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Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8China region, the degreeof accuracy of these graphs for Chinese coal is limited by the available data,although the comparison with the graphs for Soviet coals show a perfect simi-larity so that it can be concluded these graphs can be used for the Chinesecoals in other regions. Critical opinions are welcomed by the author to improve this paper.

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special ty

~~

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese...

In recent years, the geotectonic problem of China engages the attentionof many Chinese and Soviet geologists, but different opinions are confessed by different authors. After studying the structural characters of the fundamentalfloor and its later geological development, theauthor of this paper agrees withthe statement of the Soviet geologist, B. M. Синицын. In 1952 he pointed outthat the Chinese platform in eastern China, may bs divided into: (1) theSine-Korean platform; and (2) the Southern-Chinese platform, consolidatedas a result of the Luliang movement. This Chinese platform especially in its southern part shows a very peculiarphenomenon as it is called "Activization" of the platform. During Sinian andPaleozoic, its sediments belonged to the pronounced epi-continental type, duringthe mesozoic the south-eastern part of the Southern-Chinese platform wasneither a stable shelf nor a geosyncline, but an intermediate type between them.Its characters were really not geosynclinal, but sometimes showed geosynclinalaffinities, as for instances, the immense granitic intrusions, the eruptions oflavas, and the rather strongly folded geosynclinal structures. These imply thelimited mobility or the incomplete consolidation of the underground. Accor-dingly, referred to the structural type of this region, P. Misch called it"Sinotype". Furthermore, in the Southern-Chinese platform, two strong "Activizingunits" are recognized as follows: 1) The Hunan-Kwangsi activizing andsubsiding region; 2) The Cathaysian activizing oldland. The "Activization"of these regions lasted for a long geological time. It began in Sinian, throughCaledonian, Variscian, Indo-Sinian, Yenshanian and even Himalayan. BeforeMesozoic, the Caledonian was the most intensive and widely distributed one.But as pointed out by A. H. Мазарович, the Caledonian of the Southern-Chineseplatform was merely a fold-belt within the platform. According to its geotectonic history, its character of sedimentation, itsregional metamorphism, its igneous activity and its geotectonic systems, suchas "Kwangsi ∈ system", "North-Kwangtung ∈ system", "Meso and Neo-Cathaysiansystem", and the "Nanling eastwest tectonic zone", it is the author's opinionthat the "Imtermediate type (Sinotype)" of the Southern-Chinese platform wasdeveloped gradually through a long "Activizing process". This "Sinotype" is anintermediate type between the stable shelf and the geosynclinal region.

作者同意B.M.西尼村的意见,认为中国地台是中国东部的一个大的构造单位,它是在吕梁运动后造成的。中国地台由两个主要部分构成,它的北部称中朝地台,南部称华南地台。中国地台有一很重要的特征,就是一个“活化”的地台。华南地台的东南部“活化”尤其强烈而显著,在中生代的太平洋运动时,差不多具有类似地槽的特征。但是它的“活化”是有悠久历史的,即开始於震旦纪,所以加里东运动给与很大的影响,但加里东运动只是地台内部的褶皱。地台“活化”直到中生代太平洋运动才得到高度发展,产生巨大的火成活动以及“中国式”的构造型式。新生代时地台还有中等强度的运动和火成活动。自第四纪冰期之后,地台仍在较弱的升降运动中。华南地台无论从沉积岩相、区域变质及火成活动,或从山字型、华夏式及南岭东西褶皱的构造体系等构造型式发育史的研究,都可以看到它的“活化”过程,在这过程里发育了“过渡类型”的构造形态,这都是不同放地槽或地台的构造形态的。本文是作为学习心得性质的初步尝试,文中不成熟和谬误之处尚多,希望得到大家的指正。如果能在集体的讨论和研究之下将我国大地构造研究清楚的话,这是作者所衷心期望的。

 
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