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retinoic acid receptor
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  retinoic acid receptor
Our previous data indicated that the combination of ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in a murine model.
      
Using monoclonal antibodies for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα), we found nuclear staining in melanomas and lung carcinomas metastatic to brain and only rarely in gliomas.
      
Paucity of Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha (RARα) Nuclear Immunostaining in Gliomas and Inability of Retinoic Acid to Influence Neu
      
CNS-1 was immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100 protein, vimentin, neural cell adhesion molecule, retinoic acid receptor α, intercellular adhesion molecule, and neuron specific enolase.
      
RA was previously shown to down-regulate the steady state levels of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) in primary brown adipocytes differentiated in culture.
      
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Objective: To investigate the effect of retinoic acid on the differentiation and development of B lymphocytes, and explore the mechanism of vitaminA in increasing the production of antibodies. Method: In vitro cultured cells from children’s normal mesentery lymph nodes, before and after administration of retinoic acid or retinoic acid antagonist, the changes of cell surface markers were analyzed by flowcytometry to observe the differentiation and...

Objective: To investigate the effect of retinoic acid on the differentiation and development of B lymphocytes, and explore the mechanism of vitaminA in increasing the production of antibodies. Method: In vitro cultured cells from children’s normal mesentery lymph nodes, before and after administration of retinoic acid or retinoic acid antagonist, the changes of cell surface markers were analyzed by flowcytometry to observe the differentiation and maturation of B cells. Results: During culture in vitro, the percent of mature CD19+IgM+ B cells increased and relatively immature CD19+IgM- B cells decreased gradually, and the changes were especially obvious at 48 h. The administration of retinoic acid further increased the percent of CD19+IgM+ B cells, and the enhancement was markedly at 24 and 48 h (P<0.05). However, when the retinoic acid antagonist was added to the culture, the promotion effect of retinoic acid was completely counteracted. Conclusion: Retinoic acid promoted the differentiation and development of B cells, from lymph node when cultured in vitro. The effect was mediated by retinoic acid receptors.

目的:研究视黄酸在B细胞分化发育中的作用,探讨维生素A增加抗体产生的机制。方法:取幼儿正常淋巴结细胞体外培养,加入视黄酸或视黄酸受体拮抗剂干预前后,采用流式细胞术检测分析细胞表面标志的变化,观察B细胞的成熟分化。结果:体外培养的幼儿淋巴结B细胞在无刺激剂存在时,CD19+IgM+的成熟B细胞百分比随培养时间逐渐增加,而相对不成熟的CD19+IgM-B细胞百分比逐渐减少,以48h明显(P<0.05);体外培养加入视黄酸可使CD19+IgM+B细胞百分比进一步升高,在培养24h和48h均显著高于对照组(P均<0.05);同时加入视黄酸拮抗剂则能完全拮抗该促进作用。结论:视黄酸通过视黄酸受体介导促进体外培养的淋巴结B细胞的分化发育。

Objective To investigate the effect of retinoic acid on the differentiation and maturation of B cells from lymph node of children, and relational changes of the expression levels of retinoic acid receptor genes. Methods Twenty-four patients with digestive tract malformation underwent surgical operation in the surgical ward of our hospital. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: <1 yr, 1-3 yr, -5 yr, 8 cases in each age group. The lymph nodes in the margin of excised tissues were obtained. The...

Objective To investigate the effect of retinoic acid on the differentiation and maturation of B cells from lymph node of children, and relational changes of the expression levels of retinoic acid receptor genes. Methods Twenty-four patients with digestive tract malformation underwent surgical operation in the surgical ward of our hospital. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: <1 yr, 1-3 yr, -5 yr, 8 cases in each age group. The lymph nodes in the margin of excised tissues were obtained. The cells separated from lymph nodes were cultured in vitro. The cells were divided into 5 groups: Retinoic acid (RA), RA plus Ro41-5253, RA receptor antagonist (RA+Ro), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipopolysaccharide plus RA (LPS+RA) and control, and were subjected to the corresponding treatments. After 24 h and 48 h of cell culture, the surface markers on the B cells were detected by flow cytometer to observe the maturation and activation of B cells. The expression levels of retinoic acid receptor genes were quantitatively analyzed by RT- fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results After culture, in <1 yr group, the number of the mature B cells (IgM +IgD +CD25 -) in the RA group was significantly higher than that in the control(24 h:23%±5% vs. 17%±3%;48 h:28%±6% vs. 22% ± 4%)(P<0.05), and that in the RA+RO group was not significantly different from that in the control (24 h:16% ±4%;48 h:20% ± 9%)(P>0.05). The number of activated B cells (IgM + CD25 +) in the LPS+RA group was obviously higher than that in the LPS group (24 h:82%±10% vs. 76% ± 8%;48 h:83% ± 8% vs. 78%±10%)(P<0.05). The level of RARα gene expression of B cells (lg copies/50 ng RNA) in the RA group was significantly higher than that in the control(24 h:7.03 ± 1.36 vs. 5.79 ± 2.05;48 h:7.91 ± 1.60 vs. 6.21 ± 1.88)(P<0.05), and that in the LPS+RA group was significantly higher than that in the LPS group(24 h:7.29 ± 1.53 vs. 5.98 ± 1.48;48 h:7.83 ± 1.66 vs. 5.79 ± 2.36)(P<0.05). In 1-3 yr group the changes of maturation and activation of B cells in the lymph nodes were the same as the <1 yr group. In -5 yr group, such changes were not significant. Conclusion RA can promote the development of B cell from lymph node in vitro culture in ≤3 yr children,which may be an important mechanism of vitamin A reinforcing the anti-infective immunity in young children. The expression and regulation of retinoic acid receptor genes may take part in the ontogenesis of B cell, and play a key role in the regulation of retinoic acid.

目的探讨视黄酸(RA)对儿童淋巴结B细胞成熟分化的影响,及其与视黄酸受体基因表达水平变化的关系。方法本组24例,按年龄分为<1岁组、1~3岁组和~5岁组,每组8例。取患儿正常淋巴结分离细胞进行体外培养,分为RA组,RA+视黄酸受体α(RARα)拮抗剂(Ro415253)组(RA+Ro),脂多糖组(LPS),(LPS+RA)组和对照组。分别加入atRA、Ro415253、LPS。培养24、48h收集细胞。采用流式细胞术分析细胞表面标志,观察B细胞的成熟分化;RT荧光定量PCR测定视黄酸受体基因mRNA。结果<1岁组,RA组成熟B细胞的百分比明显高于对照组(24h:23%±5%vs17%±3%;48h:28%±6%vs22%±4%)(P均<0.05);LPS+RA组活化B细胞数明显高于LPS组(24h:82%±10%vs76%±8%;48h:83%±8%vs78%±10%)(P均<0.05)。同时,RARα基因表达水平也显著上调,而该受体拮抗剂可抑制RA的调节作用。1~3岁组淋巴结B细胞的成熟和活化呈现完全相同的调节变化,而~5岁组RA的这些调节作用不明显。结论RA能促进体外培养的淋巴结B细胞的分化发育和活化,该...

目的探讨视黄酸(RA)对儿童淋巴结B细胞成熟分化的影响,及其与视黄酸受体基因表达水平变化的关系。方法本组24例,按年龄分为<1岁组、1~3岁组和~5岁组,每组8例。取患儿正常淋巴结分离细胞进行体外培养,分为RA组,RA+视黄酸受体α(RARα)拮抗剂(Ro415253)组(RA+Ro),脂多糖组(LPS),(LPS+RA)组和对照组。分别加入atRA、Ro415253、LPS。培养24、48h收集细胞。采用流式细胞术分析细胞表面标志,观察B细胞的成熟分化;RT荧光定量PCR测定视黄酸受体基因mRNA。结果<1岁组,RA组成熟B细胞的百分比明显高于对照组(24h:23%±5%vs17%±3%;48h:28%±6%vs22%±4%)(P均<0.05);LPS+RA组活化B细胞数明显高于LPS组(24h:82%±10%vs76%±8%;48h:83%±8%vs78%±10%)(P均<0.05)。同时,RARα基因表达水平也显著上调,而该受体拮抗剂可抑制RA的调节作用。1~3岁组淋巴结B细胞的成熟和活化呈现完全相同的调节变化,而~5岁组RA的这些调节作用不明显。结论RA能促进体外培养的淋巴结B细胞的分化发育和活化,该作用在3岁以下小儿明显。RARα基因的表达调节可能是介导RA作用的主要途径。

Objective: To investigate the influence of the expression of retinoic acid receptor genes on the development of B cells in lymph nodes of young children. Method: In situ hybridization was performed on the frozen section of lymph node of young children (≤age 5 ). Six digoxin labeled antisense RNA probes for retinoic acid receptors mRNA(RARα、β、γ、RXRα、β、γ)were used. The expression and distribution of retinoic acid receptor genes in lymph nodes and their influence on the differentiation and maturation...

Objective: To investigate the influence of the expression of retinoic acid receptor genes on the development of B cells in lymph nodes of young children. Method: In situ hybridization was performed on the frozen section of lymph node of young children (≤age 5 ). Six digoxin labeled antisense RNA probes for retinoic acid receptors mRNA(RARα、β、γ、RXRα、β、γ)were used. The expression and distribution of retinoic acid receptor genes in lymph nodes and their influence on the differentiation and maturation of B cell were observed. RT-fluorescent PCR was also used to observe the expression levels of retinoic acid receptor genes and their relation to the maturation of B cells. Results: In situ hybridization showed all the 6 retinoic acid receptor genes were expressed in lymphocytes and reticular cells of lymph node, and the distribution was widespread. RT fluorescent PCR also showed a varying expression of 6 retinoic acid receptor genes in lymph node among different age children, but lower in children younger than 1 year, and then increased gradually with the development of immune system. Conclusion: The expression and regulation of retinoic acid receptor genes may take part in the ontogenesis of B cells, and play a key role in the regulation of retinoic acid and enforce the anti-infective immunity in children.

目的:研究视黄酸受体基因在小儿淋巴结的表达与B细胞发育的关系,阐明视黄酸促进抗体产生的途径与机制。方法:取5岁以下儿童正常淋巴结作冰冻切片,用地高辛素标记六种视黄酸受体基因(RARα、β、γ、RXRα、β、γ)反义RNA探针作原位杂交,及采用RT-荧光定量PCR,观察视黄酸受体基因在淋巴结的表达与分布,分析其与B细胞发育的关系。结果:原位杂交结果显示:六种视黄酸受体基因在淋巴结中的淋巴细胞和网状细胞中均有表达,分布广泛。RT-荧光定量PCR显示:在不同年龄儿童淋巴结六种视黄酸受体基因表达水平有所差异,1岁以下儿童受体基因表达水平普遍较低,此后随免疫发育而升高。结论:视黄酸受体基因的表达可能参与了B细胞的个体发育和免疫应答。这可能是维生素A增强儿童抗感染免疫力的重要环节和介导视黄酸作用的主要途径。

 
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