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  pests
The significance and prospect of the alkaloids in controlling forest insect pests were also discussed.
      
According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and urban forestry characteristics in Beijing, a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for three primary non-indigenous pests was proposed.
      
The results show that the risks of these three pests in the Beijing area were 2.46, 2.30, and 2.02, which were all highly risky.
      
Based on the result and extensive risk communications, combined with the management experience of the Beijing Forest Protection Station, the authors proposed some effective control measures to prevent the invasion of the three pests into Beijing.
      
Species and control of insect pests and major diseases of Torreya grandis merrillii
      
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Experiment and field spectral reflectance measurement of healthy and injured rice and cotton plants were made using several different instruments in the year of 1980-1981. Spectral differences between healthy and injured rice and cotton plants occurred in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infra- red photographs of healthy and injured rice and cotton plants were taken from ground-based platforms of remote sensing car. Using spectral reflectance measure- ment, healthy rice and cotton plants...

Experiment and field spectral reflectance measurement of healthy and injured rice and cotton plants were made using several different instruments in the year of 1980-1981. Spectral differences between healthy and injured rice and cotton plants occurred in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infra- red photographs of healthy and injured rice and cotton plants were taken from ground-based platforms of remote sensing car. Using spectral reflectance measure- ment, healthy rice and cotton plants could be distinguished from injured ones. Pat- tern recognition analysis was made and data from experiments were analyzed for probability. The results showed a high discrimination between non-injured and injured rice and cotton plants in the presence of pests. Thus, it is suggested that the technique of aircraft remote sensing with 0.75μ band will be adequate to predict the pest occurrence on the two important economical crops-rice and cotton.

本文总结了1980-1981年对棉花、水稻受虫害后的光谱变化测试的初步实践,并对测得的数据经过概率统计分析。对可见、红外波段的遥感仪器作了探测虫害的理论分析,初步认为在0.75微米波段适用航空遥感技术,对获取的图象进行光密度的分析研究,可能实现棉花、水稻两大主要作物的虫害预测预报。

Based on the four outstanding characteristics of agricultural ecosystem Clarge amount of input and output; large quantity of auxiliary energy flow; shortened food chains; extended detritoiis chains) and the relationship of materials and energy flow between agricultural enterprises, the author proposed that the combination of agricultural ehterprises was the foundation of effective and multiple utilization of materials and energy in agricultural ecosystems. But this did not mean that all agricultural ecosystems...

Based on the four outstanding characteristics of agricultural ecosystem Clarge amount of input and output; large quantity of auxiliary energy flow; shortened food chains; extended detritoiis chains) and the relationship of materials and energy flow between agricultural enterprises, the author proposed that the combination of agricultural ehterprises was the foundation of effective and multiple utilization of materials and energy in agricultural ecosystems. But this did not mean that all agricultural ecosystems made up of several agricultural enterprises could achieve promising results. In order to achieve the best result and to set up new systems in which materials and energy can be best utilized withi high effects and low. costs, seven general principlss were discussed; 1. Principle of adoptation to the local environmental condiitions. 2. Principle of determining reasonable numbers of agricultural enterprises. 3. Principle of pushing forward the key enterprises. 4.Principle of maintaining a suitable auxiliary energy flow. 5. Principle of expanding population of producers. 6.Principle of rational space arrangements. 7.Principle pf strengthening pest control.

物质和能量的多层次利用是提高农业生态系统经济效益和生态效益的有效途径,构成生态农业研究的一个重要领域。本文从分析各农业产业间物质、能量的关系入手,探讨了多层次利用之所以能够提高物质、能量利用效率的原理,提出多层次利用的结构可分产业内和产业间两个层次,而后者是更加重要的,是实现多层次利用物质、能量的基础。文章没有具体罗列各种多层次利用的模式(这类文献已经发表了很多),而是总结了七条设计多层次利用的一般原则,它们是:因地制宜的原则;合理确定产业及农业生物种类数目的原则;突出重点产业的原则;合理控制辅助能量的原则;尽量扩大生产者种群的原则;合理安排空间布局的原则;加强防疫的原则。

This paper outlines the views and methods of qualitiaitve and quantitative studies on the community diversity and stability, and points out that neither over-simple study nor over-complex study of community stability is completely practical. The intergrated judgement model of fuzzy stability is proposed for studying and evaluating the effect of insect pest management and the stability of in sect pest community.

本文简要概述并评价了定性定量研究生物群落多样性和群落稳定性的观点和方法,提出了一种新的研究方法——应用模糊稳定性综合评判模型来研究和评价害虫管理的效果和昆虫群落的稳定性。

 
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