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colony
相关语句
  菌落
    PDA and PSA were benefitial for colony growth and sporulation.
    PSA、PDA均利于菌落扩展和产孢;
短句来源
    The optimum temperature for colony growth,sporulation and mycelium gross were 25℃,20℃ and 20℃ respectively. The optimum pH was 7 for the pathogen growing and sporulation.
    菌落扩展、产孢和菌丝干重的最适温度分别为25、20、20℃,最适pH 7;
短句来源
    Meanwhile the isolate LD incubated in the PCA medium had less colony area than that in the SMAY,PPDA and SDAY media.
    LD在SMAY、PPDA和SDAY培养基上的菌落面积较大,在PCA上较小,且也在SMAY培养基上的产孢量最高;
短句来源
    The results showed that the common characteristic are colony round or irregular,pink,gray,dark gray,pale brown and black,downy. Diameter of the colony 1.0~3.0 mm,account for 1/3 to 1/2 of the height.
    结果表明,不同培养条件下的共同培养特征为:菌落球形和不规则形,粉色、灰色、灰黑色、浅棕色和黑色,菌落外被茸毛状菌丝,大小为1.0~3.0 mm左右,菌落直径为菌落高度的1/3~1/2;
短句来源
    The main coebia was black grey on tomato medium and V8 CaCO3 medium,the average diameter at coenobium was 1.5 mm,ripe percentage of apothecia was higher than other medium,the colony on alfalfa juice medium are black,small,average diameter was 1.15 mm,ripe percentage of apothecia in the medium was lower than on tomato and V8 CaCO3; th asci are anamorphic on SA mdium.
    番茄培养基和V8 CaCO3培养基上以黑灰菌落为主,菌落平均直径为1.5 mm,子囊盘成熟率高于其他培养基,苜蓿汁液培养基上菌落黑色且小,平均直径为1.15mm,产生的粉色菌落较其它培养基上的大,子囊盘成熟率低于番茄培养基和V8 CaCO3培养基。
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  “colony”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The average colony length was about 400 μm in the control,while that was only 122 μm in the treatment with 100 μg/mL osthol.
    接菌后48h,对照菌丝的平均长度接近400μm,蛇床子素处理组菌丝平均长度仅有122μm。
短句来源
    Under different temperature and light conditions,the colony growth and sporulation of Gloeosprium piperatum isolated from pepper were studied on PDA medium.
    通过温度及光照处理,研究了辣椒炭疽菌(Gloeosprium piperatum)在PDA培养基上的最佳产孢条件。
短句来源
    The range of temperature for colony growth and conidial production was 10—35℃,with an optimum of 25~30℃.
    病原菌生长和产孢温度范围10~35℃,适宜温度为25~30℃;
    After 36h incubation at different temperature on PDA, the result of the colony diameter measured indicated that the appropriate temperature was 27.5~35℃ and the optimum temperature was 32.5℃ for TR13 hyphal growth, but for its sporogeny the optimum temperature was 27.5℃.
    在PDA培养基上,菌丝生长适宜温度27.5~35℃,最适温度32.5℃,产孢最适温度27.5℃。 菌丝生长适宜pH值为3~7,产孢适宜pH值为5~9,生长与产孢最适pH值为5。
    A Study on the Effect of Weed Colony on Wheat Yield Loss and Its Economic Threshold
    混生杂草对小麦的危害损失及经济阈值研究
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  colony
A cross-layer design and ant-colony optimization based load-balancing routing protocol for ad-hoc networks
      
The analysis of the convergence of ant colony optimization algorithm
      
The ant colony optimization algorithm has been widely studied and many important results have been obtained.
      
In CIEFCM, a tiny disturbance is added to a filial generation group using a chaos variable and the disturbance amplitude is adjusted step by step, which greatly improves the colony diversity of the immune evolution algorithm (IEA).
      
These HC-Agents had specific features like the division of labor in the ant colony.
      
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Thewoolly aphis, is one of the major insect pests of the apple in Eastern Shan-tung. Serious damage caused by the attack of the aerial form of this insect in neg-lected orchards, often caused death to the apple trees. According to observations made in Tsingtao, the woolly aphis reproduced anaverage of 8-9 generations, with a maximum of 17 generations per year. Winteris spent mainly by the 1st and the 2nd instar nymphs, hibernating in the woundsand crevices of the apple tree. Overwintering nymphs nd apterous...

Thewoolly aphis, is one of the major insect pests of the apple in Eastern Shan-tung. Serious damage caused by the attack of the aerial form of this insect in neg-lected orchards, often caused death to the apple trees. According to observations made in Tsingtao, the woolly aphis reproduced anaverage of 8-9 generations, with a maximum of 17 generations per year. Winteris spent mainly by the 1st and the 2nd instar nymphs, hibernating in the woundsand crevices of the apple tree. Overwintering nymphs nd apterous agamic femaleswere also found at the base of the trunk just below soil level, and on suckers thathad been allowed to grow around the tree, but the damage caused by the root formof this insect is negligible. By the end of April to early May (average temperature 11.0-14.3℃) newly-born nymphy were seen to crawl to the base of the young growing shoots. Thepeak of migration being in June and the early part of July, where an average ofonly 8.2 days is needed to complete a cycle. Each female may then give forth toan average of 94.2 nymphs parthenogenetically. Two gererations of winged agamic females were recorded during the wholelife history. The summer form, though not often seen, occured from May 20 to June23, these gave birth to apterous agamic females and sexuales. Towards the latterpart of August, a brood of fall winged migrants are developed. Their number in-creased as the colonies grow, reaching an average of 23.1-46.4% of winged indivi-duals per colony by September 18 to October 18. The fall migrants gave birth onlyto wingless and mouthless true males and females. After pairing, only a singlefertilized egg was laid by the female. Due to the high mortality of these sexuales,no eggs as yet was found overwintering on the apple tree. Eggs obtained in labora- tory conditions and hundreds of adult sexuales transplanted in October to previous-ly sterlized wounds on the branches of the apple tree, also failed to hatch in thefollowing year, though further works are still being needed to ascertain this fact. Early instar nymphs were also found to infest the calyx of the fruit, thoughnone of them could live up to the adult stage. According to a preliminary test on20 infested apples stored under room temperature from September to October, nonymphs were found to be alive in the calyx after 50 days storage. Studies madeon the time of calyx infestation are in accordance with those of migration. The natural enemies of the woolly aphis are in the order of their importance:a minute chalcid parasite (Aphelinus mali Hald.), the larva of a Chrysopa sp., ladybird beetles and a syrphus maggot. These played an important part in the sup-pressing of this pest in some months of the year. Based on these facts and on the lifehistory of the woolly aphis, an effective spray program has been devised in the controlof Eriosoma. These include a resin wash solution to be diluted with 20 parts ofwater plus 0.02%γ wettable BHC or 5%-6% tar distillate, to be applied in the dor-mant stage; followed by two successive sprays of 0.02-γ-0.03%γ BHC during theearly period of migration, about May 15 and June 10. At the above concentrationand time of usage, BHC proved to have no deleterious effect on the apple.

1.苹果绵蚜在青岛地区1年中最高繁殖代数为17代,平均8—9代。 2.绵蚜1年中繁殖率从6月中旬至7月中旬(22—25℃)为最高,当平均气温连续多日高达26℃以上时其繁殖率显著下降。生长季节一般低温对绵蚜总繁殖率影响不大。 3.夏季有翅蚜发生时期为5月下旬至6月下旬,为数较少,出现时期也很零散,可胎生无翅胎生绵蚜与雌雄性蚜。秋季有翅蚜自8月底开始发生,盛期在9月中旬至10月中旬,10月中旬以后即极少发生,其后代为雌雄性蚜。 4.有翅蚜无口吻,约于7—9日内脱皮4次即行交尾,雌蚜仅产卵1粒,未经交配者不产卵。性蚜自然死亡率很高(平均81.2%),在田间尚未发现有越冬卵。 5.棉蚜主要越冬场所均在其原寄生部位,如伤口、裂缝内与根部不定芽上。越冬虫态以Ⅰ、Ⅱ龄绵蚜为主。 6.绵蚜之迁移以Ⅰ龄若虫为主,5月下旬至7月中旬为主要迁移为害时期。 7.绵蚜可在苹果的萼洼内寄生为害。 8.除西洋苹果、山荆子、花红与海棠外,尚未发现绵蚜有其他寄主。 9.20倍松脂合剂加0.02%γ可湿性666或5%—6%蒽油乳剂,为防治越冬绵蚜的有效药剂。生长季节可用666乳剂或可湿性666防治。 10.666酸霉味对果实品质能引起不良影响,...

1.苹果绵蚜在青岛地区1年中最高繁殖代数为17代,平均8—9代。 2.绵蚜1年中繁殖率从6月中旬至7月中旬(22—25℃)为最高,当平均气温连续多日高达26℃以上时其繁殖率显著下降。生长季节一般低温对绵蚜总繁殖率影响不大。 3.夏季有翅蚜发生时期为5月下旬至6月下旬,为数较少,出现时期也很零散,可胎生无翅胎生绵蚜与雌雄性蚜。秋季有翅蚜自8月底开始发生,盛期在9月中旬至10月中旬,10月中旬以后即极少发生,其后代为雌雄性蚜。 4.有翅蚜无口吻,约于7—9日内脱皮4次即行交尾,雌蚜仅产卵1粒,未经交配者不产卵。性蚜自然死亡率很高(平均81.2%),在田间尚未发现有越冬卵。 5.棉蚜主要越冬场所均在其原寄生部位,如伤口、裂缝内与根部不定芽上。越冬虫态以Ⅰ、Ⅱ龄绵蚜为主。 6.绵蚜之迁移以Ⅰ龄若虫为主,5月下旬至7月中旬为主要迁移为害时期。 7.绵蚜可在苹果的萼洼内寄生为害。 8.除西洋苹果、山荆子、花红与海棠外,尚未发现绵蚜有其他寄主。 9.20倍松脂合剂加0.02%γ可湿性666或5%—6%蒽油乳剂,为防治越冬绵蚜的有效药剂。生长季节可用666乳剂或可湿性666防治。 10.666酸霉味对果实品质能引起不良影响,经初步试验其施用时期最晚不应迟于采收前1个半月至2个月。

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different...

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号...

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉籽是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉籽所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉籽內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入籽內,也有研究的价值。

The sorghum aphid; Aphis sacchari Zehntner is insect pest of epidemic properties ofsorghum in the Northeast, Inner Mongoria, Shangtung, and Hopei. Its overwintering hostis Miscanthus sacchariflourus and its alternative summer host is Andropon sorghum. Over-wintering eggs are sometimes laid on sorghum too, but the stem mothers always die outdue to shortage of food. The winged aphids migrate from Miscanthus to sorghum inearly spring. At the beginning of multiplication, the aphid colony is concentrated on...

The sorghum aphid; Aphis sacchari Zehntner is insect pest of epidemic properties ofsorghum in the Northeast, Inner Mongoria, Shangtung, and Hopei. Its overwintering hostis Miscanthus sacchariflourus and its alternative summer host is Andropon sorghum. Over-wintering eggs are sometimes laid on sorghum too, but the stem mothers always die outdue to shortage of food. The winged aphids migrate from Miscanthus to sorghum inearly spring. At the beginning of multiplication, the aphid colony is concentrated on thelower part,Ist to 3rd leaves of sorghum.There are four peaks of the appearance ofwinged aphids in a year. The first peak occurs in the seedling stage of sorghum, thesecond in 6--10 leave stage, the third in 12--16 leave stage, and the fourth in the seedmaturing stage. Cach year there is a total of 16 generations. In the second generation thewinged aphids migrate from the overwintering host to sorghum. The sexuales appear inthe 16th generation and the females lay eggs to pass winter. Many species of naturalenemies were found belonghg to the Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Chrysopidae, Braconidaeand Ochthiphilidae. The size of aphid population is usually correlated with the culturaland climatic conditions. Destruction of the overwintering. host plant is considered veryimportant to reduce the aphid population in sorghum field. 6%r wettable 666 (1: 150) and parathion emulsion (1: 15000) are the effective insec-ticides used at present hme. Systox emulsion were tested at the growing stage of sorghum.also giving very good result, but the residual effects to higher animals need further investi-gations.

高粱蚜是我国北方高梁产区的大害虫,东北三省、内蒙古、山东、河北等地为其猖撅发生区。经在东北调查及接种试验证明,荻草是它的越冬寄主。夏寄主在东北等地只有高粱,并不寄生玉米等禾本科作物。绝大部分越冬卵产在荻草的地上部叶鞘内及叶背面。高粱蚜在夏寄主高粱上亦能产卵。但在孵化后往往因无食物而死亡。越冬卵量和早春蚜量团荻草生长的场所不同而有差别,一般在土质松软、窝风、向阳条件下者较多;土质板结和夏、秋积水条件下的草甸、坟地处较少。早春迁至高粱后多寄生在基部叶片上,在7月上旬前1—3叶蚜量约为全株蚜量的98%。有翅蚜在全年迁飞中有4次高峰:第1次在高粱出苗后,第2次在6—10片叶时,第3次在12—16片叶时,第四次在高粱成熟前后。无翅蚜也有一定迁移能力,同样是扩散蔓延的重要因素,田间测定24小时迁移距离为1—3.3米。在室外饲育观察全年共繁殖16代,第2代出现有翅蚜,第16代出现性蚜,平均每个胎生雌蚜产仔47头,一般70—80头,最多者达180多头;平均温度15℃时,发育期间为13天,21℃时8—9天,23℃时6—7天。卵于4月下旬杏花开放前后孵化。5月下旬榆钱成熟时开始向高粱植株上迁飞,7月中旬至8月中旬是为害高峰期,8...

高粱蚜是我国北方高梁产区的大害虫,东北三省、内蒙古、山东、河北等地为其猖撅发生区。经在东北调查及接种试验证明,荻草是它的越冬寄主。夏寄主在东北等地只有高粱,并不寄生玉米等禾本科作物。绝大部分越冬卵产在荻草的地上部叶鞘内及叶背面。高粱蚜在夏寄主高粱上亦能产卵。但在孵化后往往因无食物而死亡。越冬卵量和早春蚜量团荻草生长的场所不同而有差别,一般在土质松软、窝风、向阳条件下者较多;土质板结和夏、秋积水条件下的草甸、坟地处较少。早春迁至高粱后多寄生在基部叶片上,在7月上旬前1—3叶蚜量约为全株蚜量的98%。有翅蚜在全年迁飞中有4次高峰:第1次在高粱出苗后,第2次在6—10片叶时,第3次在12—16片叶时,第四次在高粱成熟前后。无翅蚜也有一定迁移能力,同样是扩散蔓延的重要因素,田间测定24小时迁移距离为1—3.3米。在室外饲育观察全年共繁殖16代,第2代出现有翅蚜,第16代出现性蚜,平均每个胎生雌蚜产仔47头,一般70—80头,最多者达180多头;平均温度15℃时,发育期间为13天,21℃时8—9天,23℃时6—7天。卵于4月下旬杏花开放前后孵化。5月下旬榆钱成熟时开始向高粱植株上迁飞,7月中旬至8月中旬是为害高峰期,8月中旬后部分迁回荻草,9月中旬出现性蚜交尾产卵。捕食和寄生性天敌中主要的有各?

 
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