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predators
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  捕食性天敌
     There were 89.89% ladybirds, 2.24% green lacewings and 7.86% spiders in the native predators.
     其中瓢虫占捕食性天敌的89.89%,草蛉占2.24%,蜘蛛占7.86%。
短句来源
     There were 23 species of phytophagous group (45.10 % )and 24 species of enemies ( 47.06 %), including 20 species of predators (39.22 %) , 4 species of parasitoid (7.84 %)and 4 species of neutral insects(7.84 % ), respectively.
     其中,为害国槐的植食性昆虫23种,占45.10%; 天敌24种,占47.06%(捕食性天敌20种,占39.22%;寄生性天敌4种占7.84%);
短句来源
     Among the natural enemies, there are 23 species of predators (39.66%), 4 species of parasites (6.90%), and 5 species of neutral insect(8.62%), respectively.
     天敌32种,占55.17%(捕食性天敌23种,占39.66%;寄生性天敌4种,占6.90%); 中性昆虫5种,占8.62%。
短句来源
     There were 27 species of pest insects, occuping 50%and 24 species of enemies, taking up 40.74%, including 19 species of predators (35.19 %) , 3 species of parasitoid (5.56 %)and 5 species of neutral insects(9.26 % ), respectively.
     天敌22种,占40.74%(捕食性天敌19种,占35.19%;寄生性天敌3种,占5.56%); 中性昆虫5种,占9.26%。
短句来源
     Population numbers of predators in plots treated with abamectin,pirimicarb,imidacloprid and omethoate were reduced by as much as 19 69%,41 77%,45 75% and 82 69%,respectively,from 5d to 10d after treatment.
     药剂处理后 5~ 10d ,齐螨素、抗蚜威、吡虫啉和氧化乐果处理区捕食性天敌分别减少了 19 6 9% ,4 1 77% ,4 5 75 %和 82 6 9%。
短句来源
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  天敌
     the ratios of species richness between predators to pests were 1∶0.60 (O), 1∶0.64 (S), and 1∶0.71 (C) while the ratios of abundance between predators to pests were 1∶0.84 (O), 1∶3.21 (S), and 1∶3.17 (C);
     ③天敌与害虫种数之比依次为1∶0·60、1∶0·64和1∶0·71,个体数之比依次为1∶0·84、1∶3·21和1∶3·17;
短句来源
     There were 23 species of phytophagous group (45.10 % )and 24 species of enemies ( 47.06 %), including 20 species of predators (39.22 %) , 4 species of parasitoid (7.84 %)and 4 species of neutral insects(7.84 % ), respectively.
     其中,为害国槐的植食性昆虫23种,占45.10%; 天敌24种,占47.06%(捕食性天敌20种,占39.22%;寄生性天敌4种占7.84%);
短句来源
     Among the natural enemies, there are 23 species of predators (39.66%), 4 species of parasites (6.90%), and 5 species of neutral insect(8.62%), respectively.
     天敌32种,占55.17%(捕食性天敌23种,占39.66%;寄生性天敌4种,占6.90%); 中性昆虫5种,占8.62%。
短句来源
     There were 27 species of pest insects, occuping 50%and 24 species of enemies, taking up 40.74%, including 19 species of predators (35.19 %) , 3 species of parasitoid (5.56 %)and 5 species of neutral insects(9.26 % ), respectively.
     天敌22种,占40.74%(捕食性天敌19种,占35.19%;寄生性天敌3种,占5.56%); 中性昆虫5种,占9.26%。
短句来源
     The predaceous syrphid fly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer is one of the significant predators for the control of aphides.
     黑带食蚜蝇Episyrphus balteatus De Geer幼虫是控制多种蚜虫的主要天敌之一。
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  “predators”译为未确定词的双语例句
     3G Predators
     3G分食者
短句来源
     The mutual interference of female, male and female and male mixed population among individual predators and preys could described by Hassell and Vasley's equation were E=26.9776P~(-0.2198), E=25.0311P~(-0.1773) and E=23.4271P~(-0.1505), respectively.
     雌、雄以及雌雄混合种群干扰反应的数学模型分别为E=26.9776P~(P-0.2198)、E=25.0311P~(-0.1773)和E=23.4271P~(-0.1505)。
短句来源
     The relative abundance of pests , predators, parasitoids and neutralities were 0.6361-0.7018 ,0.1641-0.1907, 0.0418-0.0647 and 0.0923-0.1085 respectively in Spring sowing season .
     春种菜用大豆田害虫类的相对丰盛度为0.6361~0.7018,捕食类的相对丰盛度为0.1641~0.1907,寄生类和中性类的相对丰盛度分别为0.0418~0.0647和0.0923~0.1085。
短句来源
     The relative abundance of pests , predators, parasitoids and neutralities were 0.9483-0.9749, 0.0097-0.0164,0.0087-0.0173 and 0.0067-0.0188 respectively in Fall sowing season.
     秋种菜用大豆田害虫类的相对丰盛度为0.9483~0.9749,捕食类的相对丰盛度为0.0097~0.0164,寄生类和中性类的相对丰盛度分别为0.0087~0.0173和0.0067~0.0188。
短句来源
     The mutual interference of female, male and female and male mixed population among individual predators and preys could described by Hassell and Vasley’s equation were E=0.9777P-2.2479, E=0.9479P-2.2403 and E=0.9786P-2.2648 respectively.
     雌、雄及雌雄混合种群干扰反应的数学模型分别为E=0.9777P-2.2479、E=0.9479P-2.2403和E=0.9786P-2.2648。
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  predators
Global asymptotic stability of the periodic Lotka-Volterra System with two-predators and one-prey
      
The three species Lotka-Volterra periodic model with two predators and one prey is considered.
      
They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.
      
The results indicate that bullfrogs exert different predatory influences on native fauna at different sites and that bullfrogs are generalist predators with extensive ecological impacts on native fauna.
      
We think that the overlong-chain aldehydes defend the sponge from fouling and predators.
      
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Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat...

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

The pine caterpiller is one of the most important pests of pine tree in China.There are many natural enemies of pine caterpillers, such as parasites, predators etc.Determining the influence of natural enemies upon the outbreak of pine caterpiller isa very important task. A systematic study especially on the activities of parasites uponpine caterpiller was carried out in 1954 in Tung-an, Hunan Province. The present paperis a preliminary report, which narrates the results obtained from the examinations andpoints...

The pine caterpiller is one of the most important pests of pine tree in China.There are many natural enemies of pine caterpillers, such as parasites, predators etc.Determining the influence of natural enemies upon the outbreak of pine caterpiller isa very important task. A systematic study especially on the activities of parasites uponpine caterpiller was carried out in 1954 in Tung-an, Hunan Province. The present paperis a preliminary report, which narrates the results obtained from the examinations andpoints out that the parasites exert great influence on the outbreak of the pine cater-piller. The results are as follows: 1. According to the observation in 1954, there are many natural enemies, whichprey upon the pine caterpiller on Pinus massoniana in Tung-An district. Among these,the parasites are the most decisive factor in limiting or suppressing the outbreak ofpine caterpiller. 2. The egg parasites are:Telcnomus dendrolimusi Chu, Trichogramma evanescensWestwood, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead, Enterus tabatae Ishii, Pachyneuron nawaiAshmead and Eupteromalus sp. Among these, the first three are more important. 3. The percentage of egg parasitization of the first brood is 12.76%, of which,5.83% is due to T. dendrolimusi. As to the second brood, it increases to 40.61%, ofwhich 33.45% is due to T. dendrolimusi. 4. From the observations made during the peroids of emergence of the egg para-sites, we have obtained some knowledge about the biological characteristics of them.These ideas offered some important suggestions for the practical application of egg para-sites. 5. The larval parasites are: Campoplex bicolor Ashmead, Rhythmonotus takagii(Mats.), Rhogas spectabilis (Mats.), Phanerotoma flavida Enderlein, Apanteles liparidisBouche, Sarcophaga peregrina R.-D., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)ere. Among these, B.bassiana and the parasitic flies are the major ones. 6. The results of three sets of observations on larval parasites show that the deathrate (including parasitization) of the overwintered larvae is 56.62%, of the first brood82.83%, and of the second brood 40.83%. Thus the death rate (mainly parasitization) isconsiderably high. 7. The pupal parasites are: Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger, Brachymeria obscurata(Walker), Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Pimpla disparis Viereek, Iseropus sa-tanas (Morley), Sarcophaga peregrina R.-D., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) etc. Amongthese, X. japonica, the parasitic flies and B. bassiana are the major ones. But it mustbe noted that probably due to the parasitization of the fungus, a high percentage ofpupae failed to transform into adults. For example, for the overwintered brood, it is86.68%, the first brood 40.11%. It is worthy for further study. 8. The results of two sets of observations on pupal parasites show that the deathrate (including parasitization) of the overwintered brood pupae is 54.72%, that of thefirst brood pupae is 66.70%. Thus the death rate (mainly parasitization) is also consi-derably high.

1.据1954年考查,东安马尾松毛虫的天敌很多,尤其是寄生天敌,它是限制或抑制松毛虫大发生的决定性因素。 2.卵期的寄生天敌有:松毛虫黑卵蜂,赤眼蜂,平腹小蜂,白角小蜂,名和小蜂及金小蜂等六种,其中以前三种较为重要。 3.第一代松毛虫的卵寄生率为12.76%,其中黑卵峰的寄生率达5.83%,第二代松毛虫的卵寄生率为40.61%,其中黑卵蜂的寄生率达33.45%。 4.松毛虫各种卵蜂羽化时期及数量的观察,使我们初步了解卵蜂的一些生物学特性,对于今后饲放卵寄生蜂防治松毛虫的措施提供了重要依据。 5.幼虫期的寄生天敌有:两色瘦姬蜂,黑胸姬蜂,红头小茧蜂,黄甲腹小茧蜂,毒蛾绒茧蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以白僵病菌及寄生蝇类较为重要。 6.三次幼虫期寄生天敌的考查可以看出:越冬代老熟幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达56.62%,第一代幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达82.83%,第二代幼龄幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达40.83%,幼虫期的死亡率(主要是寄生率)相当高。 7.蛹期的寄生天敌有:日本黑点姬蜂,大腿蜂,花胸姬蜂,黑瘤姬蜂,松毛虫瘤姬蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以日本黑点姬蜂、寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等较为重要,但需指...

1.据1954年考查,东安马尾松毛虫的天敌很多,尤其是寄生天敌,它是限制或抑制松毛虫大发生的决定性因素。 2.卵期的寄生天敌有:松毛虫黑卵蜂,赤眼蜂,平腹小蜂,白角小蜂,名和小蜂及金小蜂等六种,其中以前三种较为重要。 3.第一代松毛虫的卵寄生率为12.76%,其中黑卵峰的寄生率达5.83%,第二代松毛虫的卵寄生率为40.61%,其中黑卵蜂的寄生率达33.45%。 4.松毛虫各种卵蜂羽化时期及数量的观察,使我们初步了解卵蜂的一些生物学特性,对于今后饲放卵寄生蜂防治松毛虫的措施提供了重要依据。 5.幼虫期的寄生天敌有:两色瘦姬蜂,黑胸姬蜂,红头小茧蜂,黄甲腹小茧蜂,毒蛾绒茧蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以白僵病菌及寄生蝇类较为重要。 6.三次幼虫期寄生天敌的考查可以看出:越冬代老熟幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达56.62%,第一代幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达82.83%,第二代幼龄幼虫的死亡率(包括寄生率)达40.83%,幼虫期的死亡率(主要是寄生率)相当高。 7.蛹期的寄生天敌有:日本黑点姬蜂,大腿蜂,花胸姬蜂,黑瘤姬蜂,松毛虫瘤姬蜂,寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等,其中以日本黑点姬蜂、寄生蝇类及白僵病菌等较为重要,但需指出,可能是因为病菌寄生的原因,未羽化蛹的比例很大,如在越冬代占36.68%,第一代占40.11%,这是值得今后深?

About 1650 years ago the Chinese farmers had already put biological control inpractice by using yellow citrus ants to control citrus pests. Until now the farmersof Kwangsze district, Kwangtung Province, believe that to liberate the yellow citrus antin citrus orchard is one of the most effective methods to control some of the seriousinsect pests of the citrus trees. The present work mainly deals with the utilization ofOecophylla smaragdina Fabr., in the two main citrus producing places, Hongfon andVanton in Kwangsze...

About 1650 years ago the Chinese farmers had already put biological control inpractice by using yellow citrus ants to control citrus pests. Until now the farmersof Kwangsze district, Kwangtung Province, believe that to liberate the yellow citrus antin citrus orchard is one of the most effective methods to control some of the seriousinsect pests of the citrus trees. The present work mainly deals with the utilization ofOecophylla smaragdina Fabr., in the two main citrus producing places, Hongfon andVanton in Kwangsze district. The efficiency of O. smaragdina in controlling insect pests of citrus has been ob-served in the orchards by the author. The results are as follows: When there is a sufficient number of O. smaragdina on the trees the control of thecitrus bug, Rhynchocoris humeralis Thunberg, is very effective. No damaged fruits canbe seen under the trees. O. smaragdina gives considerable beneficial results in controlling some insects withbiting mouthparts such as Podagricomela nigricollis Chen, weevils etc., but does not givevery promising results. The number of wholesome leaves on the trees where the antsare distributed is 18.37% higher than those without the ants. Of course, in both casesthe original population of the insect pests is about the same. O. smaragdina does no harm to the activity of the native predators (Rodolia rufo-pilosa Mulsant and Rodolia pumila Weise) of Icerya purchasi. These ladybird beetlesgive very effective control of Icerya purchasi as usual where O. smaragdina is distributed. O. smaragdina does not, however, control the coccids, Lowana sp., and the larvaeof cerambycids. The ants have the phenomena of symbiosis with some species of coccidssuch as Pseudococcus citriculus, Coccus sp., and Icerya purchasi. In orchards where O. smaragdina is distributed no black ants could be found ingeneral, at least the number of the latter is very few. The relation between the yellowcitrus ants and coccids is about the same as that between the common black ants andcoccids in other orchards in South China. There is no special increase in coccid popula-tion. The author concludes that O. smaragdina is not a very ideal natural enemy tocontrol insect pests in citrus orchards. When labour and insecticide could not be suppliedsufficiently the yellow citrus ants can play, however, a certain role in controlling thepests in practice.

本文对我国利用已有悠久历史的黄柑蚁在广东省广四县柑桔区作了调查,并对黄柑蚁消除害虫的实际情况作了观察。 在黄柑蚁数量足够的情况下,对柑桔大绿蝽象(Rhynchocoris humeralis Thunberg)有显著防治效果,对潜叶(虫斧)(Podagricomela nigricollis Chen)、粉绿象甲(Hypomeaes squamosus F.)、铜绿金龟子(Anomala cupripes Hope) 等,也有一定效果,凡有柑蚁分布均匀的树,健叶数比无蚁树多18.3%。 对介壳虫类,青翅羽衣(Lowana sp.),天牛幼虫等,完全无防治作用;与介壳虫类如吹绵介壳虫、棘粉介壳虫(Pseudococcus citriculus)及软腊介壳虫(Coccus sp.)有共生关系。 对吹绵介壳虫的天敌大红瓢虫(Rodolia rufopilosa Mulsant)、小红瓢虫(Rodolia pumilaWeise)的活动没有影响。有黄柑蚁的果园,黑蚁均被驱逐。 作者认为黄柑蚁并不是一种理想的天敌,目前在农药械供应不足及劳动力缺乏的地区,仍具有一定的利用价值。建议开展黄柑蚁过冬保护及人工饲养与放蚁的研究...

本文对我国利用已有悠久历史的黄柑蚁在广东省广四县柑桔区作了调查,并对黄柑蚁消除害虫的实际情况作了观察。 在黄柑蚁数量足够的情况下,对柑桔大绿蝽象(Rhynchocoris humeralis Thunberg)有显著防治效果,对潜叶(虫斧)(Podagricomela nigricollis Chen)、粉绿象甲(Hypomeaes squamosus F.)、铜绿金龟子(Anomala cupripes Hope) 等,也有一定效果,凡有柑蚁分布均匀的树,健叶数比无蚁树多18.3%。 对介壳虫类,青翅羽衣(Lowana sp.),天牛幼虫等,完全无防治作用;与介壳虫类如吹绵介壳虫、棘粉介壳虫(Pseudococcus citriculus)及软腊介壳虫(Coccus sp.)有共生关系。 对吹绵介壳虫的天敌大红瓢虫(Rodolia rufopilosa Mulsant)、小红瓢虫(Rodolia pumilaWeise)的活动没有影响。有黄柑蚁的果园,黑蚁均被驱逐。 作者认为黄柑蚁并不是一种理想的天敌,目前在农药械供应不足及劳动力缺乏的地区,仍具有一定的利用价值。建议开展黄柑蚁过冬保护及人工饲养与放蚁的研究,以期提高和扩大利用价值。

 
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