economic responsibility, linking levels of wages com-pletely or partly with the economic results of the enterprise and withvarious economic quotas. 3. Wage legislation, this is to solve the problems of minimum wage,the wide gap between high and low wages lawsuits, supervision throughpolicies, and floating labour forces, etc. The author also puts forward his opinion on the problems of "thoseoxes which run faster get more whips." policy restraint, equity and effi-ciency, and encouraging some people to become prosperous sooner thanothers.

本文对我国经济体制新旧交替时期的工资调节提出了看法。作者分析了“七五”期间工资改革的要求以及完成工资调节任务的困难,认为完成工资调节的任务必须从实际出发,采取灵活的措施。作者提出,我国工资调节应从三个方面加以改进:一、实行动态调节。一方面过去的调节方式(静态调节)存在缺陷,另一方面经济改革使工资制度出现了“多极化”形势,因此应当在工资总额、企业工资形式和个人劳动报酬等方面实行弹性管理。二、全面实行经济责任制。我国的工资改革应从全面实行经济责任制开始,职工工资水平和企业经济效益分别实行全挂钩、半挂钩两种形式,并和不同的经济指标挂钩。三、进行工资立法。解决最低工资、高低悬殊、工资诉讼,政策监督、劳动力流动等问题。文章还对鞭打快牛、政策约束、公平与效率、关于一部分人先富起来等认识问题提出了看法。

The author is adviser to the Research institute under the State Plan-ning Commission and the Chinese Institute of Industrial Economics. This article first reviews the road China has taken to solve theproblem of employment, analysing and summing-up the main experiencesand lessons. Then an explanation is given to the problem in the newperiod, pointing out that attention must be paid to harmonization be-tween population growth and material production. To solve the problem, itis necessary to stress economic...

The author is adviser to the Research institute under the State Plan-ning Commission and the Chinese Institute of Industrial Economics. This article first reviews the road China has taken to solve theproblem of employment, analysing and summing-up the main experiencesand lessons. Then an explanation is given to the problem in the newperiod, pointing out that attention must be paid to harmonization be-tween population growth and material production. To solve the problem, itis necessary to stress economic results, further develop collective eco-nomy. individual economy and the third industry and raise the qualityof labourers. The author emphasizes that the problem in the days aheadwill be more complicated than ever before since the founding of thePeople's Republic. The task is not simply to find jobs for the labourers,but, more important, to promote the balanced deyelopment of the na-tional economy through the solution of the problem of employment, atask which is to be made an itnportant component part of the reform ofthe entire economic structure.

本文首先回顾了建国以来我们解决劳动就业问题所走过的道路,对其主要经验和教训进行了分析和总结。然后对新时期的劳动就业问题进行了阐述,认为新时期的就业问题,要注意人口增长与物质生产相协调,解决就业要注意经济效益,要进一步发展集体经济、个体经济和第三产业,以及提高劳动者素质等问题。作者强调指出,今后的劳动就业问题,比建国以来任何一个时期都复杂得多,解决劳动就业的任务,不仅是简单地对劳动力人数的安置,更重要的是要通过解决劳动就业问题,促进国民经济协调发展,使解决劳动就业任务成为整个经济体制改革的一个重要组成部分。

 
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