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pathological
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  病理
    Study of Pathological Change and CT Manifestation in Experimental Rats' Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
    实验性大鼠胸膜间皮瘤病理改变与CT表现的研究
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    Clinical and Pathological Study on the Sentinel Lymph Node in Gastric Cancer
    胃癌前哨淋巴结的临床与病理研究
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    The Significance of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) in the Pathological Diagnosis and Immunotherapy of Carcinoma of Prostate
    前列腺特异性膜抗原(PSMA)在前列腺癌的病理诊断及免疫治疗的基础研究
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    The Histological and Pathological Effect and the Study on the Molecular Target of the Inhibition of Celecoxib Combinated with Octreotide on the Growth and Metastasis of Human Gastric Cancer
    塞来昔布联合奥曲肽抑制人体胃癌生长和转移的组织病理反应及分子靶点研究
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    The Accuracy of Partin Tables Derived from U.S. to Predict Pathological Features of Chinese Prostate Cancer
    基于美国样本资料的Partin tables用于国人前列腺癌病理特征预测的准确性研究
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  病理性
    Expression of c-myc proto-oncogene in pathological keloid
    病理性瘢痕中c-myc原癌基因的表达
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    Results:Most of the nipple discharge occurred in the non-lactation period were pathological dis-charge such as intraductal papillomatosis(51.1%),breast cancer(13.9%),cystic hyperplasia(10%),ductal dilatation(9.4%),inflammatory diseases(2.2%),hyperplasia of mammary glands(13.3%). Among them,intraductal papillary carcinoma plus breast cancer were65%.
    结果:1)在非哺乳期间发生乳头溢液多属病理性溢液,常见病有导管内乳头状瘤(51.1%),乳腺癌(13.9%),囊性增生症(10.0%),导管扩张症(9.4%),炎性疾病(2.2%),乳腺增生(13.3%),其中导管内乳头状癌加上乳腺癌占65.0%。
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    Angiopoietin family and receptors(Tie1、Tie2)are newly- found angiogenesis factors, participating with physiological and pathological angiogenesis.
    促血管生成素家族(Angiopoietinfamily)及其受体(Tie1、Tie2)是近年来新发现的血管生成因子,参与各种生理性及病理性血管生成。 现已发现的促血管生成素家族成员包括Ang-1、Ang-2、Ang-3及Ang-4。
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    Apoptosis is a spontaneous cell death process that occurs during oncogenesis or in pathological status, while the cleavage and activation of caspases is a common downstream event in different pathways of apoptosis. It is generally believed that caspase-3 plays the key role during apoptosis of mammalian cells.
    细胞凋亡(apoptosis)是机体正常细胞在受到生理或病理性刺激后发生的自发死亡过程,凋亡的发生是一个复杂的、由caspase家族成员介导的蛋白酶级联反应过程,现普遍认为caspase-3是哺乳动物细胞凋亡过程中的关键蛋白酶。
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    The exploration of biological nature, encoded gene and the difference or relation between NAA and pathological autoantibody will shed much light on the pathological mechanism and treament of autoimmune disease.
    对NAA的特性、编码基因、与病理性自身抗体界限和关系的研究可能对自身第四军医大学硕士学位论文免疫疾病的发病机制和治疗提供有益的线索。
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  病理的
    Expression of tumor suppressor gene Rb at different pathological grade in bladder and renal cell carcinoma
    抗癌基因Rb在肾癌和膀胱癌中的表达及其与组织病理的关系
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    THE p53 GENE PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STATUS IN BREAST CANCER
    乳腺癌中p53基因蛋白的表达及其与临床病理的关系
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    Objective To evaluate the expressions of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and Integrin β1 in relation to clinical pathological factors in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Methods Immunohistochemical staining method was used to quantify the expression levels of CXCR4 and Integrin β1 in both 78 surgically resected SACC and normal salivary tissues.
    目的检测涎腺腺样囊性癌(adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland,ACCs)中趋化因子4(chemokine receptor4,CXCR4)和整合素β1(Integrin β1)的表达水平,并分析与临床病理的关系。
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    Correlation between microvessel density and clinical pathological behaviour in brain astrocytoma
    脑星形细胞瘤微血管密度与临床病理的关系
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    Expression of survivin in gallbladder carcinoma and its relationship to the pathological stage
    Survivin在胆囊癌组织中的表达及与病理的关系
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  “pathological”译为未确定词的双语例句
    THE CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF EXTRAHEPATIC METASTASIS OF PRIMARY LIVER CANCER……ANALYSIS OF 252 CASES
    252例原发性肝癌肝外转移的临床分析
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    Pathological Studies on Hepatocellular Carcinoma--An Analysis of 500 Autopsies
    原发性肝细胞癌病理研究(500例尸检分析)
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    TUBERCULOUS PLEURAL EFFUSION:CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF 54 CASES
    结核性胸腔积液54例胸腔镜检查及临床分析
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    PATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF 93 CASES MISDIAGNOSED AS MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA
    93例误诊为恶性淋巴瘤病理分析
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    CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ESOPHAGEAL OAT CELL CARCINOMA: REPORT OF 4 CASES
    四例原发性食管燕麦细胞癌病理临床分析
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  pathological
The main pathological change in ill fish was fatty liver disease.
      
The pathological severity and serious level of fatty liver disease in the tested fish positively correlated with the contents of the ether extract, but not with those of protein, in test diets.
      
It was found that the level of SAM was increased in group A and group B, with corresponding pathological changes of ANP.
      
Observations on pathological and histochemical changes in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica
      
To study the pathological and histochemical characteristics of lesions in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica (T.
      
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In connection with the study of the mechanism of carcinogenesis,we have underta-ken an investigation on the relative changes in activities of the proliferating enzymesuch as aspartate carbamyl transferase(ACT)and the tissue-specific enzymes such asornithine carbamyl transferase(OCT)and carbamyl phosphate synthetase(CPS_1)in amodel system of hepatocarcinogenesis of rats induced by diethylnitrosamine(DENA).Similar observations have also been made during development of rat liver.(1)Based on the pathological...

In connection with the study of the mechanism of carcinogenesis,we have underta-ken an investigation on the relative changes in activities of the proliferating enzymesuch as aspartate carbamyl transferase(ACT)and the tissue-specific enzymes such asornithine carbamyl transferase(OCT)and carbamyl phosphate synthetase(CPS_1)in amodel system of hepatocarcinogenesis of rats induced by diethylnitrosamine(DENA).Similar observations have also been made during development of rat liver.(1)Based on the pathological study and enzymatic changes of liver in the presentexperiment,the process of carcinogenesis may be tentatively divided into three stages:(1)stage of simple hyperplasia—the early 6 weeks of DENA feeding.Changes in therelative ratio of ACT,OCT,and CPS_1 activities in this stage are reversible,similar tothose observed in the regenerating liver.(2)stage of malignant transformation—fromthe 6th to the 16th week of feeding the carcinogen.In this stage there appears anaplastichyperplasia of liver cells characterized by an irreversible change of the relative ratioof enzyme activities and (3)stage of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma—fromthe 16th to the 30th week of carcinogenesis.(2)During carcinogenesis of rat liver(after the 6th week of feeding DENA),activities of OCT and CPS_1 decreased while those of ACT increased gradually till theformation of cancer.In hepatocellular carcinoma the activities of OCT and CPS_1 areabout 10~20% of the normal liver,while those of ACT being about 2~3 times higher than the normal liver.The pattern of relative changes in activities of both groups ofenzyme during carcinogenesis was found to be the reverse of those observed in thedevelopment of rat liver.(3)The above enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma and normal liver are probablyidentical entities,as shown by the similarities of pH optima and distribution patternsof enzyme activity in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.Similar K_m values anddifferent V_m values of OCT and ACT in hepatocellular carcinoma and normal liverpreparations suggested that changes in enzyme activities during carcinogenesis maypossibly be the result of an alteration in the amount of enzyme proteins.Furthermore,the specific activities of OCT and CPS_1 in the mitochondria of hepatocellular carcinomahave been found to be much lower than those of normal liver,although the proteincontent in the mitochondria of hepatocellular carcinoma decreased to an extent of about40% of that of normal liver.(4)The possible correlation between cell proliferation and differentiation to themechanism of carcinogenesis is discussed.As seen from Fig.3,the process of carcinogenesisseems to be a reversal of that of normal differentiation(development).Changes in enzymeactivities during carcinogenesis may be explained as a result of repression andderepression of the tissue-specific operons and mitotic operons,which are closelylinked and mutually repressed.It appears likely that cell proliferation may provide afundamental condition for the malignant transformation of the hepatocytes,while lossor decrease in the activities of tissue-specific function may be of primary importance tothe initiation of carcinogenesis.It is thus concluded that carcinogenesis would be dueto a random impairment of the control mechanism for gene activities of certain tissue-specific operons,leading to irreversible changes in nucleic acid biosynthesis and intissue-specific metabolism and their key enzyme activities which in turn give rise to anirreversible disturbance of the normal balance between cell proliferation and tissue-specific function,resulting in an abnormal growth and finally the formation of cancer.

本实验以二乙基亚硝胺诱发大鼠肝癌为动物模型,结合病理形态学研究了细胞增殖与组织特异代谢关键性酶ACT 及OCT,CPS_1活性的相互改变及其与癌变的关系,同时作了鼠肝发育过程中酶活性变化的比较研究。(1)根据DENA 引癌过程中酶活性CPS_Ⅰ/ACT,OCT/ACT 及ACT/CPS_Ⅰ,ACT/OCT 相对比值的变化,以及病理形态观察结果,DENA 引癌过程大致可分为三个阶段:喂DENA6周以内为单纯性增生期。此时期酶活性相对比值的改变是可逆的,与再生肝相似。第6周以后至16周为癌变期。此时期出现肝细胞异型性增生及癌变病灶。酶活性相对比值的改变是不可逆的。16周到30周为癌变细胞发展成为肝细胞癌期。(2)癌变过程中(喂DENA6周以后),OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性持续降低,同时ACT 活性持续增高。肝癌结节中OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性约为正常肝的10~20%,ACT 活性约为正常肝的2倍。癌变过程中这两类酶活性的相互改变与发育过程中的情况正好相反。在发育过程中,胚胎肝内OCT 及GPS_Ⅰ活性较成年水平低,而ACT 活性则较高。新生后CPS_Ⅰ及OCT 活性升高,同时ACT 活性降低。(3)肝与肝癌上述酶可能...

本实验以二乙基亚硝胺诱发大鼠肝癌为动物模型,结合病理形态学研究了细胞增殖与组织特异代谢关键性酶ACT 及OCT,CPS_1活性的相互改变及其与癌变的关系,同时作了鼠肝发育过程中酶活性变化的比较研究。(1)根据DENA 引癌过程中酶活性CPS_Ⅰ/ACT,OCT/ACT 及ACT/CPS_Ⅰ,ACT/OCT 相对比值的变化,以及病理形态观察结果,DENA 引癌过程大致可分为三个阶段:喂DENA6周以内为单纯性增生期。此时期酶活性相对比值的改变是可逆的,与再生肝相似。第6周以后至16周为癌变期。此时期出现肝细胞异型性增生及癌变病灶。酶活性相对比值的改变是不可逆的。16周到30周为癌变细胞发展成为肝细胞癌期。(2)癌变过程中(喂DENA6周以后),OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性持续降低,同时ACT 活性持续增高。肝癌结节中OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ活性约为正常肝的10~20%,ACT 活性约为正常肝的2倍。癌变过程中这两类酶活性的相互改变与发育过程中的情况正好相反。在发育过程中,胚胎肝内OCT 及GPS_Ⅰ活性较成年水平低,而ACT 活性则较高。新生后CPS_Ⅰ及OCT 活性升高,同时ACT 活性降低。(3)肝与肝癌上述酶可能是相同的。因为酶活性的最适pH 和在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳图上的分布都是一致的。肝与肝癌OCT 及ACT 的K_m 相同而V_m 不同,说明癌变过程中酶活性的变化,主要是由于酶蛋白量的改变。此外,肝癌线粒体的蛋白量减少,但OCT 及CPS_Ⅰ的比活性(单位/毫克线粒体蛋白)仍较正常肝线粒体的低。(4)讨论了增生和分化与癌变的关系。初步认为,肝细胞的癌变是反分化(分化逆转)问题,和正常分化一样系由于基因表现的改变,不一定包含基因结构的改变。就与癌变有关的细胞增殖和分化的矛盾而言,细胞增殖及其有关酶活性的增高,可能是癌变发生的基础,而组织特异功能及其关键性酶活性的降低,可能与癌变的关系更为密切。因此癌变的发生,可能是由于在细胞分裂过程中致癌物使肝细胞特异功能基因的调节控制失常,从而引起增生代谢与特异代谢关键性酶活性不可逆的改变,使之失去肝细胞增殖与特异功能的正常平衡,而代之以不受控制的增生,最后形成癌细胞。

A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases of early esophageal carcinomawas reported. Among these, 19 were esophageal squamous carcinoma andone esophageal squamous carcinoma associated with cardial adenocarci-noma;6 ca--in--situ and 14 intramucosal and submucosal early invasive carci-noma. Of these, 18 cases arose from the middle third of the esophagusand 2 cases from the lower third. On gross examination, the tumorswere classified into five types. They were the plaque--like type (9 cases),the erosive type (4 cases),...

A clinicopathologic study of 20 cases of early esophageal carcinomawas reported. Among these, 19 were esophageal squamous carcinoma andone esophageal squamous carcinoma associated with cardial adenocarci-noma;6 ca--in--situ and 14 intramucosal and submucosal early invasive carci-noma. Of these, 18 cases arose from the middle third of the esophagusand 2 cases from the lower third. On gross examination, the tumorswere classified into five types. They were the plaque--like type (9 cases),the erosive type (4 cases), the occult type (3 cases), the papillary type(2 cases) and the polypoid type (2 cases). The authors emphasized thataccording to the pathological and x--ray findings and growth pattern, thepapillary type was quite different from the polypoid, and ?uld be classi-fied separately. Most of the lesions were less than 3 cm? length, butin one case more than 8 cm with whole circumference of esophagus invol-ved. In some cases the solitary lesions of ca--in--situ were situated faraway from the main lesions. Extensive surgical excision seemed to bethe best treatment. On the basis of our study, the authors supported thecarcinogenic field theory. They considered that the malignant changes arosefrom multiple centers asynchronously, the advanced tumor mass was gra-dually formed from the expanding and coalescing of multiple malignantfoci. So the different phases, such as simple hyperp asia, atypical hyper-plasia and ca--in--situ could be seen in the periphery of the invasivecarcinoma.

本文报告了四川西北地区20例早期食管鳞癌的临床病理研究。研究支持食管癌的生癌野学说。对癌灶内各区城分化不一致的原因和早期食管癌应作较广泛的食管段切除的必要性进行了讨论。

Ten cases of polypoid intraluminal carcinoma of the esophagus were pre-sented. Of these, 6 cases were so-called carcinosarcoma type and 4 caseswere squamous cell carcinoma type. The clinical and pathological charac-teristics of these tumors were described and the literature reviewed. Itwas found that the so-called carcinosarcoma was not a true mixed tumorcomposed of a carcinoma and a genuine sarcoma. The "sarcomatous" ele-ments are of epithelial origin on the basis of the sarcoma-like transfor-mation of...

Ten cases of polypoid intraluminal carcinoma of the esophagus were pre-sented. Of these, 6 cases were so-called carcinosarcoma type and 4 caseswere squamous cell carcinoma type. The clinical and pathological charac-teristics of these tumors were described and the literature reviewed. Itwas found that the so-called carcinosarcoma was not a true mixed tumorcomposed of a carcinoma and a genuine sarcoma. The "sarcomatous" ele-ments are of epithelial origin on the basis of the sarcoma-like transfor-mation of squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, it seems justified to callthem pseudosarcomatous squamous cell carcinoma. Because most of themare polypoid in appearance and attached to the esophagus by a stalk, theterm polypoid pseudosarcomatous squamous cell carcinoma of the esopha-gus may be applied to such kind of tumor. Our studies suggest that the"carcinosarcoma" type is a clinicopathologic entity and the squamous cellcarcinoma type may be a variant of fungating type of squamous cell car-cinoma of the esophagus.

本文报告10例“腔内型”食管癌,其中6例为“癌肉瘤”型,4例为鳞癌型。文中对这些肿瘤的临床和病理特征进行了总结,并复习了文献。发现所谓“癌肉瘤”型不是真正的由癌和肉瘤混合组成的肿瘤,其中的“肉瘤”成分是由鳞癌细胞转变而来,因此最好称其为假肉瘤性鳞癌。由于大多数“癌肉瘤”呈息肉状,有蒂与食管壁相联,因此也可用息肉状假肉瘤性鳞癌来称呼此类肿瘤。认为不论从临床上和病理学上“癌肉瘤”型均具有一定的特点,可作为一种独立的临床病理类型存在,而鳞癌型多系蕈伞型食管癌之变种。

 
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