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The recent opportunity of examining the faecal material of the water-scorpion Leccotrephes japonensis revealed a flagellate which had not previously been described from this host. After fuller investigation I found that it is a species new to science and should be referred to the genus Retortamona; I have named it Retortamonas leccotrephae sp. nov.The specimens of Leccotrephes japonensis used for studies on the parasitic flagellate R. leccotrephae, were collected from ponds on the outskirts of Shanghai,...

The recent opportunity of examining the faecal material of the water-scorpion Leccotrephes japonensis revealed a flagellate which had not previously been described from this host. After fuller investigation I found that it is a species new to science and should be referred to the genus Retortamona; I have named it Retortamonas leccotrephae sp. nov.The specimens of Leccotrephes japonensis used for studies on the parasitic flagellate R. leccotrephae, were collected from ponds on the outskirts of Shanghai, China. Apart from studying the living flagellates, at the same time stained specimens were prepared for the detailed study of various structures. These specimens were fixed either in Hollande's or in Schaudinn's fluid; stained in Heidenhain's haematoxylin, and destained in 2% aqueous phospho-tungstic acid. Moskowitz' (1950) modification of the Protargol impregnation method was also used for staining.In the living state, the flagellare has a slender, slipper-shaped trunk with an anterior dorsal flexure. The mean body size, exclusive of the posterior spike, is 12.8μ×4.8μ. The length of the slender posterior spike varies from 4.6μ to 15.8μ. There are two flagella of unequal length. The longer one extends forwards and lashes rapidly, causing the animal to rotate and to pursue a special course. The shorter flagellum is directed backwards and usually lies in the cytostome; it moves in an undulating manner.In fixed and stained preparations, the flagellates, not including the posterior spike, show a size-range of 6.2×2.2μto 15.6×5.4μ, with a mean of 11.9×3.4μ. The spike varied from 4.6μ to 13.6μ long, with an average length of 11.2μ. In general, a normal specimen of R. leccotrephae has a slender body; the anterior portion is narrower than the postcerior, and is markedly bent as shown in the living indivi.duals. The posterior portion of the body usually has a dorsal convexity, and the widest region is located near the two-thirds of the body-length from the anterior end.Near that edge of the nuclear membrane lying next to the cytostome, there are two minute, but separate, basal granules which give rise to the two flagella. The anterior flagellum is about as long as the body proper: much longer and more slender than the posterior flagellum, which usually lies within the cytostome, and commonly shows a series of two or three undulations; it often stains more deeply than the anterior flagellum.In hematoxylin preparations the nucleus is well stained, and clearly shows a layer of chromatin granules lying against the nuclear membrane, and a large central endosome, composed of a mass of granules.The cytostome is a large structure in this animal. It usually occupies about twothirds of the total length of the body proper. Along the margin of the cytostome there are two deeply staining fibres, the one on the right margin is longer than that on the left.Both the precystic forms and cysts of R. leccotrephae have been observed. The body of precystic individuals which are preparing to encyst, becomes smailer and rounds up; meanwhile, the chromatin of the nucleus condenses and forms a deeply staining endosome. The anterior flagellum is still disposed freely, and no cyst wall has as yet been formed. The border-line of the cytostome is distinct, but the two basal granules are visible only in favourable preparations. The mature cysts are nearly peanut-shaped, and are about twice as long as wide. In the stained specimens they are about 4.6μ long and 2.4μ wide. The cyst wail is of uniform thickness, and the nucleus is visible at one end. The other conspicuous structures within the cyst are the two flagella and the cytostomial fibres, which are arranged as they are in the trophozoite, except that the anterior flagellum is here directed posteriorly.DISCUSSION & SUMMARYIn its general body-form, R. leccotrephae closely resembles Mackinnon's R. agilis ('11) from crane-fly larvae, and also Corradett's R. gryllotalpae ('37) from the mole cricket, but it is especially like Geiman's R. caudacus ('32) from the aquatic larvae ef certain beetles.

红娘华蛐的身体结构,一般与Mackinnon所述的R.(Embadomonas) agilis和Corradetti所述的R.grillotalpae相似,特别近似Geiman所述的R.caudacus(图15,16)。但红娘华蛐有大约等於体长2/3的大胞口,和长於或等於体长的针状尾巴,而且无论在生活时或固定染色後,头部均向背後扭曲(此较图1和15)。这些特性,显然与过去文獻中所记载的种类不同,故(氵夬)定为蛐属——新种。

The horsefly, Tabanus griseus Krober, is one of the commonest species ofTabanids found in Peking. It is widely distributed in north-eastern, north andeast parts of China. This paper reports the result of a study on its life history andhabits conducted in Peking during 1951-54. Our observations show that this Tabanid begins to appear in early June,becomes abundant during latter part of June and throughout July. Here after thenumber decreases and after the middle of September it is rarely found in thefield....

The horsefly, Tabanus griseus Krober, is one of the commonest species ofTabanids found in Peking. It is widely distributed in north-eastern, north andeast parts of China. This paper reports the result of a study on its life history andhabits conducted in Peking during 1951-54. Our observations show that this Tabanid begins to appear in early June,becomes abundant during latter part of June and throughout July. Here after thenumber decreases and after the middle of September it is rarely found in thefield. The seasonal activity therefore covers a period of about three and halfmonths. Six egg masses from which the issuing larvae were counted produced 456-842or in average 564 individuals. Under laboratory conditions, in the month of June andJuly, the average incubation period of the egg was found to be 4.5 days. Thelarvae molt within a few hours after hatching, and both the number and theduration of the larval stages are subject to a considerable variation. They normallypass through 7 or 8 larval stages but 6-10 larval stages also occurred. Under insec-tary conditions, the larval period for 52 individuals varied from 49 to 396 days.Those producing flies in the same year varied from 49-71 or in average 61.3 days,while those producing flies in the next year varied from 335 to 396 or in average 359 days. The average pupal duration for 52 individuals was 10.6 days. This Taba-nid is normally one generation per year. On a few occasions eggs daposited in Junecompleted their life histories in producing flies in early September. After feedingthese flies may deposit eggs and thus it is possible to have two generations a year. In the field, egg masses and larvae were found most frequently in rice fieldswhich seem to be the most suitable breeding place. Larvae have also been takenat the water edge of ponds with bulrush or other grasses growing, but on no occa-sion were larvae found near the sides of running water such as a river, a streamor a brook. This Tabanid passes winter in the larval stages, of which full-grownlarvae being the most common. In the field over-wintering larvae were usuallyfound in frozen soils 22-25 cm. below the surface on the edges of the rice fields. An egg-parasite, Telenomus sp., was found as a natural enemy. It is most com-mon in July and the parasiting rates of the egg masses of the Tabanid as found in1951 and 1953 were 34% and 23% respectively. Descriptions of immature and adult stages of Tabanus griseus are given; maleadult and the immature stages are described for first time. Measures for controling T. griseus are briefly suggested.

1.土灰虻是北京附近地区虻类的主要种类之一。它分布在东北、华北及华东等地。成虫为害牛、驴、骡等家畜。本文是1951—54年在北京进行生活史研究的一个报告。 2.土灰虻的成虫自6月上旬开始出现,6月下旬至7月下旬发生最多,9月中旬以后,则极少发现。全年的活动时间约为3(1/2)月。 3.本种虻的卵期平均为4.5日,每一卵块孵出的幼虫平均为564个。幼虫期在当年羽化的幼虫,平均为61.3日;在翌年羽化的幼虫,平均为359日。蛹期平均为10.6日。本种虻主要一年发生1代,仅有少数的个体当年可以发生第2代。 4.本种虻的孳生地主要在水稻田,在芦苇塘和长有窄长叶杂草的水塘亦常有孳生,但在河、溪等流动的水源则未有发现。本种以幼虫越冬,其中以成熟幼虫占极多数。越冬的处所多在堤岸下22—25厘米深的冻结土中。 5.本种虻有一种卵寄生蜂——黄胸黑卵蜂,寄生率达23—34%。这种卵寄生峰在7月间发生最多。 6.关于本种虻各虫期的形态,本文均有描述;其中雄虻及各幼期的形态,尚系初次记述。 7.根据生活史与习性的研究,对本种虻的防治问题,提出了几点意见;铲除田埂,清理池塘和积水洼地,利用天敌以及适当期间进行药治等。

1. On the basis of the preliminary studies from November, 1954 to March, 1955,further studies on the hibernation of mosquitoes were carried out in Changshafrom January to March, 1956. During this period tree holes, bamboo stumps, jars. earthern pots, fertilizer pits containing feces, basements, green-houses and mountaincaves were targets for the collection of hibernating mosquitoes each week. As aresult of this collection three species of mosquitoes hibernating during the winterwere newly discovered....

1. On the basis of the preliminary studies from November, 1954 to March, 1955,further studies on the hibernation of mosquitoes were carried out in Changshafrom January to March, 1956. During this period tree holes, bamboo stumps, jars. earthern pots, fertilizer pits containing feces, basements, green-houses and mountaincaves were targets for the collection of hibernating mosquitoes each week. As aresult of this collection three species of mosquitoes hibernating during the winterwere newly discovered. Including the original four known species, Aedes albopictus,Aedes niveus, Culex fatigans, and Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis, which were foundin the preliminary study, there are seven in total representing five genera. 2. Aedes albopictus was confirmed to bibernate in the egg stage. Eggs werefound in earthern pots, jars, bamboo stumps of Phyllostachys mitis, tree holes ofLiquidambar formosana Hance, Evodic glauca Miq., Ilex purpurea var. oldhami Loes,Dalbergia sp., Albizzia kalkora Prain, Cinnamomum camphora Nees and Eberm. 3. Aedes niveus was again found to hibernate in the egg stage in the treeholes of Quercus sp., Quercus fabrei Hance, Quercus glauca Thunb, Ilex sp., Ilex pur-purea var. oldhami Loes, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Evodia officinalis Dode,Evodia glauca Miq., Spondias axillaris Roxb., Cinnamomum camphora Nees andEberm, Albizzia kalkora Prain, Hovenia dulcis Thunb, Dalbergia sp., Celtis sinensisPers, Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. 4. The larvae of second, third and fourth instars of Orthopodomyia anopheloideswere found in the tree holes of Liquidambar formosana Hance and Dalbergia sp.Whether Orthopodomyia anopheloides will actually hibernate in the larval stageneeds further observation for confirmation. 5. Armigeres obturbans was found to hibernate in the larval stage under thecover of grasses, leaves, twigs and so forth on the surface of water in fecal pits. 6. Culex hayashii was found to hibernate in the adult stage. Both male andfemale adults were caught in the mountain caves. The quantity of fat bodieswithin the female was noted and analysed. 7. Culex fatigans was again found to hibernate in the adult stage. Both maleand female adults were caught in tbe basements, greenhouses and mountain caves.But its chief shelter for hibernation was in mountain caves where the majority ofthis species was caught. Dissections showed that the quantity of fat bodies washigh for those adults which were caught in January and February while thosecaught in March showed a lower fat body content. After hibernation was over thefirst adults engorged with blood was caught on March 22nd. 8. The hibernation of Anopheles kyrcanus var. sinensis in adult stage was veri-fied. Female adults were caught chiefly in mountain caves. The condition of thewings, the development of ovaries as well as the quantity of fat bodies were notedand analyzed. After hibernation the first two females engorged with blood werecollected on March first. 9. The influence of temperature, humidity and light in the shelters where theadults of Culex hayashii, Culex fatigans and Ahopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis passedthe winter has been discussed.

在1954年11月至1955年3月初步调查长沙市蚊虫越冬的基础上,又于1956年1月至3月作了第二次调查,其结果如下: 1.白纹伊蚊(Aedes(Stegomyia) albopictus)确系以卵越冬。此蚊在树洞、竹筒、小罐及瓦缸中发现了越冬卵。树、竹名为枫树Liquidambar formosana Hance,臭辣树Evodia glauca Miq,冬青树Ilex purpurea var.oldhami Loes,黄檀属Dalbergia sp.,山槐Albizzia kalkora Prain,樟树Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm及江南竹Phyllostachys mitis等。 2.白雪伊蚊(Aedes(Finlaya)niveus)亦以卵越冬,与初步调查结果相似。它的越冬卵在白栎Quercus fabrei Hance,青刚栎Quercus glauca Thunb.,栎树一种Quercussp.,冬青Ilex purpurca var.oldhami Loes,冬青一种Ilex sp.,枫树Liquidambar for-mosana Hance,吴朱萸Evo...

在1954年11月至1955年3月初步调查长沙市蚊虫越冬的基础上,又于1956年1月至3月作了第二次调查,其结果如下: 1.白纹伊蚊(Aedes(Stegomyia) albopictus)确系以卵越冬。此蚊在树洞、竹筒、小罐及瓦缸中发现了越冬卵。树、竹名为枫树Liquidambar formosana Hance,臭辣树Evodia glauca Miq,冬青树Ilex purpurea var.oldhami Loes,黄檀属Dalbergia sp.,山槐Albizzia kalkora Prain,樟树Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm及江南竹Phyllostachys mitis等。 2.白雪伊蚊(Aedes(Finlaya)niveus)亦以卵越冬,与初步调查结果相似。它的越冬卵在白栎Quercus fabrei Hance,青刚栎Quercus glauca Thunb.,栎树一种Quercussp.,冬青Ilex purpurca var.oldhami Loes,冬青一种Ilex sp.,枫树Liquidambar for-mosana Hance,吴朱萸Evodia officinalis Dode,臭辣树Evodia glauca Miq,酸枣Spon-dias axillaris Roxb.,樟树Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm,山槐Albizziakalkora Prain,枳椇Hovenia dulcis Thunb,黄檀属Dalbergia sp.,朴树Celtis sinensisPers.,瑯瑜Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.等15种树的树洞内发现。 3.拟按蚊直脚蚊(Orthopodomyia anopheloides)的幼虫是这次发现的。它孳生在枫 树Liquidambar formosana Hance及黄檀?

 
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