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    RECENT PROGRESS ON THE BAL QSOS RESEARCH FROM X RAY OBSERVATIONS
    宽吸收线类星体的X-ray研究进展
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    This illustrates that the UV absorption trough actually is black saturated. In addition, detailed analysis of UV and X ray absorption in PG 1126 041 highlights that there is a continuous transition from the BAL phenomenon in QSOs to the intrinsic absorption lines in Seyfert galaxies.
    此外, 对PG1126041 的研究表明从宽吸收线类星体到Seyfert 星系的窄本征吸收线其物理性质是连续过渡的。
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    The iron K line can be produced in a variety of X ray illuminated material, and in hot plasma in active galactic nuclei. It provides an important diagnostic of the physical state and the geometry of gas in the active galactic nucleus, as well as the nature of the gravitational potential in the central engine.
    活动星系核中的铁K线辐射可由X射线照射的冷物质 ,热等离子体产生 ,它提供了活动星系核从非常核心到核周围的物质分布 ,物理状态 ,以及中心黑洞强引力场的重要诊断手段。
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  射线
    The Status of Very High Energy and Ultra High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy Observation
    甚高能和超高能γ射线天文观测现状
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    The Observational Situation of Very High Energy Qamma Ray Point Sources
    甚高能γ-射线点源观测的概况
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    Cosmic Ray Distributions Hydrogen Distributions and Cosmic Gamma Rays
    宇宙线分布、氢分布和宇宙γ射线
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    The Radiation Mechanism for the Soft Gamma Ray Repeater GB790107
    软γ射线重爆GB790107的辐射机制
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    The Accretion Torque Theory of X~Ray Pulsars
    X射线脉冲双星的吸积矩理论
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    and that derived on the optically thin side is far smaller than the δx obtained from the hard X--ray bursts. Therefore, the two electron spectral indices are different in the model of a homogeneous radio source. In the nonhomogeneous radio sources, the electron energy spectral indices δR.
    因此均匀源模型下两者的能谱指数是不同的.在使用非均匀源模型时,无论是从厚边还是从薄边的潜指数,得到的电子能谱指数都是等同于X射线的,即δR=δX.
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    In this work, we present the results of a statistical analysis to the distributions of the characteristics of the most intense pulses in GRBs detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). These characteristics include pulse duration, amplitude, symmetry factor (δ, ratio of rising time to decaying time in a pulse),narrowness factor (η,FWHM to pulse duration).
    本文对康普顿γ射线天文台观测卫星上BATSE仪器观测到的γ暴的变曲线的主峰数据进行统计分析,以研究gamma暴中脉冲的持续时间、振幅、对称因子(δ,上升时标比下降时标)、窄度因子(η,半宽度比持续时间)等特征参量的分布特征.
短句来源
    In this work,we present the results of a correlation analysis of the characteristics of the most intense pulses in GRBs detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO).
    本文对美国康普顿γ射线天文台观测卫星上BATSE仪器观测到的γ暴的变曲线主峰数据进行统计分析 ,研究脉冲特征参量间的相关性 .
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The Calderón reproducing formula, windowed X-ray transforms, and radon transforms in LP-spaces
      
The case k=1, μ∈? corresponds to the exponential X-ray transform arising in single photon emission tomography.
      
Here, we report using the estrogen receptor that the location of drugs in x-ray crystal structures of the receptors matches closely their predicted spatial locations in the DNA.
      
Different from rational quadratic Bézier curves, the value is generally related with the location of the ray, and the necessary and sufficient condition of the ratio being independent of the ray's location is showed.
      
one vertex, the points that the ray from the initial vertex intersects respectively with the curve segment, the line connecting the segments end points, and the line connecting the two neighboring vertexes.
      
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On the basis of new facts and laws revealed by modern astronomy and physics, it seems necessary and expedient to introduce the concept of "cos- moscopic" process, to stand side by side with macroscopic and microscopic processes. Cosmoscopic objects differ from macroscopic objects (things seen everday on the Earth as well as meteoric bodies, small asteroids and satellites) in mass and scale just as much as the difference between macroscopic objects and microscopic objects. Gigantic difference in quantity leads...

On the basis of new facts and laws revealed by modern astronomy and physics, it seems necessary and expedient to introduce the concept of "cos- moscopic" process, to stand side by side with macroscopic and microscopic processes. Cosmoscopic objects differ from macroscopic objects (things seen everday on the Earth as well as meteoric bodies, small asteroids and satellites) in mass and scale just as much as the difference between macroscopic objects and microscopic objects. Gigantic difference in quantity leads to marked difference in quality. The mechanical motion of celestial bodies, the dynamics of stellar systems, the condensation of self-gravitating gas mass, natural ther- monuclear reactions in stellar interior, the production of forbidden lines in nebulae and outer envelopes of stars, the strong coupling between hydrody- namic phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, the existence of superdense matter, curvature of space in strong gravitational field, the evolution of celes- tial bodies, all these are examples of cosmoscopic phenomena and processes, and also form the basis on which the cosmoscopic concept is introduced, Stellar dynamics, cosmical electrodynamics, and general theory of relativity are examples of cosmoscopic laws. In cosmoscopic processes, gravitational interaction usually plays a dominant role, and plasma state is the state of matter most often met. The cosmoscopic concept will aid tn understanding more deeply material processes in the inorganic world. It will prevent us from applying without modification to cosmoscopic processes natural laws which strictly speaking applies only to macroscopic processes. Once the cosmoscopic law is understood, man can then create artificially cosmoscopic conditions on the Earth so that processes which only take place naturally in cosmoscopic processes, can then take place on the Earth. Thermonuclear reactions, forbidden lines (now applied so much in "Excited emission") are two examples; artificial cosmic rays, and artificial superdense matter might be realized later. In carrying out simulation experiments, the effect introduced by difference in scale and mass must be kept in mind. Differentiation among cosmocscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic processes shows that dialectical laws operate everywhere in Nature.

根据现代天文学和物理学的研究结果,有必要在微观和宏观之外建立宇观这个概念。宇观客体和宏观客体在量质和尺度方面的差别不亚於地上常见的宏观客体和微观客体的差别。量的巨大差异导致质的显著不同。天体的机械运动,恒星系统及其成员的运动,质量和体积都很大的气团由於自吸引而产生的凝聚,恒星内部的天然热核反应,星云和恒星外壳中禁戒谱綫的产生,流体运动同磁场的强耦合,天然超密物质的存在,强引力场中空间的弯曲,和天体的演化,这些都是宇观现象和宇观过程的具体例子,也是提出宇观概念的科学依据。星系动力学,宇宙电动力学,广义相对论等是宇观过程规律的例子。在宇观过程中,万有引力常起重要的作用,而等离子态是最普遍的物态,宇观概念将帮助我们更深刻地认识无机界的物质过程。它将使我们不致於把只适用於宏观过程的规律不加改变地就用於宇观过程的探讨上。在掌握了宇观规律的基础上,可以在地上用人工方法创造宇观条件,使那些只有在宇观条件下才能够天然地发生的过程,如热核反应,禁戒谱綫,物质的高度密集,宇宙綫等,在地上也能发生。进行模拟实验时应当注意质量和尺度的差异所引起的质的不同。宇观、宏观、微观的区别说明了辩证规律在自然界中处处在作用着。

In this paper,we give the definition of the merit function,generated entirely by ray tracing.On the one hand,this function can reflect the workings of an optical system more exactly; on the other hand,in this function the selection of a set of posi- tive weighting factors among various aberrations is clearer and simpler,and the object values are all zero,so that defects in the design,owing to improper selection of both these two quantities,may be significantly reduced.Applying the method of damped least-squares...

In this paper,we give the definition of the merit function,generated entirely by ray tracing.On the one hand,this function can reflect the workings of an optical system more exactly; on the other hand,in this function the selection of a set of posi- tive weighting factors among various aberrations is clearer and simpler,and the object values are all zero,so that defects in the design,owing to improper selection of both these two quantities,may be significantly reduced.Applying the method of damped least-squares developed by K.Levenberg,the minimum of the merit function can be obtained.We also discuss the method of damped least-squares and a few pro- blems in its application.In the last part of the paper some illustrating examples are given.In principle,the merit function defined here and the discussions given also apply to other optical systems.

本文定义了一个完整的、全部由空间光线追迹组成的评价函数.这个函数一方面能够比较准确地表示光学系统性能的好坏;另一方面在这个函数中各象差间权重因子的选择比较清楚、简单,而且目标值全部是零,显著减少了由于这两类量的选择不当而引起的设计质量不佳.对这种评价函数应用勒万贝格(K.Levenberg)提出的阻尼最小二乘法可以求出它的极小值.本文同时讨论了阻尼最小二乘法和在应用阻尼最小二乘法中的一些有关问题.最后,列出了几个算例.原则上这里的评价函数和有关讨论,也可适用于其他一般的光学系统.

The emission mechanism from X-ray soturces in close binary stars is studied.It is suggested that pair production may play an important role in the X-ray emission region which is formed by the accretion of a compact object(a neutron star or a black hole).The present model accounts qualitatively for the following observed general properties in X-ray binaries: 1.The X-ray luminosity lies within the range 10~(36)—10~(38)erg/sec. 2.The X-ray energy spectrum can in the majority of cases...

The emission mechanism from X-ray soturces in close binary stars is studied.It is suggested that pair production may play an important role in the X-ray emission region which is formed by the accretion of a compact object(a neutron star or a black hole).The present model accounts qualitatively for the following observed general properties in X-ray binaries: 1.The X-ray luminosity lies within the range 10~(36)—10~(38)erg/sec. 2.The X-ray energy spectrum can in the majority of cases be represented either the power-law or the thermal bremsstrahlung form. 3.The temperature of the thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum is the order of 10~8K. 4.The form of the energy spectrum does not change appreciably when the luminosity fluctuates.

本文研究了密近双星中的 X 射线源的发射机制.本文提出:在致密星(中子星或黑洞)的吸积所形成的 X 射线发射区中,电子对的产生起着重要的作用.这种模型可以定性地说明 X射线双星所具有的几个一般的观测特征,即:1.它们的 X 射线光度都在10~(36)—10~(38)尔格/秒范围中.2.X 射线能谱为幂形式,或热韧致形式.3.热韧致谱的温度数量级为10~K.4.当光度涨落时,能谱形式无明显变化.

 
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