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Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain...

Creep under very small torsional stress has been investigated for 99.95% polycrystalline iron in the temperature range of 350°-525℃. The general features of the creep curves obtained are essentially the same as those previously reported for 99.991% aluminum. The creep is shown to be consisted of two parts, one occurring at lower temperatures or shorter times and the other at higher temperatures or longer times. The first part of the creep is limited in extent and is associated with the viscous behavior of grain boundaries. The activation energy for this grain-boundary creep is 78,000 ± 4,000 calories per mole according to the present creep and stress relaxation measurements. This value is close to the activation energy for self-diffusion of iron, a correlation which indicates that, in so far as to the mechanism of atomic migration is concerned, grain boundaries may not be very different from the interior of the grains.

用99.95%的多晶纯铁作了从350°-525℃的扭转微蠕变及应力弛豫试验,所得结果的概貌与以前用多晶纯铝所得的基本上相同。从蠕变曲线上可以看出这蠕变是由两部分组成的:第一部分是在较低温度或较短时间内发生的,第二部分是在较高温度或较长时间内发生的。第一部分的蠕变是有限的,是由于晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移所引起。根据微蠕变及应力弛豫测量的结果,这一部分蠕变所包含的激活能是78,000±4,000卡/克分子。这个激活能(晶粒间界滑移激活能)的数值与纯铁自扩散的激活能很相近,表示晶粒间界与晶粒内部对于原子迁移的基本过程而言并没有显著的差异。 加碳于纯铁中对于这两部分的蠕变都有显著的影响。最值得注意的结果是含碳量少到0.0004%时已经使晶粒间界的粘滞性滑移受到显著的阻碍。这些发现在控制金属高温蠕变的问题上指出一个一般性的原则,对于以前所提出来的晶粒间界空穴模型也提供了一些新的实验证据。 根据加碳的实验结果,对于第二部分高温蠕变的机构也提出了一个初步的看法,这蠕变所包括的基本过程可能是晶粒内部的空穴中的原子重新排列。

In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened...

In the spectrochemical analysis of high speed steels with a small current activated a.c. arc (after Aбрамсон), the results of analysis were found to be affected by different previous heat-treatments given to the steel samples. To study this effect we selected 10 chromium steel samples of different carbon content. Spectrochemical analysis of these samples under different procedures of heat treatment shows that with an a.c. arc (5 amp.) the results of analysis of Cr for annealed and for hardened samples of the same steel are different and the difference increases with the increase of carbon content. We are inclined to think that in a low energy light source, the evaporation and the excitation of the alloying elements vary according to the existing form of carbon and this directly affects the results of spectrochemical analysis. The magnitude of this effect is different for different alloying elements, it is considerable in the case of Cr but is inappreciable in the case of Mn and Si.

我们用爱氏光源(低电流交流电弧)作高速钢的光谱分析时,发现样品的组织结构对于分析结果有影响。为了对这个现象得到进一步的了解,我们选择了10种含碳量不同的铬钢进行热处理试验和光谱分析。一系列实验的结果指出,用小电流(5安)电弧光源时,铬的光谱分析结果由于试样是退火组织或淬火组织而有差别,这个差别又随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加。我们认为,这种影响是由于碳在试样中存在状态的不同所引起的。在低功率光源中,这种不同使合金元素被蒸发和被激发的情况有所差别,因而就影响了光谱分析的结果。这种影响由于合金元素之不同而有程度上的不同,对铬的影响很显著,对锰和矽的影响则很小。此外,所选择的分析线对是弧线还是火花线,对于这种组织结构的效应也有显著的影响。 曾经进行了一些消除组织结构影响的实验。发现在应用低功率光源时,增加预燃时间并不能消除这个效应。用火花光源或大电流(8安)电弧光源时,这种影响大为减小。

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects...

Further study of the effect of micro-structure of the sample electrode on the spectrochemical analysis of steels revealed that the effect on the analysis of W, Si and Ni all increases with the increase of the carbon content and for different analysis line pairs chosen, the effect not only differs in magnitude but also can be different in direction as was observed in the case of Cr in chromium steels. The effect on the analysis of Mn in all the steel samples studied is not significant. Structure effects observed under different excitation conditions show that under the same excitation condition, the arc temperature which is indicated by the log intensity ratio of two iron lines of different excitation potential is higher when the sample electrode is of annealed structure; and in light sources of the same arc temperature the relative concentration of alloying elements to iron is higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. Since these two factors have opposite effect on spectral line intensities, the result of analysis will be different for different line pairs chosen. If the analysis line pair is homologous, the effect observed is due to a difference of relative concentration of different elements in the arc column alone, and the result of analysis is always higher when the sample electrode is of quenched structure. This may he explained by the fact that the presence of carbon in solid solutions decreases the interatomic forces or shows a lowering of energy of volatilization. This lowering is different for different elements but all increases with the increase of carbon content.

在过去工作的基础上,进一步观察了合金钢的组织结构对于钨、镍、硅、锰的光谱分析的影响和碳钢的组织结构对于硅、锰的影响。这些影响都是随着钢中含碳量的增加而增加,对与不同元素有程度上的不同。改变激发条件的试验结果指出:1)在同一激发条件下,淬火组织试样的弧温比退火组织的低;2)在同一弧温时,弧柱中合金元素与铁元素的浓度比值是淬火组织的比退火组织的高。由于这两个因素对于谱线强度所发生的影响的方向相反,所以在实际的光谱分析中,组织结构的影响便有不同的表现。 根据分析线对中的分析线与内标线的激发能差值的大小,可以说明为什么采用离子线或原子线作分析线对时所观察到的组织结构影响不同或者方向相反。当所用的分析线对比较均称时,淬火组织试样的分析结果总是比退火的高。引起组织结构影响的主要原因是由于在不同组织结构时蒸发情况的不同。试样中所含溶解碳量的增加使原子间力相应地减小,这可以解释为什么含碳量不同以及不同的合金元素引起不同的组织结构影响。

 
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