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Heterosis and genetic variance component studies on 36 wheat crosses and 14 parentsrevealed that:1.Yield per plant,kernels per spike and kernel weight of F_1 hybrids showed a markedheterosis over mid-parental values by 20-30%.Plant height and date of heading ranked next,which averaged about 10% in magnitude,being negative in direction for heading date.Fertilespikelets per head manifested only a slight degree of heterosis.F_(1-)MP's for these characterswere highly significant as shown by t-tests.However,head...

Heterosis and genetic variance component studies on 36 wheat crosses and 14 parentsrevealed that:1.Yield per plant,kernels per spike and kernel weight of F_1 hybrids showed a markedheterosis over mid-parental values by 20-30%.Plant height and date of heading ranked next,which averaged about 10% in magnitude,being negative in direction for heading date.Fertilespikelets per head manifested only a slight degree of heterosis.F_(1-)MP's for these characterswere highly significant as shown by t-tests.However,head length,kernel weight per head andheads per plant showed,on the average,no heterosis.2.Variability of heterosis of these characters descended in the following order:yield perplant→heads per plant,fertile spikelets per head→kernel weight per head,kernel perhead→kernel weight→heading date→head length,plant height.3.Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) as analyzed from F_1 data were from highto low as follows:head length→plant height→kernel weight→kernel weight per head→kernel per head,fertile spikelets per head→heads per plant,yield per plant.4.Relative values of general comining ability (g.c.a.) from high to low were as follows:head length,fertile spikelets per plant→plant height,kernels per head→kernel weight perhead→kernel weight,heads per plant→yield per plant.For yield per plants,specific com-bining ability played an important role.5.There was a close relation between the general combining ability value and the cor-relation or regression coefficient of F_1 on m(?)d-parental values.The larger the g.c.a.value,the higher the correlation or regression coefficient,indicating that many characters of F_1 hybridswere determined to a certain extent by parental means.The r or b value became non-significantas the g.c.a.decreased below 40%.6.In predicting the breeding value of parents or hybrid combinations,actual performanceof F_1 hybrids should be emphasized first.The extent of heterosis might also be of value,sincea part of heterosis arisen from epistasis could be fixed in later generations.Mid-parentalvalues were of considerable importance.

本文通过优势和配合力的分析研究小麦亲本选配问题。试验表明:杂种第一代的一株粒重、一穗粒重、千粒重的优势最大,一般比两亲平均值大20—30%;其次为株高和抽穗期:其他穗部性状的优势很小或无显性。应用遗传变量成分分析法估算八个性状的配合力,在供试的亲本中,以穗长和结实小穗数的一般配合力为最大;株高、一穗粒数和一穗粒重次之;千粒重与一株穗数,一般配合力和特殊配合力所占的比重互有高低,因组合类型而异;一株粒重的一般配合力最小,它的特殊配合力占居主导地位。一般配合力大的性状,杂种与两亲平均值的相关或迴归系数也大。初步认为,在第一代对亲本或组合的评价,既要看杂种的实际表现,还要考虑它的优势,而以前者为主要依据;两亲平均值也有相当重要的意义。

Of 9 experiments made on the planting rate of corn in 1958 to 1962,5 were subjected tothe combination with different arrangements.The relation of planting rate to biological yield,grain yield,as well as the other 40 quantitative characters and field meteorological factorshave been studied.The effect of agrotechnic levels and the amounts of manuring on theoptimum rate of planting has been investigated.The main results obtained are summarized asfollows:1.The relationship between planting rate and yields.(?)It...

Of 9 experiments made on the planting rate of corn in 1958 to 1962,5 were subjected tothe combination with different arrangements.The relation of planting rate to biological yield,grain yield,as well as the other 40 quantitative characters and field meteorological factorshave been studied.The effect of agrotechnic levels and the amounts of manuring on theoptimum rate of planting has been investigated.The main results obtained are summarized asfollows:1.The relationship between planting rate and yields.(?)It has been found that therelation of planting rate to biological yield may be expressed by a modified hyperbola.Thegeneral formula is W=x/(a+bx).The asymtete is(?)=1/b.The relation of planting rate tograin yield may be expressed by parabola-like curve.The general formula is w=ae~(bx+lnx).,while the planting rate with the highest yield is x=(-1)/b.Furthermore,the yield-rate equa-tion composed of biological yield and the coefficient of economic yield has been analysed,andthe equation is listed as formula (7) in the article.2.The relation of planting rate to certain quantitative characters.(?)It has beenfound that from among 40 quantitative characters,32 may respectively be expressed by thefollowing formulae:(1) Y=x/(a+bx),(2)Y=1/(a+bx),(3)Y=ae~(bx),and (4) Y=a+bx.The relations of planting rate to the three quantitative characters (i.e.stages of growth anddevelopment,changes of leaf area and accumulation of dry matter) are unknown,but theirresults may clearly be described;the relations of planting rate to another five quantitativecharacters (i.e.length of plants and ears,percentage of grain production,volume weight andnumber of leaves per plant) have not yet been reached the conclusion.The changes of leafarea have fully been studied on five experiments,and based on the statistics of rate of growth,rate of fluctuation,and rate of declination,the plan for proper development of green leaf areato secure high yield has primarily been issued.3.The relationship between agrotechnic levels and the optimum rate of planting.(?)According to experiments,it has been indicated that the planting rate of corn may be increasedproperly so long as the levels of agrotechnics are raised.The equations for expressing therelationship between planting rate and the grain yield under different agrotechnic levels wereobtained and briefly discussed.4.The relationship between the amounts of manuring and the optimum rate of planting.(?)This relation is similar to that of 3,namely,the rate of planting may be increased aslong as the application of manure is increased.But the efficiency of manuring is diminishedaccordingly due to the increase of planting rate.5.The relationship between the planting rate and the field meteorological factors.(?)The record of the temperature and relative humidity for 24 hours showed that the changebetween day and night is lessened according to the increasing of planting rate.The light in-tensity above the ground surface of the population is reduced as a result of increased plantingrate,but the speed of such reduction is gradually lowered in proportion to the increase ofplanting rate.

本文根据9个玉米密度试验的资料,论述了:(1)不同密度下玉米生物产量及籽粒产量的变化规律及其回归方程;(2)不同密度下玉米40个性状项目的变化规律及其回归方程;(3)生产水平及肥料数量对玉米密度的影响;(4)不同密度下玉米群体的小气候特点。供试密度从每亩1,000—8,000株。

From 1961 to 1962,studies on the accumulation of assimilates and fertilizer applicationhave been carried out with sweet potatoes in the northern part of Kiangsu Province.The ex-perimental results are summarized as follows:1.During the growing period of sweet potato,two different metabolic stages can be re-cognized under the soil and climatic conditions of North Kiangsu.The period of about 90days after transplanting may be considered as a turning point for good synthesis.Nitrogenassimilates are abundant...

From 1961 to 1962,studies on the accumulation of assimilates and fertilizer applicationhave been carried out with sweet potatoes in the northern part of Kiangsu Province.The ex-perimental results are summarized as follows:1.During the growing period of sweet potato,two different metabolic stages can be re-cognized under the soil and climatic conditions of North Kiangsu.The period of about 90days after transplanting may be considered as a turning point for good synthesis.Nitrogenassimilates are abundant in the earlier stage whereas the carbohydrates are rich in the later.2.Nitrogen and carbon assimilates are distributed primarily to leaf blades during theearlier growing stage and translocated massively from leaves to roots henceforth.The distribu-tion ratio of assimilates both in stems and petioles are in a state of slight fluctuation.3.It appeared that a reverse relationship existed between the gradients of sugar andnitrogen content within leaf blades.The nitrogen content increased markedly to the utmostextent during 30 to 40 days after planting and descended gradually afterwards.While on thecontrary,the sugar content has a tendency of ascending from low to high considerably,exceptthat it being interrupted by a denser shelter during the flourishing growing period.4.The data showed that excessive growth of sweet potato plants can be resulted by aheavy application of nitrogen,associated with luxuriant vine growth,poor illumination,andcaused a breakdown of the equilibrium between nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates.Thence,all the organs could not work in coordination,and the process of accumulation of dry mattersof the fleshy roof ceased to operate.5.Under different fertilizer levels,the more the fertilizer applied,the higher the nitrogenand the lower the sugar contents in leaf blades.Apparently,the sugar content showed aparallel tendency to the rate of root enlargement through all growing period.6.Sweet potatoes with a leaf-area index of 3 in the middle and later part of July,andwith 4 in August,and then decrease steadily to not lower than 2.5—3.0 at harvest would bringabout high yields.This should be recognized as the proper dynamics of leaf-area index forpotential sweet potato production.7.In order to regulate the metabolic activity between carbon and nitrogen for present-ing ideal dynamics of growth,it is essential that an available fertilizer practice should beadopted.Favourable application of the basic fertilizer and that of earlier additional manuringare most satisfactory measures for intensive cropping purposes.Deferred application of nitrogen-ous fertilizer although reuslted in increasing the weight of biological products but it is notavailable for root enlargement.

本文分析了甘薯在不同施肥水平下,各生育阶段内碳氮代谢与养分运转的生理过程。讨论了甘薯的叶层结构、净同化率、生物产量、经济产量与叶面积的关系。初步拟出认为适宜的叶面积指标。

 
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