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agriculture     
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  农业
     Study on Modernization Policy of China Agriculture from 1840-1937
     中国近代农业现代化研究
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     Study on Agriculture Resource' Modernized Management and Sustainable Use
     农业资源的现代化管理与可持续利用研究
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     Comparative Advantage and Production Structural Adjustment in Chinese Agriculture
     比较优势与中国农业生产结构调整
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     Study on the Theory and Practice of Modern City Agriculture
     现代都市农业的理论和实践研究
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     Study on High Effective Rainwater Use Models of Catchment Agriculture in Semiarid Area
     半干旱区集水农业高效用水模式研究
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     A Study of Crisscross Area of Pastoralism and Agriculture in Ordos from the 18~(th) Century to Early 20~(th) Century
     18—20世纪前期鄂尔多斯牧交错区域研究
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     Study on Dynamic Monitoring of Desertification and Land Production Evaluation on the Interlaced Area of Agriculture and Pasture in Northern Shaanxi
     陕北牧交错带土地荒漠化动态监测与生产力评价研究
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     A Study on Strategy of the Development of Agriculture of Desertified Lands in the Interlacing Pastoral-Agricultural in North China
     中国北方牧交错沙漠化地区业发展战略问题的研究(摘要)
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     A Study on the Optimization Structure of Agriculture and Animal Husbardry in Lumacha Watershed
     甘肃中部半干旱区鹿马岔小流域牧优化结构的研究
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     A Study on Climatic Possible Productivity of Guangxi Plants (Forest and Agriculture)
     广西植物(、林业)气候可能生产力的研究
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  农业生产
     Comparative Advantage and Production Structural Adjustment in Chinese Agriculture
     比较优势与中国农业生产结构调整
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     Study on the Production System of Facilities Agriculture
     设施农业生产系统的研究
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     A Theoretic Model for Optimum Factor Setting and Choice of Technical Structure in Agriculture Mechanized
     机械化农业生产要素优化组合与技术结构选择理论模型
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     Enhancing an Integrated Study on Agriculture Production Structure and Optimizing the Agroeco-economic System in Reclamation Area
     加强农业生产结构的综合研究 优化垦区农业生态经济系统
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     The Application of Expert System in Agriculture Production Management
     专家系统在农业生产管理中的应用
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  农业的
     Study on the Theory and Practice of Modern City Agriculture
     现代都市农业的理论和实践研究
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     The Study on Methods of GPS Data Processing and Positioning in Precision Agriculture
     面向精准农业的GPS信号处理与定位方法研究
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     Analysis & Evaluation of Sustainability of Beijing Urban Agriculture
     北京市都市农业的可持续性分析与评价
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     Analysis of the Tropical Natural Conditions of China and Their Influence on Agriculture
     我国热带自然条件的分析及其对农业的影响
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     A NEW IDEA IN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE-SUSTAINED AGRICULTURE
     美国农业的新思维——持续农业
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  agriculture
tomentosa stands were four years old converted from agriculture.
      
Because the technique is closely associated with industry and agriculture, it can create huge social and economical benefits and provide excellent services for society.
      
Its rice quality has almost reached the A-level Editable Rice of Agriculture Department of China, and its average production reaches 400-500 kg/(666.7 m2).
      
This method is recommended for use in biology, medicine, and agriculture for determination of low-molecular-weight compounds having similar chemical structures but various biological activities.
      
EAFs may find use in biotechnology, medicine, agriculture, and environmental protection.
      
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The study of blooming hahit of peanut is an impottant proeedure to make crosses between varieties either for genetic studies or lor breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Stat on of Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan, Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points: 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was...

The study of blooming hahit of peanut is an impottant proeedure to make crosses between varieties either for genetic studies or lor breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Stat on of Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan, Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points: 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried out under both field and grean house.The materials used for study were varieties widelv grown in Yungan; namely Valay(1), YuLin(a-1), Ping-siang. 3.The average time required from seeding to the blooming of the first flower is 38.36±5.11 days, It is a little longer under the green house(40.53± 4.28) than that in the field (36.2±4.06). 4.They are blooming absolutely in the day time.Peanut blooms from 6-7 o'clock.The maximum blooming period is at 6.00 A.M.(53.8%).The blooming period varies with green house and field. 5.The optimum blooming temperature is 22-24℃.(87.35%).No flower blooms below 17℃.and above 32℃. 6.In the field, peanut blooms beet at the relative humidity of 86%-100%, being 97.56% of total flowers studied.The best humidity is 95%-100%, being 78.34% of total flowers, 7.When the interaction of temperature and humidity is considered, the temperature of 22-24.9℃.with the relative humidity of 95%-100% is usually fitted.(82.89% of total flowers studied). 8.The time required from starting to bloom to not blooming varies with environments.It is usually shorter in the field than it is in the green house. 9.The number of flowers which bloom differs greatly with environment for individual plant. 10.The order of blooming starts from low to top of the plant. 11.The blooming days are rather scattering, being between 36-96 days after the blooming of the first flowers (88.91% of total flowers).In these 60 days there is no much difference in the numler of flowers that bloom.The maximum blooming date falls on the 59th day which is only 2.85% and the minimum date on the 63rd day is 0.85%.Besults show that there is no tendency for the flower blooming at any concentrated period.

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明了花生在永安环境下的开花习性。 2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植Valaya(-1),玉林(a-1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。 3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。 4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。 5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.9℃之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。 6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。 7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。 8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的複相关很显著...

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明了花生在永安环境下的开花习性。 2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植Valaya(-1),玉林(a-1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。 3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。 4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。 5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.9℃之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。 6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。 7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。 8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的複相关很显著。 9.花生每株由开始开花至不再开花,其间经过的时间,因环境的不同而有差异。 10.花生每株开花的数目,因环境的不同而有差异。 11.花生花以在开放之第三十六日至九十六日开放最多,占总开花数88.914%;此六十日内逐日开花数差异尚少;最多为第五十九日,占2.658%;最少为第六十三日,占0.658%;由此可知花生花的开放,没有集中的趋势。 12.花生植株花的开放顺序,系由下而上,下部最先开放,顺序而上顶端最后开放。

The study of blooming habit of peanut is an important proeedure to make orosses between varieties either for genetic studies or for breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Station o Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan,Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points. 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried...

The study of blooming habit of peanut is an important proeedure to make orosses between varieties either for genetic studies or for breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Station o Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan,Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points. 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried out under both field and green house.The materials used fór study were varieties widely grown in Yungan;namely Valay(1),YuLin(a-1),Ping-siang. 3.The average time required from seeding to the blooming of the first flower is 38.36±5.11 days,It is a little longer under the green house(40.53± 4.28)than that in the field(36.2±4.06). 4.They are blooming absolutely in the day time.Peanut blooms from 6-7 o'clock.The maximum blooming period is at 6.00 A.M.(53.8%).The blooming period varies with green house and field. 5.The optimum blooming temperature is 22-24℃.(87.35%).No flower blooms below 17℃.and above 32℃. 6.In the field,peanut blooms best at the relative humidity of 86%-100%, being 97.56% of total flowers studied.The best humidity is 95%-100%,being 78.34% of total flowers. 7.When the interaction of temperature and humidity is considered,the temperature of 22-24.9℃,with the relative humidity of 95%-100% is usually fitted.(82,89% of total flowers studied). 8.The time required from starting to bloom to not blooming varies with environments.It is usually shorter in the field than it is in the green house. 9.The number of flowers which bloom differs greatly with environment for individual plant. 10.The order of blooming starts from low to top of the plant. 11.The blooming days are rather scattering,being between 36-96 days after the blooming of the first flowers(88.91% of total flowers).In these 60 days there is no much difference in the number of flowers that bloom.The maximum blooming date falls on the 59th day which is only 2.85% and the minimum date on the 63rd day is 0.85%.Pesults show that there is no tendency for the flower blooming at any concentrated period.

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明瞭花生在永安环境下的开花习性。2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植 Valaya(—1),玉林(α—1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.95°之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的复相关很显著。9.花生...

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明瞭花生在永安环境下的开花习性。2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植 Valaya(—1),玉林(α—1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.95°之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的复相关很显著。9.花生每株由开始开花至不再开花,其间经过的时间,因环境的不同而有差异。10.花生每株开花的数目,因环境的不同而有差异。11.花生花以在开放之第三十六日至九十六日开放最多,占总开花数88.914%;此六十日内逐日开花数差异尚少;最多为第五十九日,占2.658%;最少为第六十三日,占0.658%;由此可知花生花的开放,没有集中的趋势。12.花生植株花的开放顺序,系由下而上,下部最先开放,顺序而上顶端最后开放。

The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type....

The city of Lanehow lies in the central part of China in latitude approximate 36°03′north, longitude 103°57'east, at elevation 1,508.53 M. Kowlanshan, the area surveyed, being one of the many loess plateau hills surrounding Lanchow, situates on the southeastern suburb of the city. Physiographically, the area is a part of the dissected loess plateau with an altitude of 1,508-2100 M. Owing to the influences of the geographical condition and high elevation, the climate of this area is of continental climatic type. The mean annual precipitation is 338.6mm. with 61.1% of it falling in June, July and August, annual mean temperature, 6.9℃., relative humidity, 58%, annual total evaporation, 3,571mm. and annual mean wind velocity 5.8m/sec. The upper portion of the hill is entirely covered with a thick layer of loess and underneath lies the red earth of the tertiary period. As a result of that, soils in the area surveyed, which has been developed from the loess, is high in calcium content. It belongs to the chestnut soil type with a PH value between 7.6 and 8.1. The vegetation of this area shows the following ecological characteristics: 1) The specific composition of the plant is rather scanty with about. 124 speeies belonging to 93 genera and 41 families; 2) The vegetation bears a simple physiognomy. No natural growth arbor been found in the whole area during the period of investigation, though a few species of cultivated trees are found and the vegetation is mainly composed of semi-frutexes and herbages; 3) Most of the essential species distributing here express distinct xeromorphic structures and many of them are typical components of the vegetation of the steppe and semi-dessect, such as Caragana spp., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Artemisia spp., Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., Stipa spp. Achnatherum splendens Ohwi. and so on. Four plant associations are found in this area. Three of them distribute on the Dorthern slope and one on the southern slope of the hill. They are described as follow: Ⅰ. Chenupodium album+Artemisia annua+Elymus dasystachys Association. The distribution of this association is limited to the erosion valleys situating on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation between 1, 510 and 1, 560 M., where the edaphic condition is marked by high soil moisture content. The climatic features are of low light intencity with short duration of daily sunshine, high relative humidity and low wind velocity. Three hygrophilous and shade-loving species are the main constituents of this association. They are chenopodium album L., Artemisia annua L., and Elymus dasystachys Trin. Other herbaceous plants are Chenopodium glaucum L.. Sonchus aler- aceus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Polygonum amphibium L., P. aviculare L. etc. A few shrubs are present in the association. They are Lycium chinensis Mill., Lonicera heteroloba Batal. and Lonicera ferdinandi Fr. Ⅱ. Artemisia pectinata Association. The Artemisia pectinata Association occurs on the piedmont belt of the northern slope at an elevation varying from 1510 to 1580 M. It occupies the open slope with gradients under 15°. The climatic conditions, in speaking of the northern slope, are rather high in temperature, strong light intencity, low relative humidity and low wind velocity. The projective total cover-degree is about 50% and Artemisia pectinata Pall. appears to be the dominant species in the association. Besides, there are species of thermophilous and heliophilous plants such as Salsola kali L., S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung, Cymbaria mongolica Maxim., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Aster altaicus willd., chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb., which are frequently scattered among the dominant plants. Plants growing in this association, are all below 10 cm. in height. They give an appearence of open association. Ⅲ. Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba—Polytrichum sp. Association. This association, being the largest one in the surveyed area, appears on the northern slope, where it occupies the space ranging from altitude 1,580M. to the top of the hill,2,100M, above the sea level. Soil is of chestnut soil type with a PH value of 8. 0—8. 1.The soil moisture content varies between 6.0 and 7.4%(layer above 60 cm.). In vertical structure, the association consists of two strata. They are described below: Stratum Ⅰ: This stratum includes all shrubs, semi-frutexes and herbages which are taller than 10 cm. in height. Among the plants found in this stratum, chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. and Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb. are dominant species and Stipa Bungeana Trin. is the subdominant one. Other species one may frequently meet with are Allium subangulatum Rag., Saussurea nigrescens Maxim., Peganumharmala L., Astragalus dahuricus Dc., Potentilla multifida L., Linum perenne L., Car-agana frutex K. Koch. etc. They spread widely in almost all over the association. Stratum Ⅱ: This stratum is composed of those species less than 10 cm. in height, forming the ground flora of the association. Polytrichum sp. and Lichens are the essential plants in the stratum. One may occasionlly find species of Plantago Lessingii and Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb. growing among those main constituents. The underground stratification of the association has also been studied during the time of surveying. IV. Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association. This association distributes on the entire southern slope except the portions tilled for agriculture purposes. The striking local ecological conditions of this association are strong light intensity with long duration of daily sunshine, high temperature, low relative humidity and extremely low in soil moisture content which ranges between 2. 7 and 4. 0% (the layer above 60cm.). On account of the severe destruction of natural vegetation by man and cattle in the past years, the degree of soil erosion is serious throughout the slope where the association locates. The PH value of the soils is 7.4-76. The polydominant plants in this association are Stipa Bungeana Trin., Aster altaicus Willd. and Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb. They are quite adaptable to the drought condition of the environment and distribute widely in the association. Besides, other xerophilous or drought resistant plants are frequently met, such as Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Linum perenne L., Astranalus dahuricus Dc., Peganum harmala L., Artemisia sacrorum var. latiloba Ledeb., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Incarvillea Iutea Bur.&Franch., Kochia scoparia Schred. etc. They dispersely grow in the association. In addition to the frequent species mentioned above, Salsola ruthenica Iljin. and S. arachnoides‘Moq’. Kung form seperately micro-associations lying scatterly on the slope. No ground flora stratum may be found and the association shows no above ground stratification. The projective total cover-degree of this association is only about 25-30%. Owing to the difference in the aspects of the northern and sourthern slopes, the climatic and edaphic conditions vary remarkable. Therefore, the vegetation of the surveyed area shows distinctions in distribution, floristic composition, physiognomy, structure, condition in growth and development of plants in the association of different slopes. Taking the floristic composition for example, the following species are entirely absent in the association of the northern slope, yet they are main components on the southern one: Pappophorum brachystachyum Taub. et Spach, Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br., Caragana spinosa Dc., Stellera chamaejasme L., Hololachne soongarica Ehrenb., Nitraria schoberi L., Pennisetum flaccidum Griseb. Differences in elevation also induce striking changes in climatic and edaphic con-ditions especially in aspects of air temperature, relative humidity and soil moisture content. All these gives great influence to the alterations either in quantity or in quality of each species distributing along the northern slope of the area. Following the seasonal change, the physiognomy of the associations expresses sucession of seasonal aspect. Vernal, aestival and autumnal aspects have been observed and recorded.

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征。调查区植物...

兰州位于我国的中心,约占北纬36度03分,东经103度57分,拔海1508.53米。皋兰山是兰州四周环山中的最高峰,位居兰州市东南郊。在地形上,皋兰山属于分割黄土高原山岭的一部分,拔海高度约为2100米。由于地理位置及海拔的影响,兰州的气候属大陆性气候类型。年平均温度为6.9℃,年平均雨量为338.6毫米,而61.61%集中在6、7、8、三个月,全年各月平均相对湿度为58%,年蒸发量则达3,571毫米,风力为5.8米/秒。皋兰山山岭的顶部均为厚层的黄土所掩盖,其下则为第三纪红土层。因此,调查区的土壤,全由黄土母质发育而来,含多量钙质,属栗钙土类,PH值为7.6—8.1。调查区的植被,有如下的生志特点:(1)植物种属比较贫乏:全区植物只有41科,93属,124种;(2)群落外貌单纯:调查区内缺乏自然生长的乔木,植被主要由半灌木与草本植物所构成,属干燥草原区的灌木草本群落型;(3)植物具明显旱生形态:群落主要成分,很多是干燥草原区的代表种属,如锦鸡儿属、蒿属、菊属的小黄菊(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Ledeb.)、羽茅属、芨芨草等。它们都具有各种适应干旱环境的形态特征。调查区植物群落,可区分为下列的四个群丛: 1.白药+黄花蒿+厚穗滨草群丛(Chenopodium album+Artemisia annus+Elymus dasystachys Association) 本群丛分布于皋兰山山麓的侵蚀沟谷内,约占海拔1510至1560米的地段。所在地气候与土壤特点是光线弱、日照时间短、风力小、大气相对湿度大与土壤潮湿。群丛优势种有白藜、黄花蒿和厚穂滨草三种喜湿耐阴植物。此外,伴生有灰绿藜、苦苣菜、苍耳、两栖蓼、扁蓄等草本植物。灌木则可见枸杞(Lycuim chinensis Mill)、紫金银花(Lonicera heteroloba Batal.)、裴氏金银花(L.ferdinandi.Fr.)三种。 2.篦叶蒿群丛(Artemisia pectinata Association) 这一群丛占据皋兰山北坡山麓海拔1510—1580米,坡度在15°以下的开旷地段。其环境条件,在北坡来说,主要表现于阳光充沛,温度高,大气相对湿度低与土壤干燥。群丛总夏盖度约为50%,而以篦叶蒿最占优势。常见植物有钾猪毛菜、灰蓬(Salsola arachnoides‘moq’Kung)、蒙古芯芭(Cymbaria mongolica Maxim.)、茵陈蒿、阿尔泰紫菀、小黄菊等喜光喜温种类。 3.小黄菊+供蒿-藓群丛(Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum+Artemisia sacrorum var latiloba-Polytrichum sp. Association) 本群丛包括皋兰山北坡自海拔1580米以上一直至山顶(海拔2100米)的全部地段,为调查区内分布面积最广的群丛。其生态环境是阳光弱、日照时间短、蒸发量小、气温低;土镶为栗钙土,PH值在8.0—8.1左右,土壤风干含水量为5.2—5.6%。群丛在垂直结构上,可分为两层:第一层包括高度在10厘米以上的灌木、半灌木与草本植物,而以小黄菊和供蒿最占优势。本氏羽茅则为本属中的亚优势种。常见植物尚有野葱、青木香(Saussurea nigrescens Maxim.)、骆驼蓬、达乌里紫云英,多裂委陵菜、宿根亚麻、木锦鸡儿(Caragana frutex K. Koch.)等。第二层为地被层,主要由藓类和地衣所组成。此外,偶尔出现细叶车前(Plantago Lessingii)与鳞叶龙胆(Gentiana squarrosa Ledeb.)铺地生长。群丛总复盖度约为67%。 4.本氏羽茅+阿尔泰紫菀+小黄菊群丛(Stipa Bungeana+Aster altaicus+Chrysanthemum neofruticulosum Association) 这一群丛占皋兰山南坡除农田以外的全部地区。其气候与土壤条件,可归纳为下:日晒强烈、日照时间长、气温高;人为对自然植被破坏强烈,表土冲刷现象异常严重。土壤水分含量甚低,仅占风干重的1.88—3.41%,pH值为7.4—7.6。本氏羽茅、阿尔泰紫菀与小黄菊为群丛中的主要种类。它们对于干旱的环境均具有强大的适应力。其他常见植物有红砂、宿根亚麻、达乌里紫云英、骆驼蓬、供蒿、茵陈蒿、黄角蒿(Incarvillea lutea Bur.&Franch.)地肤等抗旱或耐旱种类。苏联猪毛菜(Salsola rutheniea Iljin)和灰蓬,常各成单纯小群丛,出现于山坡间。本群丛中缺地被层,无地上成层现象。群丛总复盖度仅为25—30%。由于南北坡取向不同所引起气候与土壤因子的变化,调查区植物群落,在分布、结构、外貌、种类成分及生长发育状况上,也随着发生很大的差异。海拔高度的改变,对气温、相对湿度,土温及土壤水分状况的影晌,也明显地反映在群落中各个种间的数量比例关系上。随着季节的更换,群落中的种类成分,表现出比较显著的季相演替关系。作者等曾作北坡群丛春、夏和秋三季季相的观察与纪录。

 
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