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sheath
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  叶鞘
    In situ Localization of the MAPK3 Gene Induced by Brown Planthopper in Rice Sheath
    褐飞虱取食诱导的MAPK3基因在水稻叶鞘组织中的定位
短句来源
    The biochemical analyses showed that epicuticular wax in leaf pulvinus was much more than in the inside of leaf sheath, and the former (0.614 4 mg/cm 2) was 63.3 times the latter (0 009 7 mg/cm 2).
    叶枕部最高 ,为 0 .61 4 4mg/cm2 ,是叶鞘内侧的 63.3倍。 通过电镜观察看出 ,叶鞘内侧表皮细胞光滑、无硅化细胞存在 ;
短句来源
    During the period of 5 - 20 days after treatment with butachlor, oxadiazon, bentazon, the total amount of free amino acids in rice leaf sheath increased but the increase was not significant compared with control. Butachlor (60%EC 1350ml/hm2 ) treatment significantly decreased the amount of sucrose in the rice leaf sheath 10,16 days after treatment, oxadiazon treatment (12%EC 1350ml/ hm2) did the same.
    各处理的水稻叶鞘内游离氨基酸含量均比对照有所增加,而蔗糖含量则均比对照减少,其中丁草胺(60%EC,1350ml/hm~2)处理后10、16d及(口恶)草酮(12%EC,1350ml/hm~2)处理后16d的蔗糖含量比对照显著减少;
短句来源
    The result indicated that using 8% Haomide granula to cure rice blast and sheath rot of rice plant, although the costs was 15~20 yuan/667 m2, the effect can reach 80%~100%, the economic returns can reach 147.5 yuan/667 m2, the effect lied No.
    结果表明,应用8%好米得颗粒剂防治稻瘟病、叶鞘腐败病等水稻病害,成本虽较高,15~20元/667m2,但防效在80%~100%,经济效益达147.52元/667m2,效果居参试药剂第一位。
短句来源
    Northern blot was used to analyze the expression of MAPK3 gene (BPHiw103), and in situ hybridization technique was developed for localization of MAPK3 mRNA in rice sheath fed by brown planthopper (BPH) after48 h.
    利用Northern杂交技术,对促分裂原活化蛋白激酶基因(MAPK3,BPHiw103)进行了表达分析,同时,针对抗虫水稻B5植株接种褐飞虱若虫48h后的叶鞘组织切片进行了原位定位。
短句来源
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  “sheath”译为未确定词的双语例句
    CONTROL OF SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE BY "K.C.I. 911"
    “苏化911”防治稻紋枯病的研究
短句来源
    PATHOGENIC VARIABILITY OF SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE CAUSED BY THANATEPHORUS CUCUMERIS(FRANK)DONK AND IDENTIFICATION TECHNIOUES OF VARIETAL RESISTANCE
    水稻纹枯病菌 Thanatephorus Cucumeris(Frank)Donk 致病力分化及品种抗性鉴定技术的研究
短句来源
    APPLICATION OF FUZZY CLUSTRING ANALYSIS TO STUDY ON THE EPIDEMIC DYNAMICS OF RICE SHEATH BLIGHT
    模糊聚类分析在稻纹枯病流行动态研究中的应用
短句来源
    Comparison of The Effectiveness of Three Fungicides (Monceren, Moncut and Basitac)Against Rice Sheath Blight
    Monceren Moncut Basitac等杀菌剂对水稻纹枯病菌作用特性的比较
短句来源
    Studies on Pencycuron to Control Rice Sheath Blight
    Pencycuron防治水稻纹枯病的研究
短句来源
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  sheath
Antimicrobial activity of core-sheath surgical sutures modified with poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
      
The prolonged FZ effect (7-14 days) is achieved by two-step application of a sheath, constituting 10% of the suture weight and containing 2-6% FZ.
      
The sheath structure and antimicrobial activity of sutures can be modified by the introduction of other biocompatible and biodegradable polymers.
      
Engineering of Bacteriophage T4 Tail Sheath Protein
      
Gene product 18 (gp18, 659 amino acids) forms bacteriophage T4 contractile tail sheath.
      
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In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf...

In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf sheath and spike,particularly the bristle,while that onthe "green-stem" varieties was the yellowing of the leaf blade.In all instances,thediscoloration was usually accompanied by shortening of internode,stunting of thewhole plant.wrinkling of leaf surface,slight waviness of leaf margin,deformationof spike and underdevelopment of root systems.Plants infected at an early stagewere severely stunted and on heads were produced. It has been demonstrated that the red-leaf disease of the foxtail millet was causedby a virus readily transmitted by at least three different species of grain-infestingaphids:corn aphid,Rhopalostiphum maidis Fitch;grain aphid,Macrosiphum granari-um Kirby;and green-bug,Toxoptera graminum Rond.Tests with non-viruliferouscorn aphid eliminated the possibility of direct aphid injury as the cause of the disease. ??The virus was not transmissible by mechanical inoculation,by seeds nor through thesoil. Studies on the mode of transmission of red-leaf virus by corn aphid indicatedthat the virus was persistent in its insect vector and could infect in succession aseries of at least 27 tested millet seedlings.The aphid was unable to acquire thevirus in a 5-minute feedling period on the virus source but was able to pick up thevirus in 10-minute period.The 8-hour acquisition feeding period was optimum forthis aphid.The testing feeding period was found to be not more than 5 minutesand a 4-hour period of confinement on the diseased plant was ample for the aphidto cause maximum infection.Attempts to transmit the virus with cotton aphid.Aphisgossypii Gloner peach aphid,Aphis persicae Sehult and soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMats,have given negative results.The incubation period for symptoms of the red-leaf virus in foxtail millet ranged from 10 to 32 days with the model period beingbetween 14 to 20 days. Under natural conditions,certain cultivated cereals and grass weeds showed thesymptoms resembling the red-leaf disease of foxtail millet.Among them,were ZeaMays L.,Panicum miliaceum L.,Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.,S.viridis (L.)Beauv.,Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Roem.,Eragrostiscilianensis (All.) Link,E.pilosa (L.) Beauv.,Arundinella anomala Steud,Spodiopogonsibiricus (Steud.) Trin.,Bothruochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.,Capillipedium parviflor-um (R.Br.) Stapf and Poa practensis L..Artificial inoculation with the corn aphidproved that the first six named plant species,including the two cereals,were susce-ptible to the red-leaf virus and they produced,in all cases,the typical symptoms.Tests with the rest sexen grass weeds are in progress. The results of disease control experiments by timely spraying with an insecticide,E605,under field conditions were inconsistent.Among the 349 foxtail millet varie-ties of foxtail millet examined in the experimental field,nine of them were foundto be highly torelant to and suffered only very slightly from the attack of the red-leaf virus.These varieties were,however,succeptible in aphid transmission experiments. Available evidences point to the conclusion that the red-leaf virus of the foxtail millet herin reported is quite different from all the previously described cereal viruses.Among the cereal virus that closely resembles the red-leaf virus is the yellow-dwarfvirus reported by Oswald tnd Hauston.These two viruses are similar in the follow-ing respects:both are transmissible by the same species of aphids (Rhopalosiphummaidis,Microsiphum graminium andToxoptera granarium) and neither virus can betransferred mechanically.But they differ strikingly from each other in their hostranges.According to Oswald and Hauston,there were 19 of 55 grasses tested thatappeared to be immune from the yellow-dwarf virus.Digitaria sanguinalis,Echino-chloa crus-galli Setaria viridis and Zea Mays were among the immune hosts.On thecontary,all these four gramineous plants were found to be extremely susceptible tothe red-leaf virus both under natural condition and in artificial inoculation experi-ments.Accordingly,the red-leaf,a persistent aphid borne virus affecting the foxtailmillet,is herein reported as a new virus of the cereals.

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油...

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油芒均感染小米紅叶病病毒。其它紅化杂草和接种試驗,正在进行中。紅叶病病毒对小米植株所产生的影响,因植株發育的阶段不同而輕重有所差异,植株感病愈早病害愈剧烈。用杀虫剂E605在田間噴射小米防治紅叶病,未能表現药剂有防病的效能,在田間观察349个品种,选得9个高度耐病和农艺性状优良的品种。抗病选种可能是当前防治小米紅叶病最有效的防治措施。根据病原的傳染方法,寄主范围和所表現的症状,小米紅叶病病毒和以往所报道的禾本科植物的病毒病害的病毒均不相同,因此它是禾谷类作物的一个新的病毒。

The Delphacodes striatella F., is widely distributed in Soochow, Wusih, Changchowof the Taihu Lake rice region in Kiangsu. It is one of the worst pests of our rice crop.The crops from the double cropping early rice and single cropping middle rice are injuredeven more severely. By our observations, the host plant of this small brown planthopper is changedseasonally. The most common hosts are rice in summer or autumn and wheat, Alope-curus aequalis Sobol. in spring or winter. Supplementary hosts include barley,...

The Delphacodes striatella F., is widely distributed in Soochow, Wusih, Changchowof the Taihu Lake rice region in Kiangsu. It is one of the worst pests of our rice crop.The crops from the double cropping early rice and single cropping middle rice are injuredeven more severely. By our observations, the host plant of this small brown planthopper is changedseasonally. The most common hosts are rice in summer or autumn and wheat, Alope-curus aequalis Sobol. in spring or winter. Supplementary hosts include barley, Leersiajaponica Makino, Zoysia japonica Steud., etc. According to the degree of embryonic development the growth of the egg is dis-tinguished in six stages, such as: Blastoderm, Germ band, Yellow spot, Blastokinesis,Eye spot, Accessory-podite and Hatching. The development of nymph goes through about five instars, it becomes adult afterthe fifth moult. The period of each stage is limited by temperature. At 25--26℃, theegg stage is about eight days, the nymph stage is about sixteen days, the adult is aboutfourteen days, the adult is about seven days. The sexual muturation period of the Brachypterous type is 1--2 days earlier than theLongipennate. The female copulates with the male immediately. The eggs are depositedinto the leaf sheath or beside the leaf mid-rib. The egg streak consists of double rowof eggs. Delphacodes striatella F. produces six generations per year. The first generation isfrom late April to early July. The second generation is from early June to early July.The third generation is from early July to August. The fourth generation is from earlyAugust to middle September. The fifth generation is from early September to middleOctober. The nymph of the sixth generation hatches in early October. During the3rd and 4th instars it hibernates on wheat, alfalfa or weeds. The activity of hymenpterous parasites, nematodes and spider in June and July sup-presses the multiplication of the small brown planthopper. The difference of the popula-tion in some regions or in the field is closely related to the nutrition of the host and themicroclimate. The results of laboratory and field tests indicated that: spraying 6% γ wettableB.H.C. (1:200), 46.6& Folidol (1:3000) and 15% wettable Malathion (1:1500) at100 kg of the solutions per mou, gave very successful control.

1.灰稻虱是苏南稻区每年普遍发生为害和暴发年猖獗成灾的主要害虫。由于其早在6—7月间已进入全年发生盛期,故对双季早稻和单季中稻的为害特别严重。 2.该虫的主要寄主 夏秋季为水稻Oryza sativa L.,冬春季为小麦Triticum aestivum L.、看麦娘Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.。其它寄主有稗Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv.、李氏游草Leersia japonicaMakino等十种。 3.灰稻虱在苏南稻区一年发生六代。发生时期:第一代为4月下旬—6月上旬,第二代为6月上旬—7月上旬,第三代为7月上旬—8月上旬,第四代为8月上旬—9月中旬,第五代为9月上旬—10月中旬,第六代若虫在10月上、中旬孵化,11月上、中旬以3—4龄若虫于麦田、紫云英田或沟埂杂草处越冬,翌年3月中旬—4月中旬化为成虫。 4.灰稻虱在水稻田内的消长峰态可以分为“双峰”和“单峰”两种。高峰的出现期一般总是在水稻营养状况良好的分蘖盛期和孕穗期。 5.早夏发生量的多寡,除与水稻早期栽培的面积和营养状况密切有关外,还与冬前虫口基数和1—3月间的气温等综合因子有关。6—7月间,寄生...

1.灰稻虱是苏南稻区每年普遍发生为害和暴发年猖獗成灾的主要害虫。由于其早在6—7月间已进入全年发生盛期,故对双季早稻和单季中稻的为害特别严重。 2.该虫的主要寄主 夏秋季为水稻Oryza sativa L.,冬春季为小麦Triticum aestivum L.、看麦娘Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.。其它寄主有稗Echinochloa crus-galli Beauv.、李氏游草Leersia japonicaMakino等十种。 3.灰稻虱在苏南稻区一年发生六代。发生时期:第一代为4月下旬—6月上旬,第二代为6月上旬—7月上旬,第三代为7月上旬—8月上旬,第四代为8月上旬—9月中旬,第五代为9月上旬—10月中旬,第六代若虫在10月上、中旬孵化,11月上、中旬以3—4龄若虫于麦田、紫云英田或沟埂杂草处越冬,翌年3月中旬—4月中旬化为成虫。 4.灰稻虱在水稻田内的消长峰态可以分为“双峰”和“单峰”两种。高峰的出现期一般总是在水稻营养状况良好的分蘖盛期和孕穗期。 5.早夏发生量的多寡,除与水稻早期栽培的面积和营养状况密切有关外,还与冬前虫口基数和1—3月间的气温等综合因子有关。6—7月间,寄生蜂、线虫和蜘蛛类等天敌的活动,对灰稻虱的增殖也有一定的抑制作用。 6.个体发育中,卵期还可凭胚胎发育的特征划分为胚盘、胚带、黄斑、反转、眼点、附肢形成和孵化等七期。各虫?

The wheat stem fly, Meromyza saltatrix (Linn.), is a serious pest in the wheat regionand has four generations a year in the central part of Shensi. The adults emerge mostlyin the second or third decade of April, from the third decade of May to the seconddecade of June, in the second or third decade of July and from the third decade ofSeptember to the first decade of October. It overwinters as larva in the stem of theyoung wheat plant. The most important host plant is wheat, while barley comes next.The larva...

The wheat stem fly, Meromyza saltatrix (Linn.), is a serious pest in the wheat regionand has four generations a year in the central part of Shensi. The adults emerge mostlyin the second or third decade of April, from the third decade of May to the seconddecade of June, in the second or third decade of July and from the third decade ofSeptember to the first decade of October. It overwinters as larva in the stem of theyoung wheat plant. The most important host plant is wheat, while barley comes next.The larva injures wheat two times a year, the first time in late August and the secondin spring when the wheat plant is in the period of shooting and earing. It passes sum-mer in plants grown from scattered seeds after harvest. Most of the adults emergeabout 6--8 o'clock in the morning. They take some supplementary food after emergence.The eggs are laid chiefly on the plumule sheath during the early period and then on thebasal portion of the second to third leaves from the tip. The percentage of injury bythe larvae is higher during the young-plant period and the period of shooting of the stemthan the period of earing. They cannot attack those plants, the ears of which have al-ready appeared. The plant shows different signs of injury at different stages of develop-ment. The degree of injury caused by the wheat stem fly depends closely on the condi-tions of cultivation. Wheat sown early suffers more seriously during the young-plantperiod, while wheat sown late suffers more during spring. Proper irrigation and closeplanting lessen the injury. Varieties with shorter periods of growth and, development,thinner stems and narrower leaf blades and those more hairy and waxy are only slightlyinjured. Wheat plants in well-manured fields or fields of high fertility and plants grow-ing in good condition are also slightly injured. The adult stage is the best period forcontrol. The powders, aerosol and suspension fluids of BHC are all very effective againstthe adults. Parathion (E-605) kills not only the adults but also to a certain extent theeggs.

麦秆蝇是小麦主要害虫之一,陕西关中地区每年发生4代。成虫盛发期在4月中下旬,5月下旬至6月中旬,7月中下旬,9月下旬至10月上旬,以幼虫在麦苗幼茎内越冬。寄主以小麦为主,大麦为次。每年秋苗期和春季拔节至孕穗期两次为害小麦。麦收后以落粒自生麦苗为夏季寄主。成虫羽化在早晨6—8时盛;羽化后取食补充性营养;苗期产卵在芽鞘上、拔节后在顶端第2、3叶基为多。幼由在苗期和拔节期入侵率高,孕穗期为次,抽穗以后不能入侵,在不同生育期植株上,入侵后表现害状不同。麦秆蝇的为害程度与栽培条件关系密切:早播小麦秋苗期受害重,晚播小麦在春季受害重;合理灌水、密植受害轻:施肥充足、土壤肥沃、生长良好的小麦受害轻。成虫发生期是药剂防治的良好时期。γ666粉剂、烟剂、液剂杀成虫均良好,E605既能杀成虫又具一定的杀卵能力。

 
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